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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2006459, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475199

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to assemble ultrasmall metal chalcogenides (with atomic precision) into functional materials with the required anisotropy and uniformity, on a micro- or even macroscale. Here, a delicate yet simple chemistry is developed to produce a silver-sulfur network microplate with a high monodispersity in size and morphology. Spanning from the atomic, molecular, to nanometer, to micrometer scale, the key structural evolution of the obtained microplates includes 2D confinement growth, edge-sharing growth mode, and thermodynamically driven layer-by-layer stacking, all of which are derived from the [AgS4 ] tetrahedron unit. The key to such a high hierarchical, complex, and accurate assembly is the dense deprotonated ligand layer on the surface of the microplates, forming an infinite surface with high negative charge density. This feature operates at an orderly distance to allow further hierarchical self-assembly on the microscale to generate columnar assemblies composed of microplate components, thereby endowing the feature of the 1D photonic reflector to water (i.e., photonic water). The reflective color of the resulting photonic water is highly dependent on the thickness of the building blocks (i.e., silver-sulfur microplates), and the coexistent order and fluidity help to form robust photonic water.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 270: 113792, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422656

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cisplatin (CP), one of the most commonly used antitumor drugs in clinic, could induce reproductive and genetic toxicity. Traditional Chinese medicine believed that this side effect might be caused by the deficiency of both qi and blood. Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (PN) is a traditional precious Chinese medicine for nourishing blood and hemostasis, which had the synergistic antitumor and reducing toxicity effects. However, the protective effect and mechanism of PN on CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity were still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to illuminate the possible protective effect and mechanism of PN on CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Network pharmacology was first applied to analyze the potential components and targets of PN against CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity. Then, the results of network pharmacology were validated in a mouse model of reproductive and genotoxicity induced by CP. Body weight, testis weight, epididymis weight, sperm count, sperm viability and sperm morphology were used to assess protective effects of PN on CP-induced reproductive toxicity. Tail moment in peripheral blood cells and micronucleus in bone marrow cells were used to assess protective effects of PN on CP-induced genetic toxicity. Finally, possible protective targets obtained from network pharmacology, including 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), were experimentally validated by ELISA. RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen components of PN and sixty-eight targets of reproductive/genetic toxicity were acquired and constituted as the component-target network. Network pharmacology analysis showed alleviating oxidative stress might play important role in therapeutic mechanism of PN. In verified experiments, PN significantly improved the decline of body weight, testis weight and epididymis weight, increased sperm count and viability, decreased abnormal sperm morphology rate induced by CP in mice. Moreover, PN also significantly decreased the tail moment in peripheral blood cells and micronucleus formation rate in bone marrow cells in CP-induced mice. Finally, not only the decrease of T-SOD and GSH-Px level but also the increase of 8-OHdG and MDA level in serum were restored under PN treatment. CONCLUSION: Current study found that PN could improve CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity, which were probably attributed to alleviating oxidative stress. This finding provided the new perspective for understanding the therapeutic effect of PN on CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity and facilitating the clinical use of PN.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(21): 2002518, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173749

RESUMO

Tamoxifen remains the most effective treatment for estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. However, many patients still develop resistance to tamoxifen in association with metastatic recurrence, which presents a tremendous clinical challenge. To better understand tamoxifen resistance from the perspective of the tumor microenvironment, the whole microenvironment landscape is charted by single-cell RNA sequencing and a new cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) subset, CD63+ CAFs, is identified that promotes tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. Furthermore, it is discovered that CD63+ CAFs secrete exosomes rich in miR-22, which can bind its targets, ERα and PTEN, to confer tamoxifen resistance on breast cancer cells. Additionally, it is found that the packaging of miR-22 into CD63+ CAF-derived exosomes is mediated by SFRS1. Furthermore, CD63 induces STAT3 activation to maintain the phenotype and function of CD63+ CAFs. Most importantly, the pharmacological blockade of CD63+ CAFs with a CD63-neutralizing antibody or cRGD-miR-22-sponge nanoparticles enhances the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen in breast cancer. In summary, the study reveals a novel subset of CD63+ CAFs that induces tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer via exosomal miR-22, suggesting that CD63+ CAFs may be a novel therapeutic target to enhance tamoxifen sensitivity.

4.
Stem Cells Int ; 2020: 8822609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133195

RESUMO

Tendon injury is a common but tough medical problem. Unsatisfactory clinical results have been reported in tendon repair using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy, creating a need for a better strategy to induce MSCs to tenogenic differentiation. This study was designed to examine the effect of hypoxia on the tenogenic differentiation of different MSCs and their tenogenic differentiation capacities under hypoxia condition in vitro and to investigate the in vivo inductility of hypoxia in tenogenesis. Adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AMSCs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) were isolated and characterized. The expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (Hif-1α) was examined to confirm the establishment of hypoxia condition. qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the expression of tendon-associated marker Col-1a1, Col-3a1, Dcn, and Tnmd in AMSCs and BMSCs under hypoxia condition, compared with Tgf-ß1 induction. In vivo, a patellar tendon injury model was established. Normoxic and hypoxic BMSCs were cultured and implanted. Histological, biomechanical, and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to assess the improved healing effect of hypoxic BMSCs on tendon injury. Our in vitro results showed that hypoxia remarkably increased the expression of Hif-1α and that hypoxia not only promoted a significant increase in tenogenic markers in both AMSCs and BMSCs compared with the normoxia group but also showed higher inductility compared with Tgf-ß1. In addition, hypoxic BMSCs exhibited higher potential of tenogenic differentiation than hypoxic AMSCs. Our in vivo results demonstrated that hypoxic BMSCs possessed better histological and biomechanical properties than normoxic BMSCs, as evidenced by histological scores, patellar tendon biomechanical parameters, and the range and average of collagen fibril diameters. These findings suggested that hypoxia may be a practical and reliable strategy to induce tenogenic differentiation of BMSCs for tendon repair and could enhance the effectiveness of MSCs therapy in treating tendon injury.

