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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496750

RESUMO

It has recently been shown that quantum-confined states can appear in epitaxially grown van der Waals material heterobilayers without a rotational misalignment (θ = 0°), associated with flat bands in the Brillouin zone of the moiré pattern formed due to the lattice mismatch of the two layers. Peaks in the local density of states and confinement in a MoS2/WSe2 system was qualitatively described only considering local stacking arrangements, which cause band edge energies to vary spatially. In this work, we report the presence of large in-plane strain variation across the moiré unit cell of a θ = 0° MoS2/WSe2 heterobilayer and show that inclusion of strain variation and out-of-plane displacement in density functional theory calculations greatly improves their agreement with the experimental data. We further explore the role of a twist angle by showing experimental data for a twisted MoS2/WSe2 heterobilayer structure with a twist angle of θ = 15°, which exhibits a moiré pattern but no confinement.

2.
Diabetes ; 69(6): 1140-1148, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217610

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia is a potent regulator of endogenous glucose production (EGP). Loss of this "glucose effectiveness" is a major contributor to elevated plasma glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetes (T2D). KATP channels in the central nervous system have been shown to regulate EGP in humans and rodents. We examined the contribution of central KATP channels to glucose effectiveness. Under fixed hormonal conditions (studies using a pancreatic clamp), hyperglycemia suppressed EGP by ∼50% in both humans without diabetes and normal Sprague-Dawley rats. By contrast, antagonism of KATP channels with glyburide significantly reduced the EGP-lowering effect of hyperglycemia in both humans and rats. Furthermore, the effects of glyburide on EGP and gluconeogenic enzymes were abolished in rats by intracerebroventricular administration of the KATP channel agonist diazoxide. These findings indicate that about half of the suppression of EGP by hyperglycemia is mediated by central KATP channels. These central mechanisms may offer a novel therapeutic target for improving glycemic control in subjects with T2D.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110342, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109585

RESUMO

Agricultural production of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. is often affected by heavy metal pollution in soil, especially mixtures of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). We assessed metal-induced phytotoxicity in L. chuanxiong by exposing the plants to soil treated with Cd, Pb, or Cd/Pb mixtures. A combined Cd/Pb treatment alleviated the inhibition in plant growth, photosynthesis, and secondary metabolite generation seen in single-metal exposures in three of the four combinations. Most combined Cd/Pb treatments resulted in preferential uptake of magnesium, copper, and nitrogen in underground plant parts and accumulation of phosphorus and calcium in aboveground plant parts, thereby leading to improvements in photosynthetic potential. Compared with single-metal exposures, combined Cd/Pb treatment significantly decreased the contents of Cd by 16.67%-40.12% and Pb by 10.68%-21.70% in the plant, respectively. At the subcellular level, the Pb presence increased the Cd percentage associated with cell wall from 64.79% to 67.93% in rhizomes and from 32.76% to 45.32% in leaves, while Cd reduced Pb contents by 9.36%-46.39% in the subcellular fractions. A combined Cd/Pb treatment decreased the contents of water- and ethanol-extractable metal forms and increased the contents of acetic acid- and hydrochloric acid-extractable forms. The lower toxic effects of the Cd/Pb mixture in L. chuanxiong were associated with photosynthetic potential, subcellular distribution, the chemical forms of Cd and Pb, and synthesis of secondary metabolites. These findings are useful for plant production strategies in soils contaminated by heavy metals.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Ligusticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Ligusticum/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética
4.
Nanotechnology ; 30(39): 395402, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234158

RESUMO

Electronic quality of chemical vapor deposited MoS2 is a function of crystallinity, which tends to decline with decrease in deposition temperature. Conventional thermal annealing can improve the quality but requires very high temperatures. In this study, we investigate a novel low temperature (room temperature to 400 °C) annealing process that exploits the electron wind force during passage of current. Here, moderate current density gives rise to atomic scale mechanical force whenever the electrons encounter defects in the lattice or grain boundaries (GBs). After hypothesizing that this force can significantly enhance defect mobility without any temperature field, we demonstrate the process using in situ transmission electron microscope and molecular dynamics simulation. Monolayer metal organic chemical vapor deposited MoS2 deposited at 400 °C was post processed at temperature as low as 20 °C. Experimental results show five times enhancement in electrical conductivity, which is supported by electron diffraction patterns indicating significant grain growth. Discrete spots in diffraction indicate evolution of high crystallinity even at room temperature. Our computational model shows the mechanisms behind healing lattice defects as well as reorienting the GBs. The enhancement in microstructure of the specimen is also reflected in mechanical properties simulations on pre- and post-annealed specimens.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(47): 40831-40837, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384598

RESUMO

The utilization of alkali salts, such as NaCl and KI, has enabled the successful growth of large single domain and fully coalesced polycrystalline two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide layers. However, the impact of alkali salts on photonic and electronic properties is not fully established. In this work, we report alkali-free epitaxy of MoS2 on sapphire and benchmark the properties against alkali-assisted growth of MoS2. This study demonstrates that although NaCl can dramatically increase the domain size of monolayer MoS2 by 20 times, it can also induce strong optical and electronic heterogeneities in as-grown, large-scale films. This work elucidates that utilization of NaCl can lead to variation in growth rates, loss of epitaxy, and high density of nanoscale MoS2 particles (4 ± 0.7/µm2). Such phenomena suggest that alkali atoms play an important role in Mo and S adatom mobility and strongly influence the 2D/sapphire interface during growth. Compared to alkali-free synthesis under the same growth conditions, MoS2 growth assisted by NaCl results in >1% tensile strain in as-grown domains, which reduces photoluminescence by ∼20× and degrades transistor performance.

6.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 315(6): F1658-F1669, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280599

RESUMO

Muscle dysfunction is an important cause of morbidity among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although muscle fibrosis is present in a CKD rodent model, its existence in humans and its impact on physical function are currently unknown. We examined isometric leg extension strength and measures of skeletal muscle fibrosis and inflammation in vastus lateralis muscle from CKD patients ( n = 10) and healthy, sedentary controls ( n = 10). Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry were used to assess muscle collagen and macrophage and fibro/adipogenic progenitor (FAP) cell populations, and RT-qPCR was used to assess muscle-specific inflammatory marker expression. Muscle collagen content was significantly greater in CKD compared with control (18.8 ± 2.1 vs. 11.7 ± 0.7% collagen area, P = 0.008), as was staining for collagen I, pro-collagen I, and a novel collagen-hybridizing peptide that binds remodeling collagen. Muscle collagen was inversely associated with leg extension strength in CKD ( r = -0.74, P = 0.01). FAP abundance was increased in CKD, was highly correlated with muscle collagen ( r = 0.84, P < 0.001), and was inversely associated with TNF-α expression ( r = -0.65, P = 0.003). TNF-α, CD68, CCL2, and CCL5 mRNA were significantly lower in CKD than control, despite higher serum TNF-α and IL-6. Immunohistochemistry confirmed fewer CD68+ and CD11b+ macrophages in CKD muscle. In conclusion, skeletal muscle collagen content is increased in humans with CKD and is associated with functional parameters. Muscle fibrosis correlated with increased FAP abundance, which may be due to insufficient macrophage-mediated TNF-α secretion. These data provide a foundation for future research elucidating the mechanisms responsible for this newly identified human muscle pathology.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Força Muscular , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Miosite/etiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colágeno/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fibrose , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Debilidade Muscular/metabolismo , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Miosite/diagnóstico , Miosite/metabolismo , Miosite/fisiopatologia , Músculo Quadríceps/metabolismo , Músculo Quadríceps/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1849-1855, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415536

RESUMO

A two-dimensional (2D) heterobilayer system consisting of MoS2 on WSe2, deposited on epitaxial graphene, is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at temperatures of 5 and 80 K. A moiré pattern is observed, arising from lattice mismatch of 3.7% between the MoS2 and WSe2. Significant energy shifts are observed in tunneling spectra observed at the maxima of the moiré corrugation, as compared with spectra obtained at corrugation minima, consistent with prior work. Furthermore, at the minima of the moiré corrugation, sharp peaks in the spectra at energies near the band edges are observed for spectra acquired at 5 K. The peaks correspond to discrete states that are confined within the moiré unit cells. Conductance mapping is employed to reveal the detailed structure of the wave functions of the states. For measurements at 80 K, the sharp peaks in the spectra are absent, and conductance maps of the band edges reveal little structure.

8.
Aging Cell ; 17(2)2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383869

RESUMO

Administration of metformin increases healthspan and lifespan in model systems, and evidence from clinical trials and observational studies suggests that metformin delays a variety of age-related morbidities. Although metformin has been shown to modulate multiple biological pathways at the cellular level, these pleiotropic effects of metformin on the biology of human aging have not been studied. We studied ~70-year-old participants (n = 14) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in which they were treated with 6 weeks each of metformin and placebo. Following each treatment period, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained, and a mixed-meal challenge test was performed. As expected, metformin therapy lowered 2-hour glucose, insulin AUC, and insulin secretion compared to placebo. Using FDR<0.05, 647 genes were differentially expressed in muscle and 146 genes were differentially expressed in adipose tissue. Both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways were significantly influenced, including pyruvate metabolism and DNA repair in muscle and PPAR and SREBP signaling, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and collagen trimerization in adipose. While each tissue had a signature reflecting its own function, we identified a cascade of predictive upstream transcriptional regulators, including mTORC1, MYC, TNF, TGFß1, and miRNA-29b that may explain tissue-specific transcriptomic changes in response to metformin treatment. This study provides the first evidence that, in older adults, metformin has metabolic and nonmetabolic effects linked to aging. These data can inform the development of biomarkers for the effects of metformin, and potentially other drugs, on key aging pathways.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/genética , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea
9.
ACS Nano ; 12(2): 965-975, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360349

RESUMO

Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of interest for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Here, we demonstrate device-ready synthetic tungsten diselenide (WSe2) via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and provide key insights into the phenomena that control the properties of large-area, epitaxial TMDs. When epitaxy is achieved, the sapphire surface reconstructs, leading to strong 2D/3D (i.e., TMD/substrate) interactions that impact carrier transport. Furthermore, we demonstrate that substrate step edges are a major source of carrier doping and scattering. Even with 2D/3D coupling, transistors utilizing transfer-free epitaxial WSe2/sapphire exhibit ambipolar behavior with excellent on/off ratios (∼107), high current density (1-10 µA·µm-1), and good field-effect transistor mobility (∼30 cm2·V-1·s-1) at room temperature. This work establishes that realization of electronic-grade epitaxial TMDs must consider the impact of the TMD precursors, substrate, and the 2D/3D interface as leading factors in electronic performance.

10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16938, 2017 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209000

RESUMO

Evaluating and tuning the properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials is a major focus of advancing 2D science and technology. While many claim that the photonic properties of a 2D layer provide evidence that the material is "high quality", this may not be true for electronic performance. In this work, we deconvolute the photonic and electronic response of synthetic monolayer molybdenum disulfide. We demonstrate that enhanced photoluminescence can be robustly engineered via the proper choice of substrate, where growth of MoS2 on r-plane sapphire can yield >100x enhancement in PL and carrier lifetime due to increased molybdenum-oxygen bonding compared to that of traditionally grown MoS2 on c-plane sapphire. These dramatic enhancements in optical properties are similar to those of super-acid treated MoS2, and suggest that the electronic properties of the MoS2 are also superior. However, a direct comparison of the charge transport properties indicates that the enhanced PL due to increased Mo-O bonding leads to p-type compensation doping, and is accompanied by a 2x degradation in transport properties compared to MoS2 grown on c-plane sapphire. This work provides a foundation for understanding the link between photonic and electronic performance of 2D semiconducting layers, and demonstrates that they are not always correlated.

11.
Nanoscale ; 10(1): 336-341, 2017 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215125

RESUMO

Two and three-dimensional (2D/3D) hybrid materials have the potential to advance communication and sensing technologies by enabling new or improved device functionality. To date, most 2D/3D hybrid devices utilize mechanical exfoliation or post-synthesis transfer, which can be fundamentally different from directly synthesized layers that are compatible with large scale industrial needs. Therefore, understanding the process/property relationship of synthetic heterostructures is priority for industrially relevant material architectures. Here we demonstrate the scalable synthesis of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) via metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on gallium nitride (GaN), and elucidate the structure, chemistry, and vertical transport properties of the 2D/3D hybrid. We find that the 2D layer thickness and transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) choice plays an important role in the transport properties of the hybrid structure, where monolayer TMDs exhibit direct tunneling through the layer, while transport in few layer TMDs on GaN is dominated by p-n diode behavior and varies with the 2D/3D hybrid structure. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveal a strong intrinsic dipole and charge transfer between n-MoS2 and p-GaN, leading to a degraded interface and high p-type leakage current. Finally, we demonstrate integration of heterogeneous 2D layer stacks of MoS2/WSe2 on GaN with atomically sharp interface. Monolayer MoS2/WSe2/n-GaN stacks lead to near Ohmic transport due to the tunneling and non-degenerated doping, while few layer stacking is Schottky barrier dominated.

12.
Sci Adv ; 3(10): e1701661, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062892

RESUMO

Integration of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) into next-generation semiconductor platforms has been limited due to a lack of effective passivation techniques for defects in TMDs. The formation of an organic-inorganic van der Waals interface between a monolayer (ML) of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) and a ML of MoS2 is investigated as a defect passivation method. A strong negative charge transfer from MoS2 to TiOPc molecules is observed in scanning tunneling microscopy. As a result of the formation of a van der Waals interface, the ION/IOFF in back-gated MoS2 transistors increases by more than two orders of magnitude, whereas the degradation in the photoluminescence signal is suppressed. Density functional theory modeling reveals a van der Waals interaction that allows sufficient charge transfer to remove defect states in MoS2. The present organic-TMD interface is a model system to control the surface/interface states in TMDs by using charge transfer to a van der Waals bonded complex.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(34): 29255-29264, 2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805363

RESUMO

To fabricate practical devices based on semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) materials, the source, channel, and drain materials are exposed to ambient air. However, the response of layered 2D materials to air has not been fully elucidated at the molecular level. In the present report, the effects of air exposure on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) and metal dichalcogenides (MD) are studied using ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The effects of a 1-day ambient air exposure on MBE-grown WSe2, chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown MoS2, and MBE SnSe2 are compared. Both MBE-grown WSe2 and CVD-grown MoS2 display a selective air exposure response at the step edges, consistent with oxidation on WSe2 and adsorption of hydrocarbon on MoS2, while the terraces and domain/grain boundaries of both TMDs are nearly inert to ambient air. Conversely, MBE-grown SnSe2, an MD, is not stable in ambient air. After exposure in ambient air for 1 day, the entire surface of SnSe2 is decomposed to SnOx and SeOx, as seen with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Since the oxidation enthalpy of all three materials is similar, the data is consistent with greater oxidation of SnSe2 being driven by the weak bonding of SnSe2.

14.
Nanotechnology ; 28(36): 365703, 2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675751

RESUMO

We present in-situ transmission electron microscopy of crack propagation in a freestanding monolayer MoS2 and molecular dynamic analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS2 was transferred from sapphire substrate using interfacial etching for defect and contamination minimization. Atomic resolution imaging shows crack tip atoms sustaining 14.5% strain before bond breaking, while the stress field decays at unprecedented rate of 2.15 GPa Å-1. Crack propagation is seen mostly in the zig-zag direction in both model and experiment, suggesting that the mechanics of fracture is not brittle. Our computational model captures the mechanics of the experimental observations on crack propagation in MoS2. While molybdenum atoms carry most of the mechanical load, we show that the sliding motion of weakly bonded sulphur atoms mediate crack tip stress relaxation, which helps the tip sustain very high, localized stress levels.

15.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 72(12): 1703-1709, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28329397

RESUMO

Background: Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, has been reported to improve glucose metabolism and vascular function and to extend life span in animal models, but studies in humans have been inconclusive. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, we treated older glucose-intolerant adults (n = 30) with resveratrol (2-3 g/daily) or placebo, each for 6 weeks. A standard mixed-meal test was used to assess insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and secretion (C-peptide deconvolution) and vascular function by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry. Skeletal muscle samples were obtained for gene expression using RNA-Seq analysis and to assess mitochondrial morphology. Results: There were no changes in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weight, blood pressure, or lipid profile following resveratrol treatment. Fasting reactive hyperemia index improved with resveratrol (2.02 ± 0.2 vs 1.76 ± 0.02, p = .002). RNA-Seq analysis yielded 140 differentially expressed transcripts (corrected p-value ≤ .05), predominantly associated with mitochondrial genes and noncoding RNA. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis confirmed that mitochondrial dysfunction (p = 2.77 × 10-12) and oxidative phosphorylation (p = 1.41 × 10-11) were the most significantly perturbed pathways. Mitochondrial number, but not size, was increased. Conclusions: Resveratrol treatment of older adults with impaired glucose regulation may have beneficial effects on vascular function, but not glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity. Changes in gene expression suggest effects similar to those observed with caloric restriction, which has been shown to increase life and health span in animal models, although its significance for humans is uncertain. Future human studies should address the appropriate dose range and low bioavailability of resveratrol.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol
16.
Sci Rep ; 7: 41967, 2017 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155920

RESUMO

Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like MoS2 are promising candidates for various optoelectronic applications. The typical photoluminescence (PL) of monolayer MoS2 is however known to suffer very low quantum yields. We demonstrate a 10-fold increase of MoS2 excitonic PL enabled by nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) from adjacent nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) films. The understanding of this effect is facilitated by our application of transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy to monitor the energy influx into the monolayer MoS2 in the process of ET from photoexcited CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. In contrast to PL spectroscopy, TA can detect even non-emissive excitons, and we register an order of magnitude enhancement of the MoS2 excitonic TA signatures in hybrids with NQDs. The appearance of ET-induced nanosecond-scale kinetics in TA features is consistent with PL dynamics of energy-accepting MoS2 and PL quenching data of the energy-donating NQDs. The observed enhancement is attributed to the reduction of recombination losses for excitons gradually transferred into MoS2 under quasi-resonant conditions as compared with their direct photoproduction. The TA and PL data clearly illustrate the efficacy of MoS2 and likely other TMDC materials as energy acceptors and the possibility of their practical utilization in NRET-coupled hybrid nanostructures.

