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1.
Animal ; 15(11): 100373, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624768

RESUMO

It has been shown that enzyme-treated plant protein can increase performance and promote intestinal health, and save dietary protein. However, our understanding of the effects of enzyme-treated soy protein on performance and intestine function in laying hens, and its rational use, remains limited. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of enzyme-treated soy protein (ETSP) in different nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, digestive enzyme activity and mRNA expression of amino acid transporters of laying hens. A total of 1 200 Lohmann laying hens (52 wk of age) was randomly divided into a 3 × 2 factorial design that included three nutrient levels: [positive control (PC), metabolisable energy (ME): 2 680 kcal/kg, CP: 15.5%; negative control 1 (NC1), ME: 2 630 kcal/kg, CP: 15%; negative control 2 (NC2), ME:2 580 kcal/kg, CP: 14.5%] and 2 ETSP levels (0 and 0.5%) for 12 weeks. Each treatment had 10 replicates with 20 birds. With the decrease of dietary nutrition density, egg production rate (P = 0.07) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.06) were reduced. Yolk colour was decreased, and yolk index was increased. Supplemented ETSP improved FCR (P = 0.05) and qualified egg rate (P < 0.05). The mass loss rate of egg was decreased after storage for 30 days (P < 0.05). An interaction between nutrient density and ETSP was observed on albumen height and Haugh unit (P < 0.05), and the effects were most noticeable in hens fed 0.5% ETSP in NC2 group. An increase in the activity of trypsin in duodenum (P < 0.05) and the relative expressions of jejunum peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) (P < 0.05) and B0 system neutral amino acid transport carrier (B0AT) mRNA (P < 0.01) was observed during ETSP supplementation. The nutrient density and ETSP supplementation had no significant effect on microbiota in the cecal contents. Overall, the results in this study indicated that the ME decreased 100 kcal/kg and CP decreased 1% in diet of laying hens had a decreasing trend on production performance, no effects on enzyme activity, amino acid transporter mRNA, and gut microbiota, whereas 0.5% ETSP can increase activity of trypsin, PepT1 and B0AT mRNA relative expressions, and improve FCR, qualified egg rate.

2.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(9): 909-913, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496541

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the changes of occlusal delay time, percentage of occlusal force and patients' subjective satisfaction of masticatory function for single implant crown in one year after the application of space reserved occlusion design. To provide data support and suggestions for clinical occlusion design. Methods: Patients who had received single posterior dental implant restoration in Department of Prosthodontics, Capital Medical University School of Stomatology from January 2019 to December 2019 were selected. At 0.5, 3, 6 and 12 months after restoration, the T-scan Ⅲ occlusal analyzer was used to detect and record the initial occlusal contact time of the natural tooth and implanted single crown, the occlusal force percentage of single implant prosthesis and corresponding tooth on the contralateral side (control teeth) on the contralateral side (control teeth) were also recorded. Subjective satisfaction with the masticatory function of the implants was recorded using visual analogue scale (VAS). The changes of occlusal delay time (the difference of the initial occlusal time between implant restoration and the natural teeth), percentage of occlusal force and patients' subjective feeling with time were analyzed. All data were analyzed by repeated measurement analysis of variance, bilatteral P<0.01 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 48 patients aged (36.8±8.4) years (23 males, 25 females, aged 23-50 years) were recruited. The occlusal delay time at 0.5 months was 0.15 (0.08, 0.20) s, at 3 months was 0.11 (0.06, 0.16) s, at 6 months was 0.07 (0.03, 0.13) s and at 12 months was 0.06 (0.03, 0.10) s. The occlusal delay time was shortened at every two time points, and the occlusal force percentage of the implant crown increased significantly. The percentage of occlusal force of implant prosthesis at 0.5 months was (7.7±4.8)%, at 3 months was (10.6±5.9)%, at 6 months was (12.3±6.2)% and at 12 months was (13.2±6.7)%. The most significant change was during the period of 0.5-3 months. At 0.5 months, the occlusal force of implant prosthesis was significantly lower than that of control teeth (14.3±6.5)% (P<0.01). The VAS score at 0.5 months was (7.06±1.64) and was (8.71±0.74) at 12 months. The score was increased and the difference was statistically significant from 3 month to 12 month (P<0.01). Conclusions: The change of occlusal force percentage of single posterior dental implant is most obvious within 3 months after restoration. The occlusal condition should be reexamined and adjust occlusal after 3 months of implant restoration as appropriate.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante , Força de Mordida , Coroas , Oclusão Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101142, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975045

