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1.
Environ Microbiol ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433890

RESUMO

The APSES protein family comprises a conserved class of fungus-specific transcriptional regulators. Some members have been identified in partial ascomycetes. In this study, the APSES protein StuA (AoStuA) of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora was characterized. Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, three ΔAoStuA mutants grew relatively slowly, displayed a 96% reduction in sporulation capacity and a delay in conidial germination. The reduced sporulation capacity correlated with transcriptional repression of several sporulation-related genes. The mutants were also more sensitive to chemical stressors than the WT strain. Importantly, the mutants were unable to produce mycelial traps for nematode predation. Moreover, peroxisomes and Woronin bodies were abundant in the WT cells but hardly found in the cells of those mutants. The lack of such organelles correlated with transcriptional repression of some genes involved in the biogenesis of peroxisomes and Woronin bodies. The transcript levels of several genes involved in the cAMP/PKA signalling pathway were also significantly reduced in the mutants versus the WT strain, implicating a regulatory role of AoStuA in the transcription of genes involved in the cAMP/PKA signalling pathway that regulates an array of cellular processes and events. In particular, AoStuA is indispensable for A. oligospora trap formation and virulence.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1866, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447855

RESUMO

Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, affecting ~2% of the population. The lack of characterization of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has hindered efficient clinical treatment of the disease. In our study, we observed that expression of complement component 5a receptor 1(C5aR1) was significantly increased in skin lesions of both imiquimod (IMQ) and IL23-induced psoriatic mice and patients with psoriasis. C5aR1 deficiency or treatment with C5a receptor 1 antagonist (C5aR1a) in mice significantly attenuated psoriasis-like skin lesions and expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, C5aR1 deficiency significantly decreased IMQ-induced infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), monocytes and neutrophils in psoriatic skin lesions and functions of pDCs, evidenced by the remarkable reduction in the IMQ-induced production of interferon-α (IFN-α) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L)-dependent pDCs differentiation. Accordingly, in vitro treatment with recombinant C5a accelerated pDCs migration and the differentiation of bone marrow cells into pDCs. Furthermore, biopsies of psoriatic patients showed a dramatic increase of C5aR1+ pDCs infiltration in psoriatic skin lesions, compared to healthy subjects. Our results provide direct evidence that C5a/C5aR1 signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Inhibition of C5a/C5aR1 pathway is expected to be beneficial in the treatment of patients with psoriasis.

3.
Asian J Androl ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464204

RESUMO

Autophagy and apoptosis have been regarded as important processes in the development of diabetic erectile dysfunction (DMED). Probucol is considered to have anti-apoptotic effects, but its relationship with autophagy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of probucol on erectile function. Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats (12 weeks old) were fasted for 12 h. Twenty SD rats were injected with a single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ). Ten rats were given vehicle only and used as a sham group. After 72 h, 20 STZ-treated rats with random blood glucose concentrations consistently greater than 16.7 mmol l-1 were used as successfully established diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were divided randomly into two groups and treated with a daily gavage of probucol at a dose of 0 or 500 mg kg-1 for 12 weeks. After treatment, the intracavernous pressure (ICP) was used to measure erectile function upon electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. After euthanasia, penile tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blot to assess the protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), BCL2-associated X (Bax), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and sequestosome 1 (P62). Caspase-3 activity was measured to determine apoptosis using a caspase-3 assay kit. After 12 weeks of treatment, the erectile function of the probucol group was significantly better than that of the DM group (P < 0.05). Bax and LC3-II protein expression and caspase-3 activity were significantly lower in the probucol group than those in the DM group (all P < 0.05), while Bcl-2, mTOR, and P62 protein expression levels were significantly higher than those in the DM group (all P < 0.05). We demonstrated that probucol inhibited apoptosis and autophagy in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

4.
Org Lett ; 21(16): 6499-6503, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343888

RESUMO

Here we provide an unprecedented biofactory where fluorescent dye-like complex xanthenes could be produced in an engineered Escherichia coli. Feeding the strain with toluquinol or hydroquinones resulted in production of novel "unnatural" natural products including four arthrocolins embedded with indolyltriphenyl quaternary carbons. Arthrocolins A-C potently inhibited various human cancer cell lines including paclitaxel-resistant cell line A549/Taxol and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and immensely restored the sensitivity of intractable fluconazole-resistant human pathogen Candida albicans to fluconazole.