17.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(50): 504001, 2016 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27779128

RESUMO

Integrating a phase transition material with two-dimensional semiconductors can provide a route towards tunable opto-electronic metamaterials. Here, we integrate monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films grown via molecular beam epitaxy to form a 2D/3D heterostructure. Vanadium dioxide undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition at 60-70 °C, which changes the band alignment between MoS2 and VO2 from a semiconductor-insulator junction to a semiconductor-metal junction. By switching VO2 between insulating and metallic phases, the modulation of photoluminescence emission in the 2D semiconductors was observed. This study demonstrates the feasibility to combine TMDs and functional oxides to create unconventional hybrid optoelectronic properties derived from 2D semiconductors that are linked to functional properties of oxides through proximity coupling.

18.
Diabetes ; 65(9): 2569-79, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27207526

RESUMO

The challenges of achieving optimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes highlight the need for new therapies. Inappropriately elevated endogenous glucose production (EGP) is the main source of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Because activation of central ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels suppresses EGP in nondiabetic rodents and humans, this study examined whether type 2 diabetic humans and rodents retain central regulation of EGP. The KATP channel activator diazoxide was administered in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design to eight type 2 diabetic subjects and seven age- and BMI-matched healthy control subjects. Comprehensive measures of glucose turnover and insulin sensitivity were performed during euglycemic pancreatic clamp studies following diazoxide and placebo administration. Complementary rodent clamp studies were performed in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. In type 2 diabetic subjects, extrapancreatic KATP channel activation with diazoxide under fixed hormonal conditions failed to suppress EGP, whereas matched control subjects demonstrated a 27% reduction in EGP (P = 0.002) with diazoxide. Diazoxide also failed to suppress EGP in diabetic rats. These results suggest that suppression of EGP by central KATP channel activation may be lost in type 2 diabetes. Restoration of central regulation of glucose metabolism could be a promising therapeutic target to reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diazóxido/farmacologia , Diazóxido/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Zucker
19.
ACS Nano ; 10(5): 5006-14, 2016 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27082162

RESUMO

Directed assembly of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, holds great promise for large-scale electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we demonstrate controlled placement of solution-suspended monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) sheets on a substrate using electric-field-assisted assembly. Micrometer-sized triangular WS2 monolayers are selectively positioned on a lithographically defined interdigitated guiding electrode structure using the dielectrophoretic force induced on the sheets in a nonuniform field. Triangular sheets with sizes comparable to the interelectrode gap assemble with an observed preferential orientation where one side of the triangle spans across the electrode gap. This orientation of the sheets relative to the guiding electrode is confirmed to be the lowest energy configuration using semianalytical calculations. Nearly all sheets assemble without observable physical deformation, and postassembly photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy characterization of the monolayers reveal that they retain their as-grown crystalline quality. These results show that the field-assisted assembly process may be used for large-area bottom-up integration of 2D monolayer materials for nanodevice applications.

20.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3580-8, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26866442

RESUMO

When designing semiconductor heterostructures, it is expected that epitaxial alignment will facilitate low-defect interfaces and efficient vertical transport. Here, we report lattice-matched epitaxial growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) directly on gallium nitride (GaN), resulting in high-quality, unstrained, single-layer MoS2 with strict registry to the GaN lattice. These results present a promising path toward the implementation of high-performance electronic devices based on 2D/3D vertical heterostructures, where each of the 3D and 2D semiconductors is both a template for subsequent epitaxial growth and an active component of the device. The MoS2 monolayer triangles average 1 µm along each side, with monolayer blankets (merged triangles) exhibiting properties similar to that of single-crystal MoS2 sheets. Photoluminescence, Raman, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses identified monolayer MoS2 with a prominent 20-fold enhancement of photoluminescence in the center regions of larger triangles. The MoS2/GaN structures are shown to electrically conduct in the out-of-plane direction, confirming the potential of directly synthesized 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructures for vertical current flow. Finally, we estimate a MoS2/GaN contact resistivity to be less than 4 Ω·cm(2) and current spreading in the MoS2 monolayer of approximately 1 µm in diameter.

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