RESUMO

Two trials were designed to investigate the impacts of egg storage time and maternal dietary vitamin E (VE) supplementation on the growth performance and antioxidant capacity of progeny chicks. In total 512 Ross 308 broiler breeder hens (71-wk-old) were assigned to 2 dietary VE treatments (6 and 100 mg/kg) for 14 wk. Progeny chicks used in trials 1 and 2 were originated from eggs laid at week 10 (stored 0 d) and week 8 (stored 14 d), and week 14 (stored 0 d) and week 12 (stored 14 d), respectively. The 4 groups in trial 1 consisted of 2 levels of maternal VE (6 and 100 mg/kg) and 2 egg storage time (0 and 14 d). The 8 groups in trial 2 consisted of 2 levels of maternal VE (6 and 100 mg/kg), 2 egg storage time (0 and 14 d) and progeny sex (male and female). In trial 1, egg storage decreased the body weight, the liver total superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity of 21-day-old offspring (P < 0.05), and the body weight gain and feed intake from 8 to 21 d and 1 to 21 d (P < 0.05); and increased the serum and liver malonaldehyde (MDA) of 7-day-old offspring and the ratio of feed: gain (F/G) from 1 to 7 d (P < 0.05). Maternal VE (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) decreased the F/G from 1 to 7 d and increased the serum total superoxide dismutase of 21-day-old offspring (P < 0.05). In trial 2, egg storage decreased the body weight of 42-day-old offspring, and the body weight gain and feed intake from 22 to 42 d and 1 to 42 d (P < 0.05); and increased the serum and liver MDA of 21- and 42-day-old offspring (P < 0.05). Maternal VE (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) reduced the serum MDA of 7-day-old offspring (P < 0.05). Interactively, maternal VE (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) reduced the serum MDA of offspring originated from stored eggs (P < 0.05), but not for that of offspring originated from unstored eggs in the two trials. It can be concluded that egg storage (14 vs. 0 d) decreased the growth performance and antioxidant capacity of offspring, while maternal dietary VE (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) supplementation could partly alleviate the reduction of antioxidant capacity (except for growth performance) of offspring induced by egg storage for the early phase post-hatch.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Masculino , Óvulo , Vitamina E
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101097, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049213

RESUMO

In recent years, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), as a class of natural flavonoids, has received more and more attention in nutrition research. However, the research on the application of NHDC in the laying hens is rarely reported. This study was conducted to determine the effects that different concentrations of dietary NHDC have on the production performance, egg quality, serum biochemistry and intestinal morphology of laying hens. A total of 240 Lohmann commercial laying hens (66 wk old) were divided into 4 groups, with each group's diet containing a different concentration of NHDC (0, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg). Significant associations were found between NHDC consumption and both higher egg production (P = 0.050) and lower FCR (P = 0.028) after 12 wk NHDC feed. At 12 wk, eggs produced by hens consuming a 200 mg/kg NHDC diet had significantly thicker eggshells (P = 0.059) than those produced by hens consuming a 400 mg/kg diet. Dietary NHDC addition improved albumen height and Haugh unit after 15 d of storage (P < 0.01). However, no significant associations between NHDC consumption and these factors were identified after 12 wk. Dietary NHDC addition had no significant effects apparent of gel properties at 12 wk. In addition, NHDC can effectively reduce the content of total cholesterol (TC) (P = 0.042) and Groups treated with 100 mg/kg NHDC supplementation showed significantly increased T-AOC concentrations compared to control (P = 0.013) in serum. Hens fed an NHDC-supplemented diet exhibited a longer villus height and a higher villus/crypt ratio in the ileum (P < 0.01) as compared to controls, as well as lower crypt depth in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. These results indicate that, as compared to a control diet, an NHDC-supplemented diet results in higher egg production and quality, as well as improvement in egg gel properties, serum biochemistry and intestinal morphology.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Chalconas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hesperidina/análogos & derivados , Óvulo
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(8): 3152, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928599

RESUMO

This paper presents both inaccuracies and mistakes. Therefore, the article "CircVCAN regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of osteoarthritis chondrocyte through NF-κB signaling pathway, by H.-R. Ma, W.-B. Mu, K.-Y. Zhang, H.-K. Zhou, R.-D. Jiang, L. Cao, published in Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020; 24 (12): 6517-6525-DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202006_21635-PMID: 32633338" has been withdrawn. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. https://www.europeanreview.org/article/21635.

