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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238230

RESUMO

This study examined over 20 fungal specimens of the Orbiliaceae (Orbiliomycetes) from different regions in China. Our analyses based on morphological traits and the ITS rDNA sequences revealed two new Orbilia species with drechslerella-like asexual morphs. These new species are able to trap nematodes with constricting rings. In addition, Orbilia cf. orientalis is reported as a new cryptic Chinese variant of European collections of O. orientalis. All three species are described and illustrated in detail in this paper. Their phylogenetic relationships with other orbiliaceous species were identified based on their ITS sequences.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144102

RESUMO

Vibralactone, a hybrid compound derived from phenols and a prenyl group, is a strong pancreatic lipase inhibitor with a rare fused bicyclic ß-lactone skeleton. Recently, researcher reported a vibralactone derivative (compound C1) that caused inhibition of pancreatic lipase with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 14 nM determined by structure-based optimization, suggesting a potential candidate as a new anti-obesity treatment. In the present study, we sought to identify the main gene encoding prenyltransferase in Stereum vibrans, which is responsible for the prenylation of phenol leading to vibralactone synthesis. Two RNA silencing transformants of identified gene (vib-PT) were obtained through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Compared to wild-type strains, the transformants showed a decrease in vib-PT expression ranging from 11.0% to 56.0% at 5, 10, and 15 days in reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis and along with a reduction in primary vibralactone production of 37% to 64% at 15 and 21 days, respectively, as determined using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. A soluble and enzymatically active fusion Vib-PT protein was obtained by expressing vib-PT in Escherichia coli, and the enzyme's optimal reaction conditions and catalytic efficiency (Km /Kcat ) were determined. In vitro experiments established that Vib-PT catalyzed the C-prenylation at C-3 of 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde and the O-prenylation at the 4-hydroxy of 4-hydroxy-benzenemethanol in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate. Moreover, Vib-PT shows promiscuity towards aromatic compounds and prenyl donors. .IMPORTANCE Vibralactone is a lead compound with a novel skeleton structure that shows strong inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase. Vibralactone is not encoded by the genome directly, but is rather synthesized from phenol, followed by prenylation and other enzyme reactions. Here, we used an RNA silencing approach to identify and characterize a prenyltransferase in a basidiomycetes species that is responsible for the synthesis of vibralactone. The identified gene, vib-PT, was expressed in E. coli to obtain a soluble and enzymatically active fusion Vib-PT protein. In vitro characterization of the enzyme demonstrated the catalytic mechanism of prenylation and broad substrate range for different aromatic acceptors and prenyl donors. These characteristics highlight the possibility of Vib-PT to generate prenylated derivatives of aromatics and other compounds as improved bioactive agents or potential prodrugs.

3.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 138: 103352, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087364

RESUMO

Small GTPases of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family and their activating proteins (Arf-GAPs) regulate mycelial development and pathogenicity in yeast and filamentous fungi; however, little is known about their roles in nematode-trapping (NT) fungi. In this study, an ortholog of Arf-GAP Glo3 (AoGlo3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was characterized in the NT fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. Deletion of the Aoglo3 gene resulted in growth defects and an increase in hyphal septum. Meanwhile, the sporulation capacity of the ΔAoglo3 mutant was decreased by 98%, and 67.1-71.2% spores became gourd or claviform in shape (from obovoid), which was accompanied by a significant decrease in the spore germination rate. This reduced sporulation capacity correlated with the transcriptional repression of several sporulation-related genes including fluG, rodA, abaA, medA, and lreA. The ΔAoglo3 mutant was also sensitive to several chemical stressors such as Congo red, NaCl, and sorbitol. Additionally, AoGlo3 was found to be involved in endocytosis, and more myelin figures were observed in the ΔAoglo3 mutant than in the wild-type strain, which was consistent with the presence of more autophagosomes observed in the mutant. Importantly, AoGlo3 affected the production of mycelial traps and serine proteases for nematode predation. In summary, AoGlo3 is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular processes such as mycelial growth, conidiation, environmental adaption, endocytosis, and pathogenicity in A. oligospora.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(47): 13061-13072, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738551

