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1.
J Virol ; 94(7)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915277

RESUMO

Under different circumstances, the alteration of several viral genes may give an evolutionary advantage to the virus to maintain its prevalence in nature. In this study, a 70-nucleotide deletion in the small fragment (S fragment) of the viral 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) together with one amino acid insertion in the leader protein (Lpro) that naturally occurred in several serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains in China was identified. The properties of two field serotype O FMDV strains, with or without the 70-nucleotide deletion in the S fragment and the amino acid insertion in Lpro, were compared in vitro and in vivo Clinical manifestations of FMD were clearly observed in cattle and pigs infected by the virus without the mutations. However, the virus with the mentioned mutations caused FMD outcomes only in pigs, not in cattle. To determine the role of the 70-nucleotide deletion in the S fragment and the single amino acid insertion in Lpro in the pathogenicity and host range of FMDV, four recombinant viruses, with complete genomes and a 70-nucleotide deletion in the S fragment, a single amino acid insertion in Lpro, or both mutations, were constructed and rescued. It showed that deletion of 70 nucleotides in the S fragment or insertion of one amino acid (leucine) at position 10 of Lpro partly decreased the viral pathogenicity of Mya-98 lineage virus in cattle and pigs. However, the virus with dual mutations caused clinical disease only in pigs, not in cattle. This suggested that the S fragment and Lpro are significantly associated with the virulence and host specificity of FMDV. The naturally occurring dual mutation in the S fragment and Lpro is a novel determinant of viral pathogenicity and host range for serotype O FMDV.IMPORTANCE FMD is probably the most important livestock disease in the world due to the severe economic consequences caused. The alteration of several viral genes may give the virus selective advantage to maintain its prevalence in nature. Here, we identified that a 70-nucleotide deletion in the S fragment combined with a single leucine insertion in the leader protein (Lpro) is a novel determinant of restricted growth on bovine cells, which significantly contributes to the altered virulence of serotype O FMDV in cattle. A synergistic and additive effect of the 70-nucleotide deletion in the S fragment and the single leucine insertion in Lpro on the virulence and host specificity of the virus was determined. These results will benefit efforts to understand the vial pathogenicity mechanism and molecular characteristics of FMDV.

2.
J Virol ; 94(3)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694957

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious, economically important viral disease. The structural protein VP1 plays significant roles during FMDV infection. Here, we identified that VP1 interacted with host ribosomal protein SA (RPSA). RPSA is a viral receptor for dengue virus and classical swine fever virus infections. However, the incubation of susceptible cells using the anti-RPSA antibodies did not block the infection of FMDV. Overexpression of porcine RPSA in the insusceptible cells could not trigger FMDV infection, suggesting that RPSA was not responsible for FMDV entry and infection. On the contrary, we found that overexpression of RPSA suppressed FMDV replication, and knockdown of RPSA enhanced FMDV replication. We further determined that FMDV infection activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and demonstrated that MAPK pathway activation was critically important for FMDV replication. RPSA negatively regulated MAPK pathway activation during FMDV infection and displayed an antiviral function. FMDV VP1 interacted with RPSA to abrogate the RPSA-mediated suppressive role in MAPK pathway activation. Together, our study indicated that MAPK pathway activation was required for FMDV replication and that host RPSA played a negatively regulatory role on MAPK pathway activation to suppress FMDV replication. FMDV VP1 bound to RPSA to promote viral replication by repressing RPSA-mediated function and maintaining the activation of MAPK signal pathway.IMPORTANCE Identification of virus-cell interactions is essential for making strategies to limit virus replication and refine the models of virus replication. This study demonstrated that FMDV utilized the MAPK pathway for viral replication. The host RPSA protein inhibited FMDV replication by suppressing the activation of the MAPK pathway during FMDV infection. FMDV VP1 bound to RPSA to repress the RPSA-mediated regulatory effect on MAPK pathway activation. This study revealed an important implication of the MAPK pathway for FMDV infection and identified a novel mechanism by which FMDV VP1 has evolved to interact with RPSA and maintain the activation of the MAPK pathway, elucidating new information regarding the signal reprogramming of host cells by FMDV.