7.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100947, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518311

RESUMO

This study investigated whether dietary resistant potato starch (RPS) inclusion could ameliorate the negative impact of a low nonphytate phosphorus (nPP) diet on growth performance, feather growth, feather follicles (FF) development, and carcass traits by improving nutrient utilization and cecal microbiome fermentation capacity in Pekin ducks. The experiment was performed with a 2 × 2 randomized block design with 2 levels of RPS (0 or 12%) and 2 levels of nPP (low or normal, low: 0.22% at 1-14 d and 0.18% at 15-35 d of age; normal: 0.40% at 1-14 d and 0.35% at 15-35 d of age) for a total of 4 treatments, each with 8 replicate pens per treatment of 12 birds per pen. As regards growth performance and carcass traits, RPS inclusion markedly increased (P < 0.05) BW of 14 and 35 d, BWG and FI of 1-14 d, 15-35 d, and 1-35 d as well as abdominal fat and breast meat percentage of 35 d in ducks fed low nPP diets; moreover, RSP inclusion significantly reduced (P < 0.05) mortality in ducks fed low nPP diets. As regards feather growth and follicles development of 35 d, RPS inclusion significantly increased (P < 0.05) the fourth primary feather length, absolute feather weight, and the density of primary FF in the back skin in ducks fed low nPP diets. In regard to nutrition utilization, RPS supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the availability of DM, CP, and energy, as well as dietary AME at 35 d of age in ducks fed low nPP diets. However, RPS supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of cecal short-chain fatty acids and the activities of cecal phytase and cellulase in ducks fed low nPP diets. These results indicate that RPS can improve nutrient availability to ameliorate the negative effects on performance and feather development caused by a low nPP diet in Pekin ducks.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos , Plumas , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Amido Resistente , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Plumas/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Amido Resistente/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química
8.
Anim Biosci ; 34(2): 276-284, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether a dietary vitamin E (VE) supplement could alleviate any detrimental effects of aged corn on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in laying hens. METHODS: The experiment consisted of a 2×3 factorial design with two corn types (normal corn and aged corn (stored for 4 yr) and three concentrations of VE (0, 20, and 100 IU/kg). A total of 216 Lohmann laying hens (50 wk of age) were randomly allocated into six treatment diets for 12 wk. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 6 hens per replicate. RESULTS: The results show that aged corn significantly decreased the content of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05), and reduced chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) mRNA expression (p<0.05) in the liver compared to controls. Diet with VE did not alter the content of crude fat and cholesterol (p>0.05), or acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase or CMKLR1 mRNA expression (p>0.05) in the liver among treatment groups. Aged corn significantly increased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.05) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (p<0.05) in the liver. The VE increased the content of MDA (p<0.05) but decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum (p<0.01) and in the ovaries (p<0.05). Adding VE at 20 and 100 IU/kg significantly increased GSH-Px activity (p<0.05) in liver and in serum (p<0.01), 100 IU/kg VE significantly increased SOD activity (p<0.05) in serum. Aged corn had no significant effects on GSH-Px mRNA or SOD mRNA expression (p<0.01) in the liver and ovaries. Addition of 100 IU/kg VE could significantly increase SOD mRNA expression (p<0.01) in the liver and ovary. CONCLUSION: Aged corn affected lipid metabolism and decreased the antioxidant function of laying hens. Dietary VE supplementation was unable to counteract the negative effects of aged corn on lipid metabolism. However, addition of 100 IU/kg VE prevented aged corninduced lipid peroxidation in the organs of laying hens.