5.
Front Genet ; 11: 582637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240328

RESUMO

Exome sequencing has become an effective diagnostic method for Mendelian disorders. But the quality of services differs widely across laboratories in China, particularly in variant classification, even with the adoption of the ACMG guidelines. As an effort of quality control and improvement for better clinical utilization of exome sequencing, we assessed the exome data analysis and clinical reporting among Chinese laboratories. Five raw datasets of real clinical samples with associated phenotypes were sent to 53 laboratories. The participants independently performed secondary analysis, variant classification, and reporting. The first round of results was used for identifying problems associated with these aspects. Subsequently, we implemented several corrective actions and a training program was designed based on the identified issues. A second round of five datasets were sent to the same participants. We compared the performances in variant interpretation and reporting. A total of 85.7% (42/49) of participants correctly identified all the variants related with phenotype. Many lines of evidence using the ACMG guidelines were incorrectly utilized, which resulted in a large inter-laboratory discrepancy. After training, the evidence usage problems significantly improved, leading to a more consistent outcome. Participants improved their exome data analysis and clinical reporting capability. Targeted training and a deeper understanding of the ACMG guidelines helped to improve the clinical exome sequencing service in terms of consistency and accuracy in variant classification in China.

6.
IUBMB Life ; 72(12): 2611-2626, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135306

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, life-threatening lung disease with a poor prognosis. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a critical negative regulator of fibrosis development. However, it's extremely short half-life greatly limits its applications. Previously, we reported an Ac-SDKP analog peptide in which Asp and Lys residues were replaced with D-amino acids (Ac-SDD KD P). Ac-SDD KD P exhibits better resistance to angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE)-mediated degradation and a longer half-life than Ac-SDKP in rat and human sera. The objective of this study was to explore the potential application of Ac-SDD KD P for the treatment of IPF and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. We found that Ac-SDD KD P exerted similar antifibrotic effects as Ac-SDKP on human fetal lung fibroblast-1 (HFL-1) proliferation, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I and collagen III expression, and Smad-2 phosphorylation in vitro. In vivo, Ac-SDD KD P exhibited significantly greater protective effects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis than Ac-SDKP in mice. α-SMA, CD45, collagen I and collagen III expression, and Smad-2 phosphorylation were significantly decreased in the lungs of Ac-SDD KD P-treated but not Ac-SDKP-treated mice. Furthermore, a pull-down experiment was used to screen for molecules that interact with Ac-SDKP. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and computer-based molecular docking experiments demonstrated an interaction between Ac-SDKP or Ac-SDD KD P (Ac-SDKP/Ac-SDD KD P) and serine/arginine-rich protein-specific kinase 1 (SRPK1) that caused inhibition SRPK1-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/ serine/threonine kinase (PIK3/AKT) signaling pathway activation and Smad2 phosphorylation and thereby attenuated lung fibrosis. Our data suggest that long-acting Ac-SDD KD P may potentially be an effective drug for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. The interacting molecule and antifibrotic mechanism of Ac-SDKP/Ac-SDD KD P were also identified, providing an experimental and theoretical foundation for the clinical application of the drug.

7.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prominent molecular signaling in acupoints and explore their roles in initiating the analgesia effect of manual acupuncture (MA). METHOD: A three-step study was conducted, the experiment 1 was a genome-wide analysis of the tissue at acupoint Zusanli (ST 36), including 12 Wistar rats which were divided into control, control+MA1, and control+MA7 groups. In the experiment 2, the paw withdrawal latency (PWL), immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of phospho-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) p65 (p-p65), phospho-NFκB p50 (p-p50) at ST 36 were performed on rats of saline, saline+MA, and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)+MA groups (n=6). In experiment 3, 24 rats were divided into saline+DMSO, CFA+DMSO, CFA+DMSO+MA, and CFA+BAY 11-7082+MA groups, the PWL and immunofluorescence assay of NFκB p65 at ST 36 was conducted. RESULT: (1) The gene: inhibitor of NFκB (Nfkbia), interleukin-1ß (Il1b), interleukin-6 (Il6), chemokine c-x-c motif ligand 1 (Cxcl1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2) expressions in the control+MA7 group were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the expression of NFκB p65 (Rela), NFκB p50 (Nfkb1) were increased in the control+MA7 group (P<0.05). (2) CFA+MA groups showed increased PWL from day 1 to 7 (P<0.01 vs. CFA), and the Western blot results were consistent with immunohistochemistry, the expression of NFκB p-p65 and NFκB p-p50 were significantly increased in the MA-related groups compared with control and CFA groups (P<0.05). (3) Compared with the CFA+DMSO+MA group, the PWL of the CFA+ BAY 11-7082+MA group decreased significantly and continued until day 5 and 7 (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), and the NFκB p65 expression of CFA+BAY 11-7082+MA was significantly reduced compared with CFA+DMSO+MA (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Local NFκB signaling cascade in acupoint caused by MA is an important step in initiating the analgesic effect, