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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(15): 4464-4479, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823587

RESUMO

Polyketide synthase-terpenoid synthase (PKS-TPS) hybrid pathways for biosynthesis of unique sesquiterpenyl epoxy-cyclohexenoids (SECs) have been found to be widely distributed in plant pathogenic fungi. However, the natural and ecological functions of these pathways and their metabolites still remain cryptic. In this study, the whole PKS-TPS hybrid pathway in the predominant nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora was first proposed according to all the intermediates and their derivatives from all the A. oligospora mutants with a deficiency in each gene involved in SEC biosynthesis. Most mutants displayed significantly increased trap formation which was correlated with alteration of the ammonia level. Further analysis revealed that the main metabolites involved in ammonia metabolism were largely increased in most mutants. However, significantly retarded colonization in soil were observed in most mutants compared to the wild-type strain due to significantly decreased antibacterial activities. Our results suggested that A. oligospora used the PKS-TPS hybrid pathway for fungal soil colonization via decreasing fungal nematode-capturing ability. This also provided solid evidence that boosting fungal colonization in soil was the secondary metabolite whose biosynthesis depended on a PKS-TPS hybrid pathway.

2.
PLoS Genet ; 17(3): e1009383, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657091

RESUMO

As both host and pathogen require iron for survival, iron is an important regulator of host-pathogen interactions. However, the molecular mechanism by which how the availability of iron modulates host innate immunity against bacterial infections remains largely unknown. Using the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we demonstrate that infection with a pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium induces autophagy by inactivating the target of rapamycin (TOR). Although the transcripts of ftn-1 and ftn-2 encoding two H-ferritin subunits are upregulated upon S. Typhimurium infection, the ferritin protein is kept at a low level due to its degradation mediated by autophagy. Autophagy, but not ferritin, is required for defense against S. Typhimurium infection under normal circumstances. Increased abundance of iron suppresses autophagy by activating TOR, leading to an increase in the ferritin protein level. Iron sequestration, but not autophagy, becomes pivotal to protect the host from S. Typhimurium infection in the presence of exogenous iron. Our results show that TOR acts as a regulator linking iron availability with host defense against bacterial infection.

3.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568450

RESUMO

Aspergillus fumigatus is the main cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) with a high annual global incidence and mortality rate. Recent studies have indicated an increasing prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus (ARAF) strains, with agricultural use of azole fungicides as a potential contributor. China has an extensive agricultural production system and uses a wide array of fungicides for crop production, including in modern growth facilities such as greenhouses. Soils in greenhouses are among the most intensively cultivated. However, little is known about the occurrence and distribution of ARAF in greenhouse soils. Here, we investigated genetic variation and triazole drug susceptibility in A. fumigatus from greenhouses around metropolitan Kunming in Yunnan, southwest China. Abundant allelic and genotypic variations were found among 233 A. fumigatus strains isolated from nine greenhouses in this region. Significantly, ∼80% of the strains were resistant to at least one medical triazole drug, with >30% showing cross-resistance to both itraconazole and voriconazole. Several previously reported mutations associated with triazole resistance in the triazole target gene cyp51A were also found in our strains, with a strong positive correlation between the frequency of mutations at the cyp51A promoter and that of voriconazole resistance. Phylogenetic analyses of cyp51A gene sequences showed evidence for multiple independent origins of azole-resistant genotypes of A. fumigatus in these greenhouses. Evidence for multiple origins of azole resistance and the widespread distributions of genetically very diverse triazole-resistant strains of A. fumigatus in greenhouses calls for significant attention from public health agencies.IMPORTANCE The origin and prevalence of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus have been attracting increasing attention from biologists, clinicians, and public health agencies. Current evidence suggests agricultural fungicide use as a major cause. In southwest China, greenhouses are used to produce large amounts of fruits, flowers, and vegetables for consumers throughout China as well as those in other countries, primarily in southeast Asia. Here, we found a very high frequency (∼80%) of triazole-resistant A. fumigatus in our sample, the highest reported so far, with a significant proportion of these strains resistant to both tested agricultural fungicides and medical triazole drugs. In addition, we found novel allelic and genotypic diversities and evidence for multiple independent origins of azole-resistant genotypes of A. fumigatus in greenhouse populations in this region. Our study calls for a systematic evaluation of the effects of azole fungicide usage in greenhouses on human health.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 592524, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304340

RESUMO

Autophagy plays an important role in cell growth and development. The autophagy-related gene atg4 encodes a cysteine protease, which can cleave the carboxyl terminus of Atg8, thus plays a role in autophagosome formation in yeast and filamentous fungi. Arthrobotrys oligospora is well known for producing special trapping-devices (traps) and capturing nematodes. In this study, two ΔAolatg4 mutants were generated using targeted gene replacement and were used to investigate the biological functions of autophagy in A. oligospora. Autophagic process was observed using the AoAtg8-GFP fusion protein. The mutants showed a defective in hyphal growth and sporulation and were sensitive to chemical stressors, including menadione and Congo red. The spore yield of the ΔAolatg4 mutants was decreased by 88.5% compared to the wild type (WT), and the transcript levels of six sporulation-related genes, such as abaA, fluG, brlA, and wetA, were significantly downregulated during the conidiation stage. Deletion of Aolatg4 also affected the cell nuclei and mycelial septal development in A. oligospora. Importantly, autophagosome formation and the autophagic process were impaired in the ΔAolatg4 mutant. Moreover, the ΔAolatg4 mutant lost its ability to form mature traps. Our results provide novel insights into the roles of autophagy in A. oligospora.

5.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(1): 182, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are the two most common hyperglycemic emergencies (HEs) associated with diabetes mellitus. Individuals with HEs can present with combined features of DKA and HHS. The objective of this study is to assess the clinical characteristics, therapeutic outcomes, and associated predisposing factors of type 2 diabetic patients with isolated or combined HEs in China. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 158 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), complicated with DKA, HHS, or DKA combined with HHS (DKA-HHS) in Shanghai Tongji Hospital, China from 2010 to 2015. Admission clinical features, therapeutic approaches and treatment outcomes of those patients were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with T2DM, 65 (41.1%) patients were DKA, 74 (46.8%) were HHS, and 19 (12.0%) were DKA-HHS. The most common precipitants were infections (111, 70.3%), newly diagnosed diabetes (28,17.7%) and non-compliance to medications (9, 5.7%). DKA patients were divided into mild, moderate and severe group, based on arterial blood gas. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that C-reaction protein (CRP) was positively correlated with severity of DKA, whereas age and fasting C peptide were inversely correlated with severity of DKA (P < 0.05). The mortality was 10.8% (17/158) in total and 21.6% (16/74) in the HHS group, 5.9% (1/17) in DKA-HHS. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that death in patients with HHS was positively correlated to effective plasma osmolality (EPO), renal function indicators and hepatic enzymes, while inversely associated with the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy. Logistic regression analysis suggested that elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on admission was an independent predisposing factor of mortality in HHS, while CSII might be a protective factor for patients with HHS. Furthermore, the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that BUN had the largest area under the ROC curves for predicting death in patients with HHS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed elevated CRP and decreased fasting C-peptide might serve as indicator for severe DKA. Elevated BUN might be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with HHS, whereas CSII might be a protective factor against death in HHS.

6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor superfamily protein 14 (TNFSF14) was recently identified as a risk factor in some fibrosis diseases. However, the role of TNFSF14 in renal fibrosis pathogenesis remains unknown. RESULTS: It was found that TNFSF14 levels were significantly increased both in UUO-induced renal fibrotic mice and in patients with fibrotic nephropathy, compared with those in controls. Accordingly, Tnfsf14 deficiency led to a marked reduction in renal fibrosis lesions and inflammatory cytokines expression in the UUO mice. Furthermore, the levels of Sphk1, a critical molecule that causes fibrotic nephropathy, were remarkably reduced in Tnfsf14 KO mice with UUO surgery. In vitro recombinant TNFSF14 administration markedly up-regulated the expression of Sphk1 of primary mouse renal tubular epithelial cells (mTECs). CONCLUSION: TNFSF14 is a novel pro-fibrotic factor of renal fibrosis, for which TNFSF14 up-regulates Sphk1 expression, which may be the underlying mechanism of TNFSF14-mediated renal fibrosis. METHODS: We investigated the effect of TNFSF14 on renal fibrosis and the relationship between TNFSF14 and pro-fibrotic factor sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) by using the unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO)-induced mice renal fibrosis as a model and the specimen of patients with fibrosis nephropathy, by Masson trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and western blot analysis.

7.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 197: 111401, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186847

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) porous hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin (HA/SF) composite scaffolds with good mechanical and biological performance, could provide a good cellular survival microenvironment for bone repair. However, coating HA efficiently and uniformly on SF scaffolds remains a challenge. In this study, the effects of microwave-assisted technology and biomineralization methods on the nanostructure, chemical composition and deposition efficiency of HA coating have been comparatively analyzed. Furthermore, the mechanical performance of the prepared 3D scaffolds was evaluated, and rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on the 3D scaffolds to investigate their cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation capacities. The results indicate that microwave-assisted technology could improve the HA deposition efficiency to enhance the compressive strengths of 3D HA/SF scaffolds. Especially, when microwave-assisted technology is introduced in simulated body fluid mineralization process, the obtained 3D composite scaffold could trigger the best cellular response, including promoting cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. This study may provide a promising strategy for constructing 3D porous scaffolds with excellent mechanical and biological performance for bone tissue engineering.

8.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 6(4)2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020457

RESUMO

Fungi and nematodes are among the most abundant organisms in soil habitats. They provide essential ecosystem services and play crucial roles for maintaining the stability of food-webs and for facilitating nutrient cycling. As two of the very abundant groups of organisms, fungi and nematodes interact with each other in multiple ways. Here in this review, we provide a broad framework of interactions between fungi and nematodes with an emphasis on those that impact crops and agriculture ecosystems. We describe the diversity and evolution of fungi that closely interact with nematodes, including food fungi for nematodes as well as fungi that feed on nematodes. Among the nematophagous fungi, those that produce specialized nematode-trapping devices are especially interesting, and a great deal is known about their diversity, evolution, and molecular mechanisms of interactions with nematodes. Some of the fungi and nematodes are significant pathogens and pests to crops. We summarize the ecological and molecular mechanisms identified so far that impact, either directly or indirectly, the interactions among phytopathogenic fungi, phytopathogenic nematodes, and crop plants. The potential applications of our understanding to controlling phytophagous nematodes and soilborne fungal pathogens in agricultural fields are discussed.

9.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051209

RESUMO

Recent studies have suggested that innate immune responses exhibit characteristics associated with memory linked to modulations in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the diverse evolutionary paths taken, particularly within the invertebrate taxa, as should lead to similarly diverse innate immunity memory processes. Our understanding of innate immune memory in invertebrates primarily comes from studies of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the generality of which is unclear. Caenorhabditis elegans typically inhabits soil harboring a variety of fatal microbial pathogens; for this invertebrate, the innate immune system and aversive behavior are the major defensive strategies against microbial infection. However, their characteristics of immunological memory remains infantile. Here we discovered an immunological memory that promoted avoidance and suppressed innate immunity during reinfection with bacteria, which we revealed to be specific to the previously-exposed pathogens. During this trade-off switch of avoidance and innate immunity, the chemosensory neurons AWB and ADF modulated production of serotonin and dopamine, which in turn decreased expression of the innate immunity-associated genes and led to enhanced avoidance via the downstream insulin-like pathway. So our current study profiles the immune memories during C. elegans reinfected by pathogenic bacteria, and further reveal the chemosensory neurons, neurotransmitter(s), and their associated molecular signaling pathways are responsible for a trade-off switch between the two immunological memories.