9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 12794-12801, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the expression of syndecan-1 (Sdc-1), protein kinase C (PKC) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rats with acute kidney injury, as well as the association between Sdc-1 and indicators [such as serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] related to renal function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 clean grade 2-week-old SD rats were selected and randomized into experimental group and control group (n=60). At 12 h (T1), 24 h (T2), 36 h (T3), 48 h (T4) after the model was established, 3 mL blood from abdominal aorta was taken, and Sdc-1, PKC, VEGF, serum creatinine (Scr), urea nitrogen (BUN) and other indicators were detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The expression levels of Sdc-1, PKC and VEGF in the experimental group were increasing from T1 to T4, with statistically significant difference between every two time points (p<0.05); the expression levels of Scr and BUN in the experimental group was increasing from T1 to T4, with statistically significant difference between every two time points (p<0.05). The level of Sdc-1 in the serum of rats in the experimental group was positively correlated with Scr (r=0.668, p<0.001), negatively correlated with BUN (r=0.722, p<0.001), and positively correlated with BUN (r=0.722, p<0.001); PKC level was positively correlated with Scr (r=0.589, p<0.001), BUN (r=0.788, p<0.001), and VEGF level was positively correlated with Scr (r=0.666, p<0.001), BUN (r=0.784, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As the concentration of syndecan-1 increases gradually, renal dysfunction aggravates accordingly, so syndecan-1 can be used as a marker of acute kidney injury and can be used to judge the degree of kidney injury at an early stage.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/biossíntese , Sindecana-1/biossíntese , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/biossíntese , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Poult Sci ; 99(12): 6630-6642, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248578

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-protein diets with low digestibility of feed ingredients on intestinal damage and to explore whether the protease supplementation can alleviate the damage in Pekin ducks. A total of 576 Pekin ducklings (6 replicate pens, 16 ducks/pen) were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments (3 × 2 factorial arrangement) in a randomized complete block design. Factors were CP levels (13.5%, 15.5%, and 17.5%) and protease (0 or 20,000U/kg). Compared with the diets containing 17.5% CP, low-protein diets (13.5% CP) showed suppressed (P < 0.05) growth performance and feed intake (FI); reduced (P < 0.05) serum-free arginine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, and proline as well as the cecal acetate and propionate concentration; increased (P < 0.05) plasma and ileal mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentration; and downregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of TNF-α, nuclear transcription factor-κb, interferon gamma, and Occludin in ileal mucosa. Irrespective of the dietary CP levels, protease supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the serum-free glutamic acid concentration while decreasing (P < 0.05) the plasma endotoxin, IL-6, and the cecal isovalerate concentration. A significant interactive effect was observed between low-protein diets and protease supplementation (P < 0.05) on serum-free arginine concentration, the ratio of ileal villus height to crypt depth, and the IL-6 concentration in ileal mucosa. These results indicated that low-protein diets could damage intestinal integrity to induce systemic inflammation response and at last to suppress growth performance. Protease supplementation could partly attenuate the negative effects on gut health caused by low-protein diets in Pekin ducks.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos , Intestinos , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia
11.
Poult Sci ; 99(10): 4845-4852, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988521

RESUMO

A total of 560 one-day-old Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to 7 treatments with 8 replicate cages of 10 ducks per cage. The treatments included a corn-rice bran-soybean meal-based diet with recommended nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) (0.40% for 1-14 D/0.35% for 15-35 D, positive control; PC), NPP-deficient diet (0.22% for 1-14 D/0.18% for 15-35 D, negative control; NC), and NC diets supplemented with different levels of phytase (500, 2,500, 5,000, 7,500, 10,000 FTU/kg). Compared with the PC diet, feeding the NC diet significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the bird growth performance, serum total protein, and albumin concentration as well as tibia bone mineralization and strength and increased (P < 0.05) serum calcium (Ca), urea content, and alkaline phosphatase activity throughout the experimental period. Phytase supplementation to NC diets at 5,000 to 10,000 FTU/kg restored (P < 0.05) growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and tibia traits when compared with the levels of the PC. Moreover, the addition of phytase linearly increased (P < 0.05) dietary protein, Ca, and phosphorus (P) utilization as well as nitrogen output, and excreta iron, copper, manganese, and zinc concentration quadratically increased (P < 0.05) as well as P output. In conclusion, phytase at ≥5,000 FTU/kg was effective in ameliorating the negative effects of NC diets and reducing trace mineral supplementation in diet of Pekin ducks.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos , Tíbia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Tíbia/química , Tíbia/metabolismo
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(12): 6517-6525, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis is one of the chronic diseases with a high incidence. CircRNA is a circular non-coding RNA. Studies show that CircRNA is closely relevant to the pathogenesis of OA chondrocytes. However, the specific principle is still unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 38 patients with OA tissues and 38 patients with normal knee cartilage in our hospital were selected, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of CircVCAN were measured by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell proliferation was detected by the Cell Counting Kit (CCK8). Cell cycle and apoptosis of OA chondrocytes were measured by flow cytometry. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to detect PCNA, p50, p52, p65 mRNA and protein expression levels. RESULTS: CircVCAN was highly expressed in OA tissues and OA chondrocytes. Cell proliferation and PCNA expression levels decreased significantly after transfection with si-CircVCAN in OA-chondrocytes. However, there was a significant increase on OA chondrocytes after transfection with LV-CircVCAN. Compared with the si-NC group, the apoptosis rate of OA chondrocytes was significantly increased after transfection with si-CircVCAN. The proportion of G0/G1 phase in the cell cycle was significantly reduced and the proportion of S phase was significantly increased. On the contrary, the apoptosis rate was significantly reduced after transfection with LV-CircVCAN. The proportion of G0/G1 phase in the cell cycle was significantly increased and the proportion of S phase was significantly reduced. The mRNA and protein levels of p50, p52 and p65 were significantly increased after transfection of LV-CircVCAN in OA-chondrocytes. Furthermore, PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor) transfection can significantly reverse the effect of overexpression of CircVCAN on the proliferation and apoptosis of OA chondrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: CircVCAN is overexpressed in OA tissues and cells. CircVCAN can affect the proliferation and apoptosis of OA chondrocytes by blocking the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, CircVCAN may be an important target molecule for OA treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , RNA Circular/biossíntese , Adulto , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Condrócitos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Osteoartrite/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(7): 3557-3566, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616252

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate to the effects of dietary CP levels and protease supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, nutrients utilization, and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acid in Pekin ducks fed a complex diet. A total of 960 14-day-old male ducks were weighed and randomly allotted to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of 10 treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 16 ducks per pen fed to 49 D of age. Experimental factors included five dietary CP levels ranging from 13.5 to 17.5% and with or without protease (200 mg/kg) supplementation. Between day 28 to 34, the digestible and metabolizable trials were performed. Significant CP × protease interactions (P < 0.05) on breast meat yield, DM, energy and nitrogen utilization, as well as standardized ileal digestibility values of 7 amino acids were observed. Regardless of protease supplementation, ducks fed 13.5, 14.5, and 15.5% CP had a poorer (P < 0.05) growth performance and breast meat yield than ducks fed with 16.5 and 17.5% CP. Ducks fed 13.5% CP had a positive effect (P < 0.05) on meat quality, dietary DM, energy and nitrogen utilization as well as standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids. Protease supplementation increased (P < 0.05) DM and phosphorus retention and decreased (P < 0.05) shear force of breast meat, regardless of CP level; when CP = 14.5%, protease significantly increased (P < 0.05) breast muscle yield. The optimal CP requirement without or with protease supplementation for BWG and FI were 17.02 or 16.53% and 16.64 or 16.75%, respectively, based on linear broken-line regression.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Patos/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íleo/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1241-1253, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111302

RESUMO

Genetic selection and intensive nutrition for increased growth rate in meat-type ducks has resulted in an imbalance between pectorales increment and sternal mass, which is detrimental to productivity and welfare. Reducing body weight and increasing sternal mass probably reverses these adverse effects. Therefore, 2 experiments (Expt.) were conducted to investigate the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3), a vitamin D3 metabolites, on sternal mass. In Expt. 1, 512 1-day-old male ducks were randomly assigned to 4 low-nutrient density diets and received following treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: (i) NRC or China Agricultural industry standards (NY/T) vitamin premixes and (ii) 0.069 mg/kg 25-HyD in feed or not. At 49 D of age, regardless of 25-OH-D3, NY/T vitamin regimen inhibited bone turnover and consequently increased sternal trabecular bone volume and mineral deposition compared with NRC vitamin premix. Supplementing 25-OH-D3 to NRC but not NY/T vitamin regimen significantly improved sternal microarchitecture and mineral content, which companied by decreased serum bone resorption markers concentration, as well as downregulation of the gene expressions of osteoclast differentiation and activity. In Expt. 2, 256 1-day-old male ducks were fed a standard nutrient density diet contained NRC vitamin premix with 0 or 0.069 mg/kg of 25-OH-D3. Results also showed that 25-OH-D3 treatment significantly improved sternal mineral accumulation and microarchitecture, along with decreasing osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in bone surface, declining serum bone turnover markers levels, and increasing serum Ca concentration. Collectively, these findings indicated that the dietary administration of 25-OH-D3 increased sternal mass in NRC vitamin diet by suppressing bone resorption in 49-day-old meat duck.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/metabolismo , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Esterno/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 1001-1009, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036957

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine whether protein solubility (PS) of rapeseed meals (RSM) can affect standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIDAA) in meat ducks. A total of 1,168, 14-days-old ducks were randomly allotted to 23 treatments (6 cages per diet, 8 ducks per cage) and 1 nitrogen-free diet treatment (8 cages, 8 ducks per cage) based on body weight. The 23 experimental diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and 22 diets containing 15% RSM: 85% basal diet. Titanium dioxide (0.5%) was included in all diets as an indigestible marker. On day 18, all ducks were euthanized by carbon dioxide asphyxiation and digesta samples from the ileum. The contents of PS, ether extract (EE), glucosinolate, isothiocyanate, and oxazolidine were significantly different (P < 0.05) in the 22 RSM, with the CV being 52.62, 49.23, 86.84, 90.19, and 81.98%, respectively. The content of lysine (Lys) and methionine in the 22 RSM samples ranged from 1.03 to 2.71% (CV 24.19%) and from 0.33 to 0.65% (CV 15.17%), respectively. The SIDAA, except for leucine (Leu) and tyrosine, of the 22 RSM samples varied significantly (P < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed (P < 0.05) between PS and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of Lys, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, histidine, serine, cysteine, and tyrosine. The R2 value of multiple linear regression equations for predicting the SID of amino acids (AA) was best for Lys (R2 = 0.958 using dry matter, crude protein, EE, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber, and PS) and least significant for Leu (R2 = 0.348 using crude fiber and ash) with intermediate values for other AA (R2 = 0.359-0.837, P < 0.05). These results suggest that PS varying from 15.06 to 98.08%, also varied considerably in the proximate nutrient content, AA composition, and antinutritional factor content, which was reflected in considerable differences in the duck's SID of AA in RSM. Therefore, PS value can partly reflect the quality of RSM.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Brassica napus/química , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Patos/fisiologia , Íleo/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Solubilidade
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6340-6348, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393583

RESUMO

Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is a serious problem of the modern poultry industry, negatively affecting birds' welfare and health status, walking and feeding activity, growth performance, carcass quality, and economic performance of meat production. The gut microbiome in poultry with FPD has not been previously investigated. Therefore, we compared the cecal microbiomes of 8 breeding ducks with FPD to 8 control ducks (breeders with apparently healthy feet) by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results showed a significant ß-diversity (P < 0.05) of cecal microbiota presented between healthy and FPD-affected breeder ducks. The plasma endotoxins, interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, and the abundance of class Clostridia in FPD-affected ducks was markedly higher (P < 0.05), however, the abundance of genus Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae UCG-008, and the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in FPD-affected ducks was significantly lower (P < 0.05) when compared to healthy ducks. These findings suggest when duck breeders are affected with FPD, ducks show an increased inflammatory response and a difference of structure and composition of the cecal microbiome.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Dermatite/veterinária , Patos , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Dermatite/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
17.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 3523-3532, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329991

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary graded raw potato starch (RPS) levels on growth performance, plasma cytokines concentration, ileal barrier function, and cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in meat ducks from 1 to 35 D of age. This study included 2 experiments. In experiment (Exp.) 1, sixteen 35-day-old meat ducks were used to evaluate the AME of RPS by orogastric administration. Results showed the AME value of RPS on ducks is 2.76 kcal/g. In Exp. 2, a total of 600 one-day-old ducklings were randomly assigned to 5 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic dietary treatments that included 0 (control), 6, 12, 18, and 24% RPS, respectively. Samples were collected at both of 14 and 35 D. Neither growth performance nor ileal parameters (length, weight, and pH) at both of 14 and 35 D was affected by dietary RPS. However, the mucosal thickness (14 D), villus height (except for 18% RPS at 14 D), and the villus height: crypt depth ratio (14 and 35 D) of the ileum were increased in the 12 and 18% RPS diets when compared to 0% RPS diet. Meanwhile, proinflammatory factors such as plasma interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 (14 D) reduced in 12% RPS diet and tumor necrosis factor α decreased in 12% (except for 14 D) and 18% RPS groups. When compared with the control group, diets with 18% RPS significantly increased mucin 2 gene expression at 14 D, and 12% RPS elevated the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins including Zonula occludens-1 and Claudin 1 (except for 14 D) in the ileal mucosa of birds. Furthermore, ducks fed 12% RPS diet had higher concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in cecal digesta than other groups. These findings indicated that diets with 12 and/or 18% RPS increased the cecal SCFA concentration, which subsequently enhanced the barrier function and improved intestinal health in the ileum for 14 and 35-day-old meat ducks.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/sangue , Patos/genética , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/administração & dosagem
18.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4313-4326, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237335

RESUMO

Genetic progress and increasing nutrient density for greater body mass and meat yield in poultry has inadvertently led to an imbalance between pectorales mass and sternal development which may or may not be detrimental to productivity and welfare. Slowing weight gain while promoting bone mineralization could positively influence sternal health. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of graded calcium (Ca) supplementation in low nutrient density (LND) diets on sternal mass and bone turnover in meat ducks. Male meat ducks (720, 15-day-old) were randomly assigned and fed a standard nutrient density positive control (PC) diet, and 4 LND diets with 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1% Ca, respectively. Metabolic energy (ME) was reduced in the LND by 9.5 and 16.3% at 15-35 D and 36-56 D compared to PC diet, respectively, while maintaining proportionate essential nutrient proportions to energy similar as in the PC diet. Although the 0.9% Ca LND diet decreased body weight and sternal dimension, it increased the relative sternum weight, the trabecular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) and Ca content of the sternum compared with PC diet. Feeding 0.7% or more Ca with the LND diet significantly increased the mineral content, bone density, BV/TV, and trabecular number of the sternum for 49-days-old ducks. Furthermore, the LND diet with 0.7% or more Ca-increased osteocyte-specific gene mRNA and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression, and it blocked the expression of cathepsin K and decreased osteoclasts number per bone surface. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining also revealed that the addition 0.7% or more Ca to the LND diet significantly decreased the number of osteoclasts compared with the 0.5% Ca LND diet. Meanwhile TRAP activity in serum was significantly decreased in 0.7% or more Ca-treated groups. We concluded that LND diet with 0.7% or more Ca may maintain optimal sternal mass through suppressing bone resorption for meat duck.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Esterno/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Remodelação Óssea , Calcificação Fisiológica , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Diferenciação Celular , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Nutrientes/análise , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4942-4953, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134274