3.
J Virol ; 93(23)2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534043

RESUMO

TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is essential for interferon beta (IFN-ß) production and innate antiviral immunity. However, other, additional functions of TBK1 have remained elusive. Here, we showed that TBK1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that undergoes self-ubiquitylation in vitro in the presence of the E2 enzyme UbcH5c. Further evidence showed that TBK1 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo Importantly, multiple picornavirus VP3 proteins were degraded by TBK1 through its kinase and E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Mechanistically, TBK1 phosphorylated multiple picornavirus VP3 proteins at serine residues and ubiquitinated them via K63-linked ubiquitination at lysine residues. In addition, the C426 and C605 residues of TBK1 were not essential for TBK1 innate immunity activity; however, these residues were required for degradation of multiple picornavirus VP3 proteins and for its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Hence, our findings identified a novel role of TBK1 in regulating the virus life cycle and provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of TBK1-mediated antiviral response.IMPORTANCE TBK1 is an important adaptor protein required for innate immune response to viruses, but its other functions were unknown. In this study, we found that TBK1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that undergoes self-ubiquitylation in vitro in the presence of the E2 enzyme UbcH5c. In addition, multiple picornavirus VP3 proteins were degraded by TBK1 through its kinase and E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Our report provides evidence that TBK1 plays a role in viral protein degradation.

4.
Cell Signal ; 64: 109393, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445188

RESUMO

The components of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) interact with host cellular proteins to promote self-replication and evade the host immune response. Previous studies have shown that FMDV 3A, 2C and 2B proteins interact with host cellular proteins involved in FMDV replication. However, whether the other host proteins have an impact on FMDV replication is less understood. In this study, we identified DDX56 as a positive regulator of FMDV replication. DDX56 overexpression increased FMDV replication, whereas DDX56 knockdown had the opposite effect. DDX56 interacted and cooperated with FMDV 3A to inhibit the type I interferon by reducing the phosphorylation of IRF3. Moreover, the D166 site of DDX56 played a role in increasing FMDV replication and cooperating with FMDV 3A to inhibit the phosphorylation of IRF3. Additionally, knockdown of DDX56 or FMDV 3A results also showed that DDX56 cooperated with FMDV 3A to inhibit the phosphorylation of IRF3. These results suggest that the interaction between FMDV 3A protein and the host protein DDX56 is critical for FMDV replication.

5.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 164-173, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176404

RESUMO

Exosomes are small membrane-enclosed vesicles that participate in intercellular communication between cells. Numerous evidences suggested that exosomes derived from virus-infected cells can mediate virus transmission or/and regulate immune response. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the prototype member of the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. It can cause highly infectious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock and significantly increase public awareness. However, the role of exosomes in the transmission of FMDV has still remained unknown. In this study, full length of FMDV genomic RNA and partial viral proteins were identified in purified exosomes isolated from FMDV-infected PK-15 cells with qRT-PCR and /MS. Exosomes from FMDV-infected cells were capable of transmitting infection to naive PK-15 cells and suckling mice. Furthermore, exosome-mediated infection cannot be fully blocked by FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies. This finding highlights that FMDV transmission by exosomes as a potential immune evasion mechanism.


Assuntos
Exossomos/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Exossomos/fisiologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Rim/citologia , Rim/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Viral , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
6.
J Virol ; 93(16)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167907

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants, causing acute immunosuppression in its natural hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PPRV antagonizes the host immune responses have not been fully characterized. In particular, how PPRV suppresses the activation of the host RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway has yet to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that PPRV infection significantly suppresses RLR pathway activation and type I interferon (IFN) production and identified PPRV N protein as an extremely important antagonistic viral factor that suppresses beta interferon (IFN-ß) and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. A detailed analysis showed that PPRV N protein inhibited type I IFN production by targeting interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key molecule in the RLR pathway required for type I IFN induction. PPRV N protein interacted with IRF3 (but not with other components of the RLR pathway, including MDA5, RIG-I, VISA, TBK1, and MITA) and abrogated the phosphorylation of IRF3. As expected, PPRV N protein also considerably impaired the nuclear translocation of IRF3. The TBK1-IRF3 interaction was involved significantly in IRF3 phosphorylation, and we showed that PPRV N protein inhibits the association between TBK1 and IRF3, which in turn inhibits IRF3 phosphorylation. The amino acid region 106 to 210 of PPRV N protein was determined to be essential for suppressing the nuclear translocation of IRF3 and IFN-ß production, and the 140 to 400 region of IRF3 was identified as the crucial region for the N-IRF3 interaction. Together, our findings demonstrate a new mechanism evolved by PPRV to inhibit type I IFN production and provide structural insights into the immunosuppression caused by PPRV.IMPORTANCE Peste des petits ruminants is a highly contagious animal disease affecting small ruminants, which threatens both small livestock and endangered susceptible wildlife populations in many countries. The causative agent, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), often causes acute immunosuppression in its natural hosts during infection. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that N protein, the most abundant protein of PPRV, plays an extremely important role in suppression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) function and type I interferon (IFN) production by interfering with the formation of the TBK1-IRF3 complex. This study explored a novel antagonistic mechanism of PPRV.

7.
J Virol ; 93(13)2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996089

RESUMO

DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member A3 (DNAJA3) plays an important role in viral infections. However, the role of DNAJA3 in replication of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV) remains unknown. In this study, DNAJA3, a novel binding partner of VP1, was identified using yeast two-hybrid screening. The DNAJA3-VP1 interaction was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization in FMDV-infected cells. The J domain of DNAJA3 (amino acids 1 to 168) and the lysine at position 208 (K208) of VP1 were shown to be critical for the DNAJA3-VP1 interaction. Overexpression of DNAJA3 dramatically dampened FMDV replication, whereas loss of function of DNAJA3 elicited opposing effects against FMDV replication. Mechanistical study demonstrated that K208 of VP1 was critical for reducing virus titer caused by DNAJA3 using K208A mutant virus. DNAJA3 induced lysosomal degradation of VP1 by interacting with LC3 to enhance the activation of lysosomal pathway. Meanwhile, we discovered that VP1 suppressed the beta interferon (IFN-ß) signaling pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation, dimerization, and nuclear translocation of IRF3. This inhibitory effect was considerably boosted in DNAJA3-knockout cells. In contrast, overexpression of DNAJA3 markedly attenuated VP1-mediated suppression on the IFN-ß signaling pathway. Poly(I⋅C)-induced phosphorylation of IRF3 was also decreased in DNAJA3-knockout cells compared to that in the DNAJA3-WT cells. In conclusion, our study described a novel role for DNAJA3 in the host's antiviral response by inducing the lysosomal degradation of VP1 and attenuating the VP1-induced suppressive effect on the IFN-ß signaling pathway.IMPORTANCE This study pioneeringly determined the antiviral role of DNAJA3 in FMDV. DNAJA3 was found to interact with FMDV VP1 and trigger its degradation via the lysosomal pathway. In addition, this study is also the first to clarify the mechanism by which VP1 suppressed IFN-ß signaling pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation, dimerization, and nuclear translocation of IRF3. Moreover, DNAJA3 significantly abrogated VP1-induced inhibitive effect on the IFN-ß signaling pathway. These data suggested that DNAJA3 plays an important antiviral role against FMDV by both degrading VP1 and restoring of IFN-ß signaling pathway.

8.
J Virol ; 93(11)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894473

RESUMO

The role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells remains unknown. Here, we showed that FMDV infection activated NOD2-mediated beta interferon (IFN-ß) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-ĸB) signaling pathways. NOD2 inhibited FMDV replication in the infected cells. FMDV infection triggered NOD2 transcription, while it reduced the abundance of NOD2 protein. Our results revealed that FMDV 2B, 2C, and 3C proteinase (3Cpro) were responsible for the decrease in NOD2 protein levels. 3Cpro is a viral proteinase that can cleave multiple host proteins and limit protein synthesis. Our previous studies determined that FMDV 2B suppressed protein expression of RIG-I and LGP2. Here, we found that 3Cpro and 2B also decreased NOD2 expression. However, this is the first report that 2C induced the reduction of NOD2 protein levels. We determined that both 2B- and 2C-induced decreases in NOD2 were independent of the cleavage of host eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma (eIF4G), induction of cellular apoptosis, or proteasome, lysosome, and caspase pathways. The interactions between NOD2 and 2B or 2C were observed in the context of viral infection. The carboxyl-terminal amino acids 105 to 114 and 135 to 144 of 2B were essential for the reduction of NOD2, while the residues 105 to 114 were required for the interaction. Amino acids 116 to 260 of the carboxyl terminus of 2C were essential for the interaction, while truncated 2C mutants did not reduce NOD2. These data suggested novel antagonistic mechanisms of FMDV that were mediated by 2B, 2C, and 3Cpro proteins.IMPORTANCE NOD2 was identified as a cytoplasmic viral pattern recognition receptor in 2009. Subsequently, many viruses were reported to activate NOD2-mediated signaling pathways. This study demonstrated that FMDV infection activated NOD2-mediated IFN-ß and NF-ĸB signaling pathways. Host cells have developed multiple strategies against viral infection; however, viruses have evolved many strategies to escape host defenses. FMDV has evolved multiple mechanisms to inhibit host type I IFN production. Here, we showed that NOD2 suppressed FMDV replication during viral infection. FMDV 2B, 2C, and 3Cpro decreased NOD2 protein expression by different mechanisms to promote viral replication. This study provided new insight into the immune evasion mechanisms mediated by FMDV and identified 2B, 2C, and 3Cpro as antagonistic factors for FMDV to evade host antiviral responses.

9.
Immunobiology ; 224(3): 383-387, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853309

RESUMO

Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the MAP3K family. The activated TPL2 regulates the innate immune-relevant signaling pathways, such as ERK, JNK, and NF-κB, and the differentiation of immune cells, for example, CD4+ T and NK cells. Therefore, TPL2 plays a critical role in regulating the innate immune response. The present review summarizes the recent advancements in the TPL2-regulated innate immune response.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Ativação de Macrófagos , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética
10.
J Virol ; 93(8)2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728251

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease. It is characterized by genetic instability and different antigenic properties. The nonstructural protein 3A is a primary determinant of the tropism and virulence of Cathay topotype FMDVs. However, several other determinants are also speculated to be involved in viral tropism and virulence. Deletion of 43 nucleotides (nt) in the pseudoknot (PK) region of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) has been found to coexist with the identified 3A deletion in Cathay topotype FMDV genomes. In this study, we isolated an O/ME-SA/PanAsia lineage FMDV strain, O/GD/CHA/2015, that includes an 86-nt deletion in the PK region and shows a porcinophilic phenotype. To investigate the potential role of the PK region in viral pathogenicity, we generated a recombinant FMDV strain with an incomplete PK region and compared its virulence and pathogenesis to the intact FMDV strain in swine and bovines. Deletion of the 86 nt in the PKs had no major effects on the pathogenicity of the virus in swine but significantly attenuated its ability to infect bovine cells and cattle, indicating that the PK region is a newly discovered determinant of viral tropism and virulence. The role of the 43-nt deletion existing in the Cathay topotype FMDV was also investigated by evaluating the infection properties of genetically engineered viruses. Consistently, the 43-nt deletion in the PK region significantly decreased the pathogenicity of the virus in bovines. Overall, our findings suggest that the PK region deletion occurred naturally in the FMDV genome and that the PK region is highly associated with viral host range and functions as a novel determinant for FMDV pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE This study demonstrates that the deletion in the PK region occurred naturally in the FMDV genome. The isolated O/ME-SA/PanAsia lineage FMDV with an 86-nt deletion in the PK region showed a pig-adapted characteristic that could cause clinical signs in swine but not bovines. Compared to the wild-type FMDV strain, which possesses full infection capacity in both swine and bovines, the recombinant virus with the 86-nt deletion in the PK region is deficient in causing disease in bovines. Deletion of the previously reported 43 nt in the PK region also led to significantly decreased pathogenicity of FMDV in bovines. This study indicates that the PK region is a novel determinant of the tropism and virulence of FMDV.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Sequência de Bases , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Genoma Viral , Deleção de Sequência , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Tropismo Viral/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Febre Aftosa/genética , Febre Aftosa/metabolismo , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Suínos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0206896, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699117

RESUMO

Toxin synthesis and endospore formation are two of the most critical factors that determine the outcome of infection by Clostridioides difficile. The two major toxins, TcdA and TcdB, are the principal factors causing damage to the host. Spores are the infectious form of C. difficile, permit survival of the bacterium during antibiotic treatment and are the predominant cell form that leads to recurrent infection. Toxin production and sporulation have their own specific mechanisms of regulation, but they share negative regulation by the global regulatory protein CodY. Determining the extent of such regulation and its detailed mechanism is important for understanding the linkage between two apparently independent biological phenomena and raises the possibility of creating new ways of limiting infection. The work described here shows that a codY null mutant of a hypervirulent (ribotype 027) strain is even more virulent than its parent in a mouse model of infection and that the mutant expresses most sporulation genes prematurely during exponential growth phase. Moreover, examining the expression patterns of mutants producing CodY proteins with different levels of residual activity revealed that expression of the toxin genes is dependent on total CodY inactivation, whereas most sporulation genes are turned on when CodY activity is only partially diminished. These results suggest that, in wild-type cells undergoing nutrient limitation, sporulation genes can be turned on before the toxin genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Clostridium difficile/metabolismo , Clostridium difficile/patogenicidade , Ribotipagem , Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Clostridium difficile/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Etanolamina/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Família Multigênica , Óperon/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Esporos Bacterianos/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/genética
12.
Virol Sin ; 33(5): 394-401, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328012

