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Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 592, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852494


BACKGROUND: Eimeria tenella is a highly pathogenic coccidian that causes avian coccidiosis. Both nitromezuril (NZL) and ethanamizuril (EZL) are novel triazine compounds with high anticoccidial activity, but the mechanisms of their action are still unclear. This study explored the response of E. tenella to NZL and EZL by the study of changes in protein composition of the second-generation merozoites. METHODS: Label-free quantification (LFQ) proteomics of the second-generation merozoites of E. tenella following NZL and EZL treatment were studied by LC-MS/MS to explore the mechanisms of action. The identified proteins were annotated and analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1430 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, of which 375 were considered as differential proteins in response to drug treatment (DPs). There were 26 only found in the NZL treatment group (N-group), 63 exclusive to the EZL treatment group (E-group), and 80 proteins were present in both drug groups. In addition, among the DPs, the abundant proteins with significantly altered expression in response to drug treatment (SDPs) were found compared with the C-group, of which 49 were upregulated and 51 were downregulated in the N-group, and 66 upregulated and 79 downregulated in the E-group. Many upregulated proteins after drug treatment were involved in transcription and protein metabolism, and surface antigen proteins (SAGs) were among the largest proportion of the downregulated SDPs. Results showed the top two enriched GO terms and the top one enriched pathway treated with EZL and NZL were related, which indicated that these two compounds had similar modes of action. CONCLUSIONS: LFQ proteomic analysis is a feasible method for screening drug-related proteins. Drug treatment affected transcription and protein metabolism, and SAGs were also affected significantly. This study provided new insights into the effects of triazine anticoccidials against E. tenella.

Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Eimeria tenella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/efeitos dos fármacos , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria tenella/metabolismo , Merozoítos/genética , Merozoítos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Proteômica , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(3): 260-263, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019550


OBJECTIVE: To understand the endemic situation and distribution features of schistosomiasis in Xinjian District, Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province from 2009 to 2014, so as to provide a reference for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in the future. METHODS: The endemic data of schistosomiasis in Xinjian District were collected by taking the village as a unit from 2009 to 2014. An endemic database was established, and the SaTScan software was applied to analyze the spatiotemporal aggregation areas of Schistosoma japonicum infection in crowd, Oncomelania hupensis snails and cattle. RESULTS: The S. japonicum infection rate of crowd was decreased from 0.10% in 2009 to 0.000 68% in 2014. The infection rate of O. hupensis snails was greatly fluctuated from 2009 to 2014, the highest was 1.04% in 2012, but it fell to 0 in 2014. The highest infection rate of cattle was 1.98% in 2012, and it fell to 0 in 2014. The spatial temporal clustering detection showed that three areas of crowd infection were mainly concentrated in 20 villages of Changyi Township, Lianyu Township and Songhu Town; two areas of snail infection were mainly concentrated in five villages of Changyi Township and Nanji Township; one area of cattle infection was mainly concentrated in three villages of Changyi Township. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis presents a declining trend in Xinjian District from 2009 to 2014 as a whole. However, the potential risks of the rebound of the disease still exist, and the six clustering areas of infection are still the key areas for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in the future.

Esquistossomose Japônica , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Reservatórios de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/parasitologia , Fatores de Tempo
Vet Parasitol ; 215: 88-91, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26790742


As an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) can rapidly invade chicken cecum epithelial cells and cause avian coccidiosis. Enolase, an essential enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenolpyruvate, plays a very important role in glycolysis. In this study, each chicken was inoculated with 8×10(4) sporulated E. tenella oocysts suspended in 1ml of distilled water to determine the effects of acetamizuril, a new triazine anticoccidial drug, on enolase in the second-generation merozoites of E. tenella. The chickens were divided into two groups: the untreatment group (challenged with E. tenella oocysts and provided with normal feed) and the treatment group (challenged with E. tenella oocysts and provided with 5mg/kg of acetamizuril by oral gavage at 96h after inoculation). The second-generation merozoites of E. tenella (mz-En) were obtained at 120h after inoculation. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were conducted to detect the enolase changes in mz-En at the transcriptional and translational levels. The results showed that enolase mRNA expression was downregulated, and the translational level was decreased in the treatment group. In addition, the subcellular localization of enolase demonstrated that enolase was distributed primarily at the top of the mz-En and that the fluorescence intensity was weak after treatment with acetamizuril. These findings indicated that enolase may be a promising target to prevent coccidiosis.

Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria tenella/efeitos dos fármacos , Eimeria tenella/enzimologia , Merozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Merozoítos/enzimologia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Triazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Protozoário/genética
Parasitol Res ; 113(3): 903-9, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24346578


Diclazuril has long been used as an effective benzeneacetonitrile anticoccidial for the control of Eimeria tenella that causes coccidiosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anticoccidial effects of diclazuril remains elusive. In this study, a proteomic analysis of the effect of diclazuril on second-generation merozoites of E. tenella was performed. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 13 target proteins were found to be significantly affected by diclazuril treatment, with 11 of these proteins being identified as annotated proteins from E. tenella or other Apicomplexa parasites. These proteins contribute to various functions, including metabolism, protein synthesis, and host cell invasion. Using RT-PCR, we identified the potential pattern of transcriptional regulation induced by diclazuril, and we suggest some promising targets for the intervention of E. tenella infection.

Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria tenella/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Proteoma/análise , Triazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Merozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos
Carbohydr Polym ; 89(2): 461-6, 2012 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24750744


To evaluate the immune activation and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMP) in vivo, 90 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups. The mice in the three experimental groups were given cyclophosphamide at 80 mg/kg/d via intraperitoneal injection and 17.5, 35, or 70 mg/kg body weight CMP via gavage. The lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytic index, and biochemical parameters were measured. The results show that the administration of CMP was able to overcome the CY-induced immunosuppression, significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, and enhanced the spleen lymphocyte activity and macrophage function. CMP can also improve the antioxidation activity in immunosuppressed mice, significantly increase the superoxidase dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels and the total antioxidant capacity, and decrease the malondialdehyde levels in vivo.

Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cordyceps , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Carpóforos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Imunossupressão , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos
Exp Parasitol ; 125(3): 264-70, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20138868


The effects of diclazuril on mRNA expression levels of invasion-related microneme genes were examined in second-generation merozoites of Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) by quantitative real-time (QRT) PCR. Diclazruil treatment of infected chickens significantly decreased the number of second-generation merozoites by 65.13%, and resulted in downregulation of EtMIC genes: EtMIC1 by 65.63%, EtMIC2 by 64.12%, EtMIC3 by 56.82%, EtMIC4 by 73.48%, and EtMIC5 by 78.17%. SEM images of caecum tissue from uninfected chickens showed regular intestinal villus structure. In infected chickens, a distinct loss of the superficial epithelium, with a flattened mucosa and large-area necrosis and anabrosis, was evident. In diclazruil-treated chickens, a decrease in merozoite number and a visibly improved appearance of the caeca were noted. These improvements appeared to be mediated in part by downregulation of the expression of invasion-related EtMIC genes in response to diclazuril.

Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Eimeria tenella/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Ceco/patologia , Ceco/ultraestrutura , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria tenella/patogenicidade , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Merozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Triazinas/farmacologia