RESUMO

In this study, we purified three new sesquiterpenyl epoxy-cyclohexenoid (SEC) analogues, arthrobotrisin D (11) and its two derivatives, from nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. Our results revealed that arthrobotrisin type SEC metabolites could be detected in all the test fungal strains from geographically distinct regions grown on different nutrient media, indicative of unique diagnostic character as chemical indicators for A. oligospora. The time course designs over short-term intervals of the fungus under direct contact and indirect contact with living or dead nematodes revealed that arthrobotrisin B and D (6 and 11) displayed significant relationships (positive or negative correlation) with fungal saprophytic and pathogenic stages during a nematode predation event. Interestingly, fungus on nutrient-limiting medium conducive to fungal trap formation could rapidly drop the concentration levels of arthrobotrisins B and D within 6 h when dead nematodes were around, in great contrast to that for living nematodes. Moreover, only in the fungal strain under direct contact with living dominant soil bacteria, arthrobotrisins B and D exhibited significant increase in amounts. Among them, the new SEC, arthrobotrisin D (11) was found to be a key unique metabolic signal for fungal colony growth and fungal interaction with prey and bacteria. Our study suggested that chemical analysis of SEC metabolites in A. oligospora provides a window into the fungal growth status and much valuable information about ecological environments associated with the nematode infections.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Nematoides/microbiologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Animais , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Compostos de Epóxi/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo
5.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1917, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481946

RESUMO

The velvet family proteins VosA and VelB are involved in growth regulation and differentiation in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and other filamentous fungi. In this study, the orthologs of VosA and VelB, AoVosA, and AoVelB, respectively, were characterized in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora, which captures nematodes by producing trapping devices (traps). Deletion of the AovelB gene resulted in growth defects in different media, and the aerial hyphae from the ΔAovelB mutant lines were fewer in number and their colonies were less dense than those from the wild-type (WT) strain. The ΔAovelB mutants each displayed serious sporulation defects, and the transcripts of several sporulation-related genes (e.g., abaA, flbC, rodA, and vosA) were significantly down-regulated compared to those from the WT strain. Furthermore, the ΔAovelB mutant strains became more sensitive to chemical reagents, including sodium dodecyl sulfate and H2O2. Importantly, the ΔAovelB mutants were unable to produce nematode-capturing traps. Similarly, extracellular proteolytic activity was also lower in the ΔAovelB mutants than in the WT strain. In contrast, the ΔAovosA mutants displayed no obvious differences from the WT strain in these phenotypic traits, whereas conidial germination was lower in the ΔAovosA mutants, which became more sensitive to heat shock stress. Our results demonstrate that the velvet protein AoVelB is essential for conidiation, trap formation, and pathogenicity in A. oligospora, while AoVosA plays a role in the regulation of conidial germination and heat shock stress.

6.
Environ Microbiol ; 21(12): 4648-4661, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433890

RESUMO

The APSES protein family comprises a conserved class of fungus-specific transcriptional regulators. Some members have been identified in partial ascomycetes. In this study, the APSES protein StuA (AoStuA) of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora was characterized. Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, three ΔAoStuA mutants grew relatively slowly, displayed a 96% reduction in sporulation capacity and a delay in conidial germination. The reduced sporulation capacity correlated with transcriptional repression of several sporulation-related genes. The mutants were also more sensitive to chemical stressors than the WT strain. Importantly, the mutants were unable to produce mycelial traps for nematode predation. Moreover, peroxisomes and Woronin bodies were abundant in the WT cells but hardly found in the cells of those mutants. The lack of such organelles correlated with transcriptional repression of some genes involved in the biogenesis of peroxisomes and Woronin bodies. The transcript levels of several genes involved in the cAMP/PKA signalling pathway were also significantly reduced in the mutants versus the WT strain, implicating a regulatory role of AoStuA in the transcription of genes involved in the cAMP/PKA signalling pathway that regulates an array of cellular processes and events. In particular, AoStuA is indispensable for A. oligospora trap formation and virulence.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1866, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447855

RESUMO

Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, affecting ~2% of the population. The lack of characterization of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has hindered efficient clinical treatment of the disease. In our study, we observed that expression of complement component 5a receptor 1(C5aR1) was significantly increased in skin lesions of both imiquimod (IMQ) and IL23-induced psoriatic mice and patients with psoriasis. C5aR1 deficiency or treatment with C5a receptor 1 antagonist (C5aR1a) in mice significantly attenuated psoriasis-like skin lesions and expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, C5aR1 deficiency significantly decreased IMQ-induced infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), monocytes and neutrophils in psoriatic skin lesions and functions of pDCs, evidenced by the remarkable reduction in the IMQ-induced production of interferon-α (IFN-α) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L)-dependent pDCs differentiation. Accordingly, in vitro treatment with recombinant C5a accelerated pDCs migration and the differentiation of bone marrow cells into pDCs. Furthermore, biopsies of psoriatic patients showed a dramatic increase of C5aR1+ pDCs infiltration in psoriatic skin lesions, compared to healthy subjects. Our results provide direct evidence that C5a/C5aR1 signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Inhibition of C5a/C5aR1 pathway is expected to be beneficial in the treatment of patients with psoriasis.