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV), a newly determined etiological agent of vesicular disease in swine, causes porcine idiopathic disease and occasional acute death in piglets. Recently, an increased number of SVV infection cases have been reported in the United States (US) and China, resulting in significant economic losses to the swine industry. The first identification of SVV in China was reported in Guangdong Province, a major swine producing province. The cases of SVV were continuously reported in Guangdong in 2015 and 2016. However, the spread of SVV in Guangdong in 2017 remains unknown. In this study, we determined two new SVV strains, CH-GD-2017-1 and CH-GD-2017-2, from Guangdong. The genetic analysis suggested that the two Guangdong strains showed different characteristics to previous Guangdong strains. They showed lower nucleotide similarity with strains isolated in 2015 and 2016, and were more similar to the US strains. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the new strains were clustered in a different clade with previous Guangdong strains. We found 28 mutated amino acids in the new strains, compared with the first Guangdong strain, SVV CH-01-2015. In the geographic analysis, we found that the US and China reported more SVV cases than other countries, and most of the SVV cases were reported in east and central China-of which, Guangdong Province is one of the major epidemic regions. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SVV continued to spread in Guangdong Province in 2017, and two different clades of SVVs have emerged in this region.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Picornaviridae/genética , Doença Vesicular Suína/epidemiologia , Doença Vesicular Suína/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
13.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2326, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319594

RESUMO

Early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) is a multifunctional transcription factor that is implicated in viral infection. In this study, we observed that foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection significantly triggered EGR1 expression. Overexpression of EGR1 suppressed FMDV replication in porcine cells, and knockdown of EGR1 considerably promoted FMDV replication. A previously reported FMDV mutant virus (with two amino acids mutations in SAP domain) that displays a strong type I interferon (IFN) induction activity was used in this study. We found that SAP mutant FMDV infection induced a higher expression of EGR1 than wildtype FMDV infection, and also triggered higher IFN-ß and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression than wildtype FMDV infection. This implied a link between EGR1 and type I IFN signaling. Further study showed that overexpression of EGR1 resulted in Sendai virus (SeV)-induced IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and NF-κB promoter activation. In addition, the SeV-induced ISGs expression was impaired in EGR1 knockdown cells. EGR1 upregulation promoted type I IFN signaling activation and suppressed FMDV and Seneca Valley virus replication. Suppression of the transcriptional activity of EGR1 did not affect its antiviral effect against FMDV. This study reveals a new mechanism evolved by EGR1 to enhance type I IFN signaling and suppress FMDV replication.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(9): 885, 2018 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158514

RESUMO

Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 (NME1) is well-known as a tumor suppressor that regulates p53 function to prevent cancer metastasis and progression. However, the role of NME1 in virus-infected cells remains unknown. Here, we showed that NME1 suppresses viral replication in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells. NME1-enhanced p53-mediated transcriptional activity and induction of interferon-inducible antiviral genes expression. FMDV infection decreased NME1 protein expression. The 2B and VP4 proteins were identified as the viral factors that induced reduction of NME1. FMDV 2B protein has a suppressive effect on host protein expression. We measured, for the first time, VP4-induced lysosomal degradation of host protein; VP4-induced degradation of NME1 through the macroautophagy pathway, and impaired p53-mediated signaling. p53 plays significant roles in antiviral innate immunity by inducing several interferon-inducible antiviral genes expression, such as, ISG20, IRF9, RIG-I, and ISG15. VP4 promoted interaction of p53 with murine double minute 2 (MDM2) through downregulation of NME1 resulting in destabilization of p53. Therefore, 5-flurouracil-induced upregulation of ISG20, IRF9, RIG-I, and ISG15 were suppressed by VP4. VP4-induced reduction of NME1 was not related to the well-characterized blocking effect of FMDV on cellular translation, and no direct interaction was detected between NME1 and VP4. The 15-30 and 75-85 regions of VP4 were determined to be crucial for VP4-induced reduction of NME1. Deletion of these VP4 regions also inhibited the suppressive effect of VP4 on NME1-enhanced p53 signaling. In conclusion, these data suggest an antiviral role of NME1 by regulation of p53-mediated antiviral innate immunity in virus-infected cells, and reveal an antagonistic mechanism of FMDV that is mediated by VP4 to block host innate immune antiviral response.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Lisossomos/imunologia , Nucleosídeo NM23 Difosfato Quinases/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia
15.
Infect Immun ; 86(11)2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150259

RESUMO

The symptoms of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are attributed largely to two C. difficile toxins, TcdA and TcdB. Significant efforts have been devoted to developing vaccines targeting both toxins through parenteral immunization routes. However, C. difficile is an enteric pathogen, and mucosal/oral immunization would be particularly useful to protect the host against CDI, considering that the gut is the main site of disease onset and progression. Moreover, vaccines directed only against toxins do not target the cells and spores that transmit the disease. Previously, we constructed a chimeric vaccine candidate, mTcd138, comprised of the glucosyltransferase and cysteine proteinase domains of TcdB and the receptor binding domain of TcdA. In this study, to develop an oral vaccine that can target both C. difficile toxins and colonization/adhesion factors, we expressed mTcd138 in a nontoxigenic C. difficile (NTCD) strain, resulting in strain NTCD_mTcd138. Oral immunization with spores of NTCD_mTcd138 provided mice full protection against infection with a hypervirulent C. difficile strain, UK6 (ribotype 027). The protective strength and efficacy of NTCD_mTcd138 were further evaluated in the acute CDI hamster model. Oral immunization with spores of NTCD_mTcd138 also provided hamsters significant protection against infection with 2 × 104 UK6 spores, a dose 200-fold higher than the lethal dose of UK6 in hamsters. These results imply that the genetically modified, nontoxigenic C. difficile strain expressing mTcd138 may represent a novel mucosal vaccine candidate against CDI.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Clostridium difficile/imunologia , Enterotoxinas/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/imunologia , Clostridium difficile/genética , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterotoxinas/genética , Camundongos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
16.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 940, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867849

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) has recently caused many vesicular diseases in pigs in different regions and countries. As a newly causative agent of porcine vesicular disease, SVV has evolved and spread quickly. It causes clinical signs similar to those of foot-and-mouth disease and results in significant economic losses. An increasing number of SVV outbreaks were reported in 2016 and 2017 in Brazil, United States, and China. However, few diagnostic methods have been established and no commercial vaccine has been available until now. Therefore, more attention needs to be paid to SVV, and urgent surveillance should be performed to prevent the spread of this virus. Although recent research has shed some light on SVV, there are still many aspects of the virus and the disease that are not yet fully understood, and many questions need to be resolved. This review presents current knowledge concerning SVV infection, epidemiology, pathogenicity, immune response, and diagnostic methods. This information will aid the design and adoption of effective prevention and control strategies to counter this viral pathogen.

17.
FASEB J ; : fj201701351, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906248

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious virus that affects cloven-hoofed animals. To understand better the role of nonstructural protein 2B of the causative agent FMD virus (FMDV) in the process of virus replication, we identified a porcine host protein, cyclophilin A (CypA), which interacts with FMDV 2B. The 2B-CypA interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. CypA showed antiviral functions during FMDV infection. Overexpression of CypA decreased FMDV leader protein (Lpro) and 3A at protein levels. CypA-induced reduction of Lpro enhanced the synthesis of host proteins and increased the integrality of host eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)-4γ (eIF4G). The reduction of Lpro and 3A was dependent on the proteasome pathway. No interaction was identified between CypA and Lpro or 3A. However, CypA-induced reduction of Lpro and 3A was suppressed by 2B, and disruption of 2B-CypA interaction impaired this inhibitive effect induced by 2B. In summary, our findings identify the antiviral role of CypA against FMDV and provide key insights into how FMDV antagonizes host antiviral response by 2B protein.-Liu, H., Xue, Q., Cao, W., Yang, F., Ma, L., Liu, W., Zhang, K., Liu, X., Zhu, Z., Zheng, H. Foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein 2B interacts with cyclophilin A, modulating virus replication.