5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270434

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia-caused podocyte injury plays a crucial role in the progress of diabetic kidney disease. Podoplanin, one of the podocyte-associated molecules, is closely related to the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. A number of studies demonstrate that berberine could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic mice with nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the relationship between the renoprotective effect of berberine and podoplanin expression in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice as well as mouse podocytes (MPC5 cells) cultured in high glucose (HG, 30 mM) medium. We found that the expression levels of podoplanin were significantly decreased both in the renal glomerulus of STZ-induced diabetic mice and HG-cultured MPC5 cells. We also demonstrated that NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in MPC5 cells under HG condition, which downregulated the expression level of podoplanin, thus leading to increased podocyte apoptosis. Administration of berberine (100, 200 mg/kg every day, ig, for 8 weeks) significantly improved hyperglycemia and the renal function of STZ-induced diabetic mice and restored the expression level of podoplanin in renal glomerulus. In high glucose-cultured MPC5 cells, treatment with berberine (30-120 µM) dose-dependently decreased the apoptosis rate, increased the expression of podoplanin, and inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. When podoplanin expression was silenced with shRNA, berberine treatment still inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway, but its antiapoptotic effect on podocytes almost disappeared. Our results suggest that berberine inhibits the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, thus increasing the podoplanin expression to exert renoprotective effects.

6.
Fungal Biol ; 123(7): 547-554, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196524

RESUMO

There is well-conserved PacC/Rim101 signaling among ascomycete fungi to mediate environmental pH sensing. For pathogenic fungi, this pathway not only enables fungi to grow over a wide pH range, but it also determines whether these fungi can successfully colonize and invade the targeted host. Within the pal/PacC pathway, palH is a putative ambient pH sensor with a seven-transmembrane domain. To characterize the function of a palH homolog, AopalH, in the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora, we knocked out the encoding gene of AopalH through homologous recombination, and the transformants exhibited slower growth rates, greater sensitivities to cationic and hyperoxidation stresses, as well as reduced conidiation and reduced trap formation, suggesting that the pH regulatory system has critical functions in nematophagous fungi. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of pH response and regulation in fungi.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2602, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197136

RESUMO

Temperature is a key factor for determining the lifespan of both poikilotherms and homeotherms. It is believed that animals live longer at lower body temperatures. However, the precise mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report that autophagy serves as a boost mechanism for longevity at low temperature in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The adiponectin receptor AdipoR2 homolog PAQR-2 signaling detects temperature drop and augments the biosynthesis of two ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. These two polyunsaturated fatty acids in turn initiate autophagy in the epidermis, delaying an age-dependent decline in collagen contents, and extending the lifespan. Our findings reveal that the adiponectin receptor PAQR-2 signaling acts as a regulator linking low temperature with autophagy to extend lifespan, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved among diverse organisms.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Ácido Araquidônico/biossíntese , Temperatura Baixa , Colágeno/metabolismo , Epiderme/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/biossíntese , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1142: 153-167, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102246

RESUMO

Chitin is one of the most important carbohydrates of the fungal cell wall, and is synthesized by chitin synthases. Chitin can be degraded by chitinases, which are important virulence factors in pathogenic fungi. Knowledge about the biosynthesis and degradation of chitin, and the enzymes responsible, has accumulated in recent years. In this review, we analyze the amino acid sequences of chitin synthases from several typical fungi. These enzymes can be divided into seven groups. While the different chitin synthases from a single fungus share a low degree of similarity, the same type of chitin synthase from different fungi shows high similarity. The number of chitinase genes in fungi display wide variation, from a single gene in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to 36 genes in Trichoderma virens. Chitinases from different fungi can be divided into four groups. The functions of chitin synthases and chitinases in several typical fungi are summarized, and the crystal structures of chitinases and chitinase modification are also discussed.


Assuntos
Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Parede Celular , Conformação Proteica
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(21): 19388-19396, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067026

RESUMO

Fibers with structural colors are of great interest due to their unique dye-free optical properties and show great potential in the textile industry. However, the preparation of structural color fibers with controllable optical properties in a simple way is still a challenge. In this paper, we prepared structural color fibers by simply drawing bare fibers from colloid suspensions. The obtained fibers displayed brilliant colors due to the assembled photonic crystal structures on the surface. The layer numbers of colloid coatings were tunable by varying the drawing speeds, concentration of colloid suspension, and diameters of core fibers. The optical properties of the obtained structural color fibers varied by layer numbers, viewing angles, and structure defects and were systematically studied both by experimental measurements and by computer simulations. Furthermore, noncrack blue fibers were demonstrated by coating "soft" poly[styrene- co-(butyl acrylate)- co-(acrylic acid)] (P(St-BA-AA)) polymer spheres on PET fibers. The coating was mechanically robust and made the fiber bendable with weaving ability, which means this method has versatile applicability and could be potentially used for green textile dyeing.