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rapeseed expeller cake (REC) derived from Brassica napus rapeseed with different concentrations of glucosinolate (Gls) and erucic acid (EA) on the egg-production performance, egg quality, apparent nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology in laying hens. At 33 wk of age, a total of 1,080 laying hens were randomly divided into 9 treatment groups in a completely randomized design involving a control treatment without REC (a corn-soybean diet) and a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 2 concentrations of REC (at 7 and 14%) from 4varieties of rapeseed varying in Gls and EA concentrations [DY6 REC: 22.67 µmol/g (Gls, relative to rapeseed meal), 0.7% (EA, relative to total fatty acids); MB1 REC: 43.23 µmol/g, 3.5%; DY5 REC: 74.66 µmol/g, 16.20%; XH3 REC: 132.83 µmol/g, 44.60%]. The trial lasted for 8 wk. Compared with the control group, REC addition decreased the ADFI, egg production, egg weight, and egg mass of laying hens during wk1 to wk4, wk5 to wk8, and wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.05), and REC did not affect FCR, mortality during wk1 to wk4, wk5 to wk8, and wk1 to wk8 (P > 0.05). The XH3 REC group had a trend to lower egg weight when compared with the DY6 REC group during wk1 to wk8 (P = 0.07).REC decreased AME and DM digestibility at wk8 (P < 0.01), and REC addition in diet did not affect apparent nitrogen digestibility (P = 0.6). REC decreased villi height (P < 0.01) and increased crypt depth (P < 0.01). The XH3 REC group had a lower crude fat digestibility than the DY6 REC group, and the crude fat digestibility of the DY5 and MB1 REC groups was lower than the XH3 REC group (P < 0.01). The DY6 REC group had a higher villi height than the DY5, MB1, and XH3 REC groups (P < 0.01). The XH3 REC group had a higher crypt depth than the DY6, DY5, and MB1 REC groups (P < 0.01). The DY6 REC group had a higher value of the ratio of villi height to crypt depth than the DY5 and MB1 REC groups, and the DY5 and MB1 REC groups had a higher value of the ratio of villi height to crypt depth than the XH3 REC group (P < 0.01).REC decreased albumen height and Haugh unit during wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.01 and P = 0.004), and increased yolk color during wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.01).The XH3, MB1, and DY5 REC groups had a lower albumen height than the DY6 REC group during wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.01), and the XH3 and DY5 REC groups had a lower Haugh unit than the DY6 REC group during wk1 to wk8 (P < 0.01). The DY6 REC group had the highest value of yolk color than other three varieties of REC (DY5, MB1, XH3) at wk6 and wk8 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01). It can be concluded that the exposure of laying hens to REC with higher Gls and EA (DY5, MB1, XH3) led to a lower egg weight, nutrient digestibility, intestinal absorptive area, and egg internal quality than those with lower Gls and EA (DY6).


Assuntos
Brassica napus/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Duodeno/anatomia & histologia , Duodeno/fisiologia , Feminino , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4838-4847, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993339

RESUMO

Lonicera confusa (LC) and Astragali Radix (AR) extracts have been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in human. To determine whether LC or/and AR extracts had similar functions to improve the egg production and egg quality, 1,440 (52-wk-old) Lohmann pink-shell hens were randomly distributed into 4 treatments with nine replicates of 40 hens. The hens were fed a basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% LC extracts, 0.1% AR extracts, or 0.1% LC extracts plus 0.1% AR extracts (LC-AR) for 12 wk. The eggs were collected on week 6 and 12 for analysis, and the plasma and ovaries were collected at end of trial. Dietary treatment did not influence (P < 0.05) egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio. However, LC-AR addition increased (P < 0.02) yolk color and sensory quality of hard-boiled eggs compared to other groups. The LC-AR supplementation increased (P = 0.02), and LC addition tended to increase (P = 0.08) Haugh unit of eggs on week 12 compared to CON. The LC-AR supplementation decreased (P < 0.001), and LC or AR individual addition tended to decrease (P < 0.10) plasma malondialdehyde concentration compared to CON. Conversely, LC supplementation increased (P = 0.02) total superoxide dismutase activity, and LC or/and AR supplementation increased the activities of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) (P < 0.08) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P < 0.01) in plasma, and the mRNA abundance of MnSOD, GSH-Px1, and catalase in ovaries (P < 0.05) compared to CON. The LC or/and AR supplementation decreased the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in plasma (P < 0.05), and the mRNA abundance of IL-6 and TNF-α in ovaries (P < 0.04) compared to CON. These results suggested dietary inclusion of LC or/and AR improved the albumen quality, and a blend of LC and AR improved yolk color, which were associated with the enhancement of antioxidant capacity and the suppression of systemic inflammation in hens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Lonicera/química , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Fabaceae , Feminino , Óvulo/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
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