18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1142, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887867

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, severe viral illness notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health. The causative agent, FMD virus (FMDV), replicates rapidly and efficiently inhibits host translation and the innate immune response for it has developed multiple tactics to evade host defenses and takes over gene expression machinery in the host cell. Here, we report a systemic analysis of the proteome and phosphoproteome of FMDV-infected cells. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that FMDV infection shuts off host cap-dependent translation, but leaves intact internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation for viral proteins. Interestingly, several FMDV IRES-transacting factors, including G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1 (G3BP1), were dephosphorylated during FMDV infection. Ectopic expression of G3BP1 inhibited FMDV IRES activity, promoted assembly of stress granules, and activated innate immune responses, collectively suppressing FMDV replication. To counteract these host protective responses, FMDV-induced dephosphorylation of G3BP1, compromising its inhibitory effect on viral IRES. In addition, FMDV also proteolytically cleaved G3BP1 by its 3C protease (3Cpro). G3BP1 was cleaved at glutamic acid-284 (E284) by FMDV 3Cpro, and this cleavage completely lost the abilities of G3BP1 to activate innate immunity and to inhibit FMDV replication. Together, these data provide new insights into the post-translational mechanisms by which FMDV limits host stress and antiviral responses and indicate that G3BP1 dephosphorylation and its proteolysis by viral protease are important factors in the failure of host defense against FMDV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa/fisiologia , Febre Aftosa/metabolismo , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Genes Reporter , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Imunidade Inata , Fosfoproteínas , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas com Motivo de Reconhecimento de RNA/metabolismo , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Replicação Viral
19.
Vaccine ; 36(6): 841-846, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310900

RESUMO

Seneca Valley virus (SVV) infection in pigs is associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). Outbreaks of SVV infection in pig herds have been reported in several Asia and Americas countries. Recently, a series of outbreaks of SVV infection occurred in China, Canada, Thailand and the United States. However, no available vaccines have been developed to limit the transmission of SVV. The SVV CH-FJ-2017 from Fujian province in China is a representative of the epidemic strains, and shows 98.5-99.9% capsid protein amino acid identity with the recent SVV strains. In the present study, we developed a SVV CH-FJ-2017 inactivated vaccine. The SVV was produced by cultivation of BHK-21 cells in roller bottles, inactivated with binary ethylenimine, and mixed with oil adjuvant (Montanide ISA). The immunogenicity of the inactivated vaccine in pigs was evaluated by neutralizing test, and the immunized pigs were challenged with SVV CH-FJ-2017. The results showed that animals receiving one dose of the inactivated vaccine (2 µg/dose) with oil adjuvant developed high neutralizing antibody titers and showed no clinical signs after virus challenge comparing with the non-vaccinated animals, indicating a good protective efficacy of the produced vaccine against SVV infection. This is the first reported SVV vaccine that can be used for control of SVV infection in pigs.


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Imunização , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
20.
Gene ; 632: 25-35, 2017 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844670

RESUMO

Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) plays a critical role in catalyzing the conversion of trimethylamine (TMA) to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in vivo. Despite the well-documented association between FMO3 mutations and a 'fishy' off-flavor eggs in chicken and quail, little information is available regarding the molecular characteristic of goose (Anser cygnoides) FMO3 and its relationship with the yolk TMA content. To fill these gaps, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of goose FMO3, which comprised 1851bp encoding 531 amino acids. FMO3 mRNA was dramatically expressed in liver than in other tissues in the geese. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the entire coding region. The CC genotype at the T669C site, GG at the A723G site, and AA at the G734A site of FMO3 were highly significantly associated with elevated TMA content in goose egg yolk (P<0.001). Carriers of the A allele of G734A or C allele of T885C had yolk TMA content that had a high probability of being elevated after feeding with additional choline chloride (P=0.0429, OR=4.1300, 95%CI=1.0390-16.4270, and P=0.0251, OR=4.6060, 95%CI=1.1620-18.2620, respectively). This work lays a foundation for studying the function of FMO3 and yolk TMA content in goose. However, studies using larger sample sizes and more goose breeds are required to determine whether the fishy off-flavor trait exists in goose.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Gansos/genética , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Ovos/análise , Ovos/normas , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Oxigenases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
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