10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1767): 20180317, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967028

RESUMO

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) cause severe damage to agricultural crops worldwide. As most chemical nematicides have negative environmental side effects, there is a pressing need for developing efficient biocontrol methods. Nematophagous microbes, the natural enemies of nematodes, are potential biocontrol agents against PPNs. These natural enemies include both bacteria and fungi and they use diverse methods to infect and kill nematodes. For instance, nematode-trapping fungi can sense host signals and produce special trapping devices to capture nematodes, whereas endo-parasitic fungi can kill nematodes by spore adhesion and invasive growth to break the nematode cuticle. By contrast, nematophagous bacteria can secrete virulence factors to kill nematodes. In addition, some bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. In response, nematodes can also sense and defend against the microbial pathogens using strategies such as producing anti-microbial peptides regulated by the innate immunity system. Recent progresses in our understanding of the signal pathways involved in microbe-nematode interactions are providing new insights in developing efficient biological control strategies against PPNs. This article is part of the theme issue 'Biotic signalling sheds light on smart pest management'.

11.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016536

RESUMO

The lifestyle transition of fungi, defined as switching from taking organic material as nutrients to pathogens, is a fundamental phenomenon in nature. However, the mechanisms of such transition remain largely unknown. Here we show microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) play a key role in fungal lifestyle transition for the first time. We identified milRNAs by small RNA sequencing in Arthrobotrys oligospora, a known nematode-trapping fungus. Among them, 7 highly expressed milRNAs were confirmed by northern-blot analysis. Knocking out two milRNAs significantly decreased A. oligospora's ability to switch lifestyles. We further identified that two of these milRNAs were associated with argonaute protein QDE-2 by RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis. Three of the predicted target genes of milRNAs were found in immunoprecipitation (IP) products of QDE-2. Disruption of argonaute gene qde-2 also led to serious defects in lifestyle transition. Interestingly, knocking out individual milRNAs or qde-2 lead to diverse responses under different conditions, and qde-2 itself may be targeted by the milRNAs. Collectively, it indicates the lifestyle transition of fungi is mediated by milRNAs through RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, revealing the wide existence of miRNAs in fungi kingdom and providing new insights into understanding the adaptation of fungi from scavengers to predators and the mechanisms underlying fungal infections.

12.
Fungal Biol ; 123(4): 274-282, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928036

RESUMO

The fungus Purpureocillium lavendulum (formally Paecilomyces lilacinus) is a natural enemy of insects and plant-parasitic nematodes, and has been used as an important bio-control agent against agricultural pests all over the world. In order to understand the genetic mechanisms governing its biocontrol efficiency and other biological processes, an effective gene disruption system is needed. Here we report the development of an efficient system which integrates selective markers that differ from Purpureocillium lilacinum, a one-step construction method for gene knockout plasmids, and a ku80 knockout strain for efficient homologous recombination. With this system, we effectively disrupted the transcription factors in the central regulation pathway of sporulation and a serine protease which were contributed to nematode infection, demonstrating this system as an efficient gene disrupting system for further characterization of genes involved in the development and pathogenesis of this fungus.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Genética Microbiana/métodos , Hypocreales/genética , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Recombinação Homóloga , Plasmídeos , Seleção Genética
13.
Phytomedicine ; 57: 292-304, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypericum attenuatum Choisy, a traditional Chinese herb, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of diseases associated with inflammation and has been used to treat rheumatic arthritis in China for centuries. However, the underlying mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect is poorly understood. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EtOAc fractions of H. attenuatum Choisy (Ha-EtOAc) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammation and hypothesized that Ha-EtOAc could attenuate inflammation in the colon. STUDY DESIGN: LPS was utilized to induce RAW264.7 cells inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of Ha-EtOAc in RAW264.7 cells was evaluated by measuring the inhibition ratio of nitric oxide (NO) production. Murine ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by treatment with 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The basic indexes of the mice, including body weight, food intake and hematochezia, were recorded during mice experiments. METHODS: The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß, were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Additionally, the influences of Ha-EtOAc on the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, the impact of Ha-EtOAc on gut microbiota of mice with UC was detected by 16S rDNA sequencing. RESULTS: Ha-EtOAc inhibited the LPS-induced production of NO and decreased the release of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pretreatment with Ha-EtOAc could suppress the nuclear translocation of p65 and the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, p38 and JNK. Ha-EtOAc treatment ameliorated murine UC, as reflected by a reduced body weight loss, improved colon shortening, alleviated mucosal damage and decreased releases of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, Ha-EtOAc could modulate the composition of microbial communities. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that Ha-EtOAc exhibited anti-inflammatory effects mainly by suppressing the NF-κB and MAPK pathways, and Ha-EtOAc treatment may be a potent therapy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hypericum/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Acetatos/química , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417308

RESUMO

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are unique second-messenger molecules that impact almost all cellular processes in eukaryotes. In this study, five genes encoding different CaMKs were characterized in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. These CaMKs, which were retrieved from the A. oligospora genome according to their orthologs in fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa, were expressed at a low level in vitro during mycelial growth stages. Five deletion mutants corresponding to these CaMKs led to growth defects in different media and increased sensitivity to several environmental stresses, including H2O2, menadione, SDS, and Congo red; they also reduced the ability to produce conidia and traps, thus causing a deficiency in nematicidal ability as well. In addition, the transcriptional levels of several typical sporulation-related genes, such as MedA, VelB, and VeA, were down-regulated in all ΔCaMK mutants compared with the wild-type (WT) strain. Moreover, these mutants exhibited hypersensitivity to heat shock and ultraviolet-radiation stresses compared with the WT strain. These results suggest that the five CaMKs in A. oligospora are involved in regulating multiple cellular processes, such as growth, environmental stress tolerance, conidiation, trap formation, and virulence.

15.
Bioconjug Chem ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453738

RESUMO

Fluorescence imaging has currently emerged as one of the most frequently used noninvasive imaging technology to selectively monitor biological processes in living systems. In past decades, gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) received increasing attraction because of their intrinsic fluorescence and their inherent biocompatibility. As a stabilizing and reducing agent, an abundant, sustainable and widely used polypeptide derived drug molecule, aprotinin (Ap) is selected for the synthesis of Au nanoclusters (Ap-Au NCs) due to characteristic bioactivity, excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, nonallergenic character. Herein, Ap encapsulated Au NCs exhibiting desirable red fluorescence feature was facilely produced for the first time, which were subsequently used for cell imaging and detection of various analytes. Much interestingly, dynamically subcellular localization of Ap-Au NCs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in Hela cells was observed. Afterward, it has shown the selective and quantitative detection of trypsin by using Ap encapsulated Au NCs. Lastly, Ap-Au NCs were readily used for detection of mercury and copper quantitatively. The photoluminescence of the Ap-Au NCs was quenched with the addition of metioned analytes. This study opens crucial insights on the integration of biomolecule with metal nanoclusters, also discusses a multifunctional nanomaterial platform for cell imaging, subcellular targeting, biosensing and drug delivery.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 507(1-4): 9-14, 2018 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic erectile dysfunction (DMED) is mainly attributed to oxidative stress, and Nrf2 plays an important role in cellular antioxidation and regulates NO production in the vascular endothelium. Probucol maintains endothelial function through its antioxidant activity. This study investigated the efficacy and mechanism of probucol in improving erectile function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: In our study, thirty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fasted for 12 h. All rats received a 1-time injection of intraperitoneal streptozotocin(60 mg/kg) or vehicle. After 72 h, STZ-treated rats (with random blood glucose concentrations consistently greater than 16.7 mmol/L) were considered diabetic. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups and treated with daily gavage feedings of probucol at doses of 0 and 500 mg/kg for 12 weeks. A positive control group underwent intraperitoneal injection of normal saline followed by daily gavage of saline solution. Erectile function was assessed by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerves with real-time intracavernous pressure measurement. After euthanasia, penile tissue was investigated using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and ELISA to assess the proteins of Nrf2/HO-1/DDAH/PPAR-γ/eNOS pathways. RESULTS: After treatment, the rats in the probucol group presented significantly improved erectile function (P < 0.05) than that of the diabetic group without probucol treatment (DM). Also, protein expression of Nrf2, DDAH, PPAR-γ, HO-1 and eNOS was significantly higher than that of the DM group (P < 0.05). CGMP concentrations and SOD concentrations of probucol-treated rats were higher than those of DM group (P < 0.05). The MDA levels and ADMA levels were significantly lower than those of DM group rats (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Probucol can improve erectile function via activation of Nrf2, which coordinates the HO-1/DDAH/PPAR-γ/eNOS pathways in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