8.
Asian J Androl ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464204

RESUMO

Autophagy and apoptosis have been regarded as important processes in the development of diabetic erectile dysfunction (DMED). Probucol is considered to have anti-apoptotic effects, but its relationship with autophagy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of probucol on erectile function. Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats (12 weeks old) were fasted for 12 h. Twenty SD rats were injected with a single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ). Ten rats were given vehicle only and used as a sham group. After 72 h, 20 STZ-treated rats with random blood glucose concentrations consistently greater than 16.7 mmol l-1 were used as successfully established diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were divided randomly into two groups and treated with a daily gavage of probucol at a dose of 0 or 500 mg kg-1 for 12 weeks. After treatment, the intracavernous pressure (ICP) was used to measure erectile function upon electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. After euthanasia, penile tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blot to assess the protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), BCL2-associated X (Bax), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and sequestosome 1 (P62). Caspase-3 activity was measured to determine apoptosis using a caspase-3 assay kit. After 12 weeks of treatment, the erectile function of the probucol group was significantly better than that of the DM group (P < 0.05). Bax and LC3-II protein expression and caspase-3 activity were significantly lower in the probucol group than those in the DM group (all P < 0.05), while Bcl-2, mTOR, and P62 protein expression levels were significantly higher than those in the DM group (all P < 0.05). We demonstrated that probucol inhibited apoptosis and autophagy in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 40(12): 1544-1554, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270434

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia-caused podocyte injury plays a crucial role in the progress of diabetic kidney disease. Podoplanin, one of the podocyte-associated molecules, is closely related to the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. A number of studies demonstrate that berberine could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic mice with nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the relationship between the renoprotective effect of berberine and podoplanin expression in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice as well as mouse podocytes (MPC5 cells) cultured in high glucose (HG, 30 mM) medium. We found that the expression levels of podoplanin were significantly decreased both in the renal glomerulus of STZ-induced diabetic mice and HG-cultured MPC5 cells. We also demonstrated that NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in MPC5 cells under HG condition, which downregulated the expression level of podoplanin, thus leading to increased podocyte apoptosis. Administration of berberine (100, 200 mg/kg every day, ig, for 8 weeks) significantly improved hyperglycemia and the renal function of STZ-induced diabetic mice and restored the expression level of podoplanin in renal glomerulus. In high glucose-cultured MPC5 cells, treatment with berberine (30-120 µM) dose-dependently decreased the apoptosis rate, increased the expression of podoplanin, and inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. When podoplanin expression was silenced with shRNA, berberine treatment still inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway, but its antiapoptotic effect on podocytes almost disappeared. Our results suggest that berberine inhibits the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, thus increasing the podoplanin expression to exert renoprotective effects.

10.
Org Lett ; 21(16): 6499-6503, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343888

RESUMO

Here we provide an unprecedented biofactory where fluorescent dye-like complex xanthenes could be produced in an engineered Escherichia coli. Feeding the strain with toluquinol or hydroquinones resulted in production of novel "unnatural" natural products including four arthrocolins embedded with indolyltriphenyl quaternary carbons. Arthrocolins A-C potently inhibited various human cancer cell lines including paclitaxel-resistant cell line A549/Taxol and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and immensely restored the sensitivity of intractable fluconazole-resistant human pathogen Candida albicans to fluconazole.

11.
Am J Cancer Res ; 9(5): 975-987, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218105

RESUMO

Herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), also called tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), is highly expressed in various tumor tissues and plays critical roles in tumor biology. However, the role of HVEM in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is unknown. This study evaluated the clinical importance of HVEM in patients with ccRCC. HVEM expression was assessed in fresh and 140 archived paraffin-embedded ccRCC tissue samples by quantitative RT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemical staining. HVEM expression was higher in ccRCC than in paired peritumor tissue. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that high level of HVEM expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with ccRCC (both P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that HVEM overexpression was independently prognostic of survival in ccRCC patients. Two novel nomogram systems were constructed by integrating HVEM expression and other clinical parameters to predict OS (c-index 0.75) and DFS (c-index 0.74) in these patients, with both having better predictive accuracy than traditional TNM (c-index 0.65 for OS and 0.639 for DFS) and Fuhrman (c-index 0.612 for OS and 0.641 for DFS) systems. In addition, HVEM silencing led to an observable reduction in tumor cells growth in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these findings indicate that high HVEM expression is a novel and independent adverse predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with ccRCC and that HVEM may be a potential therapeutic target.

12.
Fungal Biol ; 123(7): 547-554, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196524

RESUMO

There is well-conserved PacC/Rim101 signaling among ascomycete fungi to mediate environmental pH sensing. For pathogenic fungi, this pathway not only enables fungi to grow over a wide pH range, but it also determines whether these fungi can successfully colonize and invade the targeted host. Within the pal/PacC pathway, palH is a putative ambient pH sensor with a seven-transmembrane domain. To characterize the function of a palH homolog, AopalH, in the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora, we knocked out the encoding gene of AopalH through homologous recombination, and the transformants exhibited slower growth rates, greater sensitivities to cationic and hyperoxidation stresses, as well as reduced conidiation and reduced trap formation, suggesting that the pH regulatory system has critical functions in nematophagous fungi. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of pH response and regulation in fungi.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Nematoides/microbiologia , Animais , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/patogenicidade , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Virulência/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2602, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197136

RESUMO

Temperature is a key factor for determining the lifespan of both poikilotherms and homeotherms. It is believed that animals live longer at lower body temperatures. However, the precise mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report that autophagy serves as a boost mechanism for longevity at low temperature in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The adiponectin receptor AdipoR2 homolog PAQR-2 signaling detects temperature drop and augments the biosynthesis of two ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. These two polyunsaturated fatty acids in turn initiate autophagy in the epidermis, delaying an age-dependent decline in collagen contents, and extending the lifespan. Our findings reveal that the adiponectin receptor PAQR-2 signaling acts as a regulator linking low temperature with autophagy to extend lifespan, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved among diverse organisms.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Ácido Araquidônico/biossíntese , Temperatura Baixa , Colágeno/metabolismo , Epiderme/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/biossíntese , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1142: 153-167, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102246

RESUMO

Chitin is one of the most important carbohydrates of the fungal cell wall, and is synthesized by chitin synthases. Chitin can be degraded by chitinases, which are important virulence factors in pathogenic fungi. Knowledge about the biosynthesis and degradation of chitin, and the enzymes responsible, has accumulated in recent years. In this review, we analyze the amino acid sequences of chitin synthases from several typical fungi. These enzymes can be divided into seven groups. While the different chitin synthases from a single fungus share a low degree of similarity, the same type of chitin synthase from different fungi shows high similarity. The number of chitinase genes in fungi display wide variation, from a single gene in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to 36 genes in Trichoderma virens. Chitinases from different fungi can be divided into four groups. The functions of chitin synthases and chitinases in several typical fungi are summarized, and the crystal structures of chitinases and chitinase modification are also discussed.


Assuntos
Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Parede Celular , Conformação Proteica
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(21): 19388-19396, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067026

RESUMO

Fibers with structural colors are of great interest due to their unique dye-free optical properties and show great potential in the textile industry. However, the preparation of structural color fibers with controllable optical properties in a simple way is still a challenge. In this paper, we prepared structural color fibers by simply drawing bare fibers from colloid suspensions. The obtained fibers displayed brilliant colors due to the assembled photonic crystal structures on the surface. The layer numbers of colloid coatings were tunable by varying the drawing speeds, concentration of colloid suspension, and diameters of core fibers. The optical properties of the obtained structural color fibers varied by layer numbers, viewing angles, and structure defects and were systematically studied both by experimental measurements and by computer simulations. Furthermore, noncrack blue fibers were demonstrated by coating "soft" poly[styrene- co-(butyl acrylate)- co-(acrylic acid)] (P(St-BA-AA)) polymer spheres on PET fibers. The coating was mechanically robust and made the fiber bendable with weaving ability, which means this method has versatile applicability and could be potentially used for green textile dyeing.

16.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016536

RESUMO

The lifestyle transition of fungi, defined as switching from taking organic material as nutrients to pathogens, is a fundamental phenomenon in nature. However, the mechanisms of such transition remain largely unknown. Here we show microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) play a key role in fungal lifestyle transition for the first time. We identified milRNAs by small RNA sequencing in Arthrobotrys oligospora, a known nematode-trapping fungus. Among them, 7 highly expressed milRNAs were confirmed by northern-blot analysis. Knocking out two milRNAs significantly decreased A. oligospora's ability to switch lifestyles. We further identified that two of these milRNAs were associated with argonaute protein QDE-2 by RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis. Three of the predicted target genes of milRNAs were found in immunoprecipitation (IP) products of QDE-2. Disruption of argonaute gene qde-2 also led to serious defects in lifestyle transition. Interestingly, knocking out individual milRNAs or qde-2 lead to diverse responses under different conditions, and qde-2 itself may be targeted by the milRNAs. Collectively, it indicates the lifestyle transition of fungi is mediated by milRNAs through RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, revealing the wide existence of miRNAs in fungi kingdom and providing new insights into understanding the adaptation of fungi from scavengers to predators and the mechanisms underlying fungal infections.

17.
Fungal Biol ; 123(4): 274-282, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928036

RESUMO

The fungus Purpureocillium lavendulum (formally Paecilomyces lilacinus) is a natural enemy of insects and plant-parasitic nematodes, and has been used as an important bio-control agent against agricultural pests all over the world. In order to understand the genetic mechanisms governing its biocontrol efficiency and other biological processes, an effective gene disruption system is needed. Here we report the development of an efficient system which integrates selective markers that differ from Purpureocillium lilacinum, a one-step construction method for gene knockout plasmids, and a ku80 knockout strain for efficient homologous recombination. With this system, we effectively disrupted the transcription factors in the central regulation pathway of sporulation and a serine protease which were contributed to nematode infection, demonstrating this system as an efficient gene disrupting system for further characterization of genes involved in the development and pathogenesis of this fungus.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Genética Microbiana/métodos , Hypocreales/genética , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Recombinação Homóloga , Plasmídeos , Seleção Genética
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1767): 20180317, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967028

RESUMO

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) cause severe damage to agricultural crops worldwide. As most chemical nematicides have negative environmental side effects, there is a pressing need for developing efficient biocontrol methods. Nematophagous microbes, the natural enemies of nematodes, are potential biocontrol agents against PPNs. These natural enemies include both bacteria and fungi and they use diverse methods to infect and kill nematodes. For instance, nematode-trapping fungi can sense host signals and produce special trapping devices to capture nematodes, whereas endo-parasitic fungi can kill nematodes by spore adhesion and invasive growth to break the nematode cuticle. By contrast, nematophagous bacteria can secrete virulence factors to kill nematodes. In addition, some bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. In response, nematodes can also sense and defend against the microbial pathogens using strategies such as producing anti-microbial peptides regulated by the innate immunity system. Recent progresses in our understanding of the signal pathways involved in microbe-nematode interactions are providing new insights in developing efficient biological control strategies against PPNs. This article is part of the theme issue 'Biotic signalling sheds light on smart pest management'.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fungos/fisiologia , Nematoides/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
19.
Metabolites ; 9(3)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909487

RESUMO

The genus Trichoderma is comprised of many common fungi species that are distributed worldwide across many ecosystems. Trichoderma species are well-known producers of secondary metabolites with a variety of biological activities. Their potential use as biocontrol agents has been known for many years. Several reviews about metabolites from Trichoderma have been published. These reviews are based on their structural type, biological activity, or fungal origin. In this review, we summarize the secondary metabolites per Trichoderma species and elaborate on approximately 390 non-volatile compounds from 20 known species and various unidentified species.

20.
Phytomedicine ; 57: 292-304, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypericum attenuatum Choisy, a traditional Chinese herb, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of diseases associated with inflammation and has been used to treat rheumatic arthritis in China for centuries. However, the underlying mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect is poorly understood. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EtOAc fractions of H. attenuatum Choisy (Ha-EtOAc) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammation and hypothesized that Ha-EtOAc could attenuate inflammation in the colon. STUDY DESIGN: LPS was utilized to induce RAW264.7 cells inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of Ha-EtOAc in RAW264.7 cells was evaluated by measuring the inhibition ratio of nitric oxide (NO) production. Murine ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by treatment with 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The basic indexes of the mice, including body weight, food intake and hematochezia, were recorded during mice experiments. METHODS: The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß, were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Additionally, the influences of Ha-EtOAc on the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, the impact of Ha-EtOAc on gut microbiota of mice with UC was detected by 16S rDNA sequencing. RESULTS: Ha-EtOAc inhibited the LPS-induced production of NO and decreased the release of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pretreatment with Ha-EtOAc could suppress the nuclear translocation of p65 and the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, p38 and JNK. Ha-EtOAc treatment ameliorated murine UC, as reflected by a reduced body weight loss, improved colon shortening, alleviated mucosal damage and decreased releases of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, Ha-EtOAc could modulate the composition of microbial communities. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that Ha-EtOAc exhibited anti-inflammatory effects mainly by suppressing the NF-κB and MAPK pathways, and Ha-EtOAc treatment may be a potent therapy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hypericum/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Acetatos/química , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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