10.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115838

RESUMO

The nematophagous fungus Purpureocillium lavendulum is a natural enemy of plant-parasitic nematodes, which cause severe economic losses in agriculture worldwide. The production of asexual spores (conidia) in P. lavendulum is crucial for its biocontrol activity against nematodes. In this study, we characterized the core regulatory genes involved in conidiation of P. lavendulum at the molecular level. The central regulatory pathway is composed of three genes, P. lavendulum brlA (PlbrlA), PlabaA, and PlwetA, which regulate the early, middle, and late stages of asexual development, respectively. The deletion of PlbrlA completely inhibited conidiation, with only conidiophore stalks produced. PlAbaA determines the differentiation of conidia from phialides. The deletion of PlwetA affected many phenotypes related to conidial maturation, including abscission of conidia from conidium strings, thickening of the cell wall layers, vacuole generation inside the cytoplasm, production of trehalose, tolerance to heat shock, etc. Comparative analyses showed that the upstream regulators of the core regulatory pathway of conidiation, especially the "fluffy" genes, were different from those in Aspergillus Besides their roles in conidiation, the central regulators also influence the production of secondary metabolites, such as the leucinostatins, in P. lavendulum Our study revealed a set of essential genes controlling conidiation in P. lavendulum and provided a framework for further molecular genetic studies on fungus-nematode interactions and for the biocontrol of plant-parasitic nematodes.IMPORTANCE Plant-parasitic nematodes cause serious damage to crops throughout the world. Purpureocillium lavendulum is a nematophagous fungus which is a natural enemy of nematodes and a potential biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes. The conidia play an important role during infection of nematodes. In this study, we identified and characterized genes involved in regulating asexual development of P. lavendulum We found that these genes not only regulate conidiation but also influence secondary-metabolite production. This work provides a basis for future studies of fungus-nematode interactions and nematode biocontrol.

11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(20): 11936-11948, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881263

RESUMO

Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) is a common clinical critical care syndrome. It has received increasing attention due to its high morbidity and mortality; however, its pathophysiological mechanisms remain elusive. LIGHT, the 14th member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and a bidirectional immunoregulatory molecule that regulates inflammation, plays a pivotal role in disease pathogenesis. In this study, mice with an intraperitoneal injection of LPS and HK-2 cells challenged with LPS were employed as a model of SA-AKI in vivo and in vitro, respectively. LIGHT deficiency notably attenuated kidney injury in pathological damage and renal function and markedly mitigated the inflammatory reaction by decreasing inflammatory mediator production and inflammatory cell infiltration in vivo. The TLR4-Myd88-NF-κB signalling pathway in the kidney of LIGHT knockout mice was dramatically down-regulated compared to the controls. Recombinant human LIGHT aggravated LPS-treated HK-2 cell injury by up-regulating the expression of the TLR4-Myd88-NF-κB signalling pathway and inflammation levels. TAK 242 (a selective TLR4 inhibitor) reduced this trend to some extent. In addition, blocking LIGHT with soluble receptor fusion proteins HVEM-Fc or LTßR-Fc in mice attenuated renal dysfunction and pathological damage in SA-AKI. Our findings indicate that LIGHT aggravates inflammation and promotes kidney damage in LPS-induced SA-AKI via the TLR4-Myd88-NF-κB signalling pathway, which provide potential strategies for the treatment of SA-AKI.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(41): 11449-11458, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924475

RESUMO

Here, we reported that detailed investigation on trace targeted metabolites from nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora mutant with deletion of P450 gene AOL_s00215g278 led to isolation of 9 new polyketide-terpenoid hybrid derivatives, including four new glycosides of the key precursor farnesyl hydrotoluquinol (1) and, surprisingly, four new sesquiterpenyl epoxy-cyclohexenoids (SECs) analogues. Among them, two major target metabolites 1 and 14 displayed moderate nematode inhibitory ability. Moreover, the mutant lacking AOL_s00215g278 could form far more nematode-capturing traps within 6 h in contact with nematodes and show rapid potent nematicidal activity with killing 93.7% preys, though deletion of the P450 gene resulted in dramatic decrease in fungal colony growth and failure to produce fungal conidia. The results unequivocally revealed that gene AOL_s00215g278 should be involved in not only the SEC biosynthetic pathway in the nematode-trapping fungus A. oligospora but also fungal conidiation and nematicidal activity.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 130: 110468, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795921

RESUMO

Renal fibrosis has no effective target for its prevention or reversal. Fibinogen-like protein 2 (Fgl2) is a novel prothrombinase exhibiting coagulation activity and immunomodulatory effects. Although Fgl2 is known to play a vital role in the development of liver and interstitial fibrosis, its function in renal fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, Fgl2 expression was found to be markedly increased in kidney tissues from mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis and patients with chronic kidney disease. However, Fgl2 deficiency aggravated UUO-induced renal fibrosis, as evidenced by the significantly increasing collagen I, fibronectin, and α-SMA expression, extracellular matrix deposition, and profibrotic factor (TGF-ß1) secretion. Administration of rmFgl2 (recombinant mouse Fgl2) significantly alleviated UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice, suggesting that the increased fibrosis can be reversed by supplementing rmFgl2. Although there was no difference in the percentages of total macrophages between Fgl2+/+ and Fgl2-/- mice, Fgl2 deficiency remarkably facilitated M2 macrophage polarization and accelerated M1 macrophage polarization to a low degree, during UUO-induced renal fibrosis development in mice. Similar results were observed when Fgl2+/+ and Fgl2-/- mice bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated for M1 or M2 polarization. Moreover, Fgl2 deficiency significantly increased the phosphorylation of STAT6, a critical mediator of M2 polarization, in both UUO-induced fibrotic kidney tissues and bone marrow-derived M2 macrophages. In conclusion, the aggravation of renal fibrosis by Fgl2 deficiency is facilitated by the p-STAT6-dependent upregulation of macrophage polarization, especially of M2.

14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(20)2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769197

RESUMO

Thermomyces dupontii, a widely distributed thermophilic fungus, is an ideal organism for investigating the mechanism of thermophilic fungal adaptation to diverse environments. However, genetic analysis of this fungus is hindered by a lack of available and efficient gene-manipulating tools. In this study, two different Cas9 proteins from mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, with in vivo expression of a single guide RNA (sgRNA) under the control of tRNAGly, were successfully adapted for genome editing in T. dupontii We demonstrated the feasibility of applying these two gene editing systems to edit one or two genes in T. dupontii The mesophilic CRISPR/Cas9 system displayed higher editing efficiency (50 to 86%) than the thermophilic CRISPR/Cas9 system (40 to 67%). However, the thermophilic CRISPR/Cas9 system was much less time-consuming than the mesophilic CRISPR/Cas9 system. Combining the CRISPR/Cas9 systems with homologous recombination, a constitutive promoter was precisely knocked in to activate a silent polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthase (PKS-NRPS) biosynthetic gene, leading to the production of extra metabolites that did not exist in the parental strains. Metabolic analysis of the generated biosynthetic gene mutants suggested that a key biosynthetic pathway existed for the biosynthesis of thermolides in T. dupontii, with the last two steps being different from those in the heterologous host Aspergillus Further analysis suggested that these biosynthetic genes might be involved in fungal mycelial growth, conidiation, and spore germination, as well as in fungal adaptation to osmotic, oxidative, and cell wall-perturbing agents.IMPORTANCE Thermomyces represents a unique ecological taxon in fungi, but a lack of flexible genetic tools has greatly hampered the study of gene function in this taxon. The biosynthesis of potent nematicidal thermolides in T. dupontii remains largely unknown. In this study, mesophilic and thermophilic CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing systems were successfully established for both disrupting and activating genes in T. dupontii In this study, a usable thermophilic CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system derived from bacteria was constructed in thermophilic fungi. Chemical analysis of the mutants generated by these two gene editing systems identified the key biosynthetic genes and pathway for the biosynthesis of nematocidal thermolides in T. dupontii Phenotype analysis and chemical stress experiments revealed potential roles of secondary metabolites or their biosynthetic genes in fungal development and adaption to chemical stress conditions. These two genomic editing systems will not only accelerate investigations into the biosynthetic mechanisms of unique natural products and functions of cryptic genes in T. dupontii but also offer an example for setting up CRISPR/Cas9 systems in other thermophilic fungi.

15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008766, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857822

RESUMO

Pathogens commonly disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier; however, how the epithelial immune system senses the loss of intestinal barrier as a danger signal to activate self-defense is unclear. Through an unbiased approach in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that the EGL-44/TEAD transcription factor and its transcriptional activator YAP-1/YAP (Yes-associated protein) were activated when the intestinal barrier was disrupted by infections with the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the genes containing the TEAD-binding sites revealed that "innate immune response" and "defense response to Gram-negative bacterium" were two top significantly overrepresented terms. Genetic inactivation of yap-1 and egl-44 significantly reduced the survival rate and promoted bacterial accumulation in worms after bacterial infections. Furthermore, we found that disturbance of the E-cadherin-based adherens junction triggered the nuclear translocation and activation of YAP-1/YAP in the gut of worms. Although YAP is a major downstream effector of the Hippo signaling, our study revealed that the activation of YAP-1/YAP was independent of the Hippo pathway during disruption of intestinal barrier. After screening 10 serine/threonine phosphatases, we identified that PP2A phosphatase was involved in the activation of YAP-1/YAP after intestinal barrier loss induced by bacterial infections. Additionally, our study demonstrated that the function of YAP was evolutionarily conserved in mice. Our study highlights how the intestinal epithelium recognizes the loss of the epithelial barrier as a danger signal to deploy defenses against pathogens, uncovering an immune surveillance program in the intestinal epithelium.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Camundongos , Salmonelose Animal/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(30): 7870-7879, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525670

RESUMO

Nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora can produce a type of sesquiterpenyl epoxy-cyclohexenoid (SEC) metabolites that are regarded as characteristic chemtaxonomic markers. Here, we reported investigation on the functions of a putatively cupin-like family gene 277 and a dehydrogenase gene 279 by gene engineering, chemical metabolite profiling and phenotype analysis. Ten targeted metabolites were isolated from two mutants Δ277 and Δ279 and four novel metabolites including three polyketide-terpenoid (PK-TP) hybrid ones were characterized. Metabolite C277-1 from mutant Δ277 shared the characteristic feature of the first and simplest PK-TP hybrid precursor, prenyl toluquinol, and metabolites C279-1 and C279-2 from mutant Δ279 shared the basic carbon skeleton of the key PK-TP hybrid precursor, farnesyl toluquinol, for biosynthesis of SEC metabolites. These results suggested that gene 277 should be involved in biosynthesis of the second prenyl unit for farnesyl toluquinol precursor, and gene 279 might be responsible for the diagnostic epoxy formation. Further analysis revealed that genes 277 and 279 might play roles in fungal conidiation, predatory trap formation, and nematode-capturing ability.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 617, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351475

RESUMO

Predatory fungi in Orbiliaceae (Ascomycota) have evolved a diversity of trapping devices that enable them to trap and kill nematodes, other small animals, and protozoans. These trapping devices include adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and non-constricting rings. Their diversity and practical importance have attracted significant attention from biologists, making them excellent model organisms for studying adaptative evolution and as biological control agents against parasitic nematodes. The putative origins and evolutionary relationships among these carnivorous fungi have been investigated using nuclear protein-encoding genes, but their patterns of mitogenome relationships and divergences remain unknown. Here we analyze and compare the mitogenomes of 12 fungal strains belonging to eight species, including six species representing all four types of nematode trapping devices and two from related but non-predatory fungi. All 12 analyzed mitogenomes were of circular DNA molecules, with lengths ranging from 146,101 bp to 280,699 bp. Gene synteny analysis revealed several gene rearrangements and intron transfers among the mitogenomes. In addition, the number of protein coding genes (PCGs), GC content, AT skew, and GC skew varied among these mitogenomes. The increased number and total size of introns were the main contributors to the length differences among the mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analyses of the protein-coding genes indicated that mitochondrial and nuclear genomes evolved at different rates, and signals of positive selection were found in several genes involved in energy metabolism. Our study provides novel insights into the evolution of nematode-trapping fungi and shall facilitate further investigations of this ecologically and agriculturally important group of fungi.

18.
iScience ; 23(5): 101057, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339992

RESUMO

Understanding how fungi interact with other organisms has significant medical, environmental, and agricultural implications. Nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) can switch to pathogens by producing various trapping devices to capture nematodes. Here we perform comparative genomic analysis of the NTF with four representative trapping devices. Phylogenomic reconstruction of these NTF suggested an evolutionary trend of trapping device simplification in morphology. Interestingly, trapping device simplification was accompanied by expansion of gene families encoding adhesion proteins and their increasing adhesiveness on trap surfaces. Gene expression analysis revealed a consistent up-regulation of the adhesion genes during their lifestyle transition from saprophytic to nematophagous stages. Our results suggest that the expansion of adhesion genes in NTF genomes and consequential increase in trap surface adhesiveness are likely the key drivers of fungal adaptation in trapping nematodes, providing new insights into understanding mechanisms underlying infection and adaptation of pathogenic fungi.

19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2664-2676, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238230

RESUMO

This study examined over 20 fungal specimens of the Orbiliaceae (Orbiliomycetes) from different regions in China. Our analyses based on morphological traits and the ITS rDNA sequences revealed two new Orbilia species with drechslerella-like asexual morphs. These new species are able to trap nematodes with constricting rings. In addition, Orbilia cf. orientalis is reported as a new cryptic Chinese variant of European collections of O. orientalis. All three species are described and illustrated in detail in this paper. Their phylogenetic relationships with other orbiliaceous species were identified based on their ITS sequences.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/classificação , Filogenia , Árvores/microbiologia , Animais , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Florestas , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Nematoides/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(10)2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144102

RESUMO

Vibralactone, a hybrid compound derived from phenols and a prenyl group, is a strong pancreatic lipase inhibitor with a rare fused bicyclic ß-lactone skeleton. Recently, a researcher reported a vibralactone derivative (compound C1) that caused inhibition of pancreatic lipase with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 14 nM determined by structure-based optimization, suggesting a potential candidate as a new antiobesity treatment. In the present study, we sought to identify the main gene encoding prenyltransferase in Stereum vibrans, which is responsible for the prenylation of phenol leading to vibralactone synthesis. Two RNA silencing transformants of the identified gene (vib-PT) were obtained through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Compared to wild-type strains, the transformants showed a decrease in vib-PT expression ranging from 11.0 to 56.0% at 5, 10, and 15 days in reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis, along with a reduction in primary vibralactone production of 37 to 64% at 15 and 21 days, respectively, as determined using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A soluble and enzymatically active fusion Vib-PT protein was obtained by expressing vib-PT in Escherichia coli, and the enzyme's optimal reaction conditions and catalytic efficiency (Km /k cat) were determined. In vitro experiments established that Vib-PT catalyzed the C-prenylation at C-3 of 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde and the O-prenylation at the 4-hydroxy of 4-hydroxy-benzenemethanol in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate. Moreover, Vib-PT shows promiscuity toward aromatic compounds and prenyl donors.IMPORTANCE Vibralactone is a lead compound with a novel skeleton structure that shows strong inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase. Vibralactone is not encoded by the genome directly but rather is synthesized from phenol, followed by prenylation and other enzyme reactions. Here, we used an RNA silencing approach to identify and characterize a prenyltransferase in a basidiomycete species that is responsible for the synthesis of vibralactone. The identified gene, vib-PT, was expressed in Escherichia coli to obtain a soluble and enzymatically active fusion Vib-PT protein. In vitro characterization of the enzyme demonstrated the catalytic mechanism of prenylation and broad substrate range for different aromatic acceptors and prenyl donors. These characteristics highlight the possibility of Vib-PT to generate prenylated derivatives of aromatics and other compounds as improved bioactive agents or potential prodrugs.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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