17.
J Proteomics ; 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282050

RESUMO

Soil fungistasis limits the effect of fungal agents designed to control plant-parasitic nematodes. Benzaldehyde is a fungistatic factor produced by soil microorganisms that can suppress conidial germination, but the molecular mechanism of this suppression is unknown. In this study, three conidial proteomes of Arthrobotrys oligospora ATCC24927, a nematode-trapping fungus, were obtained, quantified, and compared. Under benzaldehyde fungistatic stress, conidial protein expression profile changed significantly. Screening with a twofold selection criterion revealed 164 up-regulated and 110 down-regulated proteins. 17 proteins related to protein translation were down-regulated and gene transcription analysis suggested that the repression of proteins translation might be one mechanism by which benzaldehyde inhibites conidial germination. Benzaldehyde also resulted in the down-regulation of respiratory chain proteins and mitochondrial processes, as well as the repression of conidial DNA synthesis. In addition, the conidia up-regulated several proteins that enable it to resist benzaldehyde-induced fungistatis, and this was confirmed by a functional assessment of two knockout mutants. This study reveals putative mechanisms by which benzaldehyde causes fungistasis as well as the proteomic response of conidia to benzaldehyde. SIGNIFICANCE: Soil fungistasis limits the effect of fungal agents designed to control plant-parasitic nematodes. Benzaldehyde is one of fungistatic factors produced by soil microorganisms that can suppress conidial germination. In this study, we found that conidial protein expression profile changed significantly under benzaldehyde fungistatic stress. This research revealed new mechanistic data that describe how benzaldehyde is responsible for fungiststis by inhibiting conidial germination. Moreover, we also found that conidia can resist benzaldehyde by up-regulating proteins such as benzaldehyde dehydrogenase and heat shock proteins. This study also showed that proteomics methods play important roles in addressing soil fungistatic mechanisms.

18.
Lab Invest ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291323

RESUMO

Invasion and subsequent metastasis are major characteristics of malignant human renal cell carcinoma (RCC), though the mechanisms remain elusive. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), a key factor that controls pyruvate transportation in mitochondria, is frequently dysregulated in tumor cells and loss of MPC predicts poor prognosis in various types of cancer. However, the clinical relevance and functional significance of MPC in RCC remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the expression of MPC1 and MPC2 in specimens from RCC patients and observed downregulation of MPC1, but not MPC2, in RCC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Moreover, RCC patients with higher MPC1 expression exhibited longer overall survival rate than those with lower MPC1. Functionally, MPC1 suppressed the invasion of RCC cells in vitro and reduced the growth of RCC cells in vivo, possibly through inhibition of MMP7 and MMP9. Further studies revealed that loss of MPC1 was induced by hypoxia in RCC cells, and notably, MPC1 expression, was negatively correlated with HIF1α expression in RCC cells and patient samples. Taken together, our results identify anti-tumor function of MPC1 in RCC and revealed MPC1 as a novel prognostic biomarker to predict better patient survival.

19.
Fitoterapia ; 130: 17-25, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076887

RESUMO

In previous work, a series of bioactive natural products had been isolated from the plant endophytic Streptomyces sp. CS, which was isolated from Maytenus hookeri. To mine new active metabolites, we describe introducing an alien carbamoyltransferase (asm21) gene into the strain CS by conjugal transfer. As a result, three recombinatorial mutants named CS/asm21-1, CS/asm21-2 and CS/asm21-4 were successfully constructed. Three mutants and wild type CS were cultured on solid medium, and the extracts were detected and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The LC-MS profiles showed several unknown peaks that were present in the spectra of extracts of the CS/asm21-4 cultured on oatmeal solid medium. Then, three new naphthomycins O-Q (1-3), a new macrolide hookerolide (4) as well as nine known compounds were obtained from the solid cultured medium. Their structures were identified by spectra data. These new compounds showed moderate antimicrobial activities.


Assuntos
Macrolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Maytenus/microbiologia , Streptomyces/química , Carboxil e Carbamoil Transferases/genética , Cromatografia Líquida , Conjugação Genética , Endófitos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Estrutura Molecular , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Plasmídeos , Metabolismo Secundário
20.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770711

RESUMO

The chemical constituents of the fungus Verticillium psalliotae were studied. Two new aromadendrane sesquiterpenes inonotin M (1) and inonotin N (2) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fungal culture broth. The structures of compounds were elucidated mainly by HRESIMS experiments, and 1D, 2D-NMR spectroscopy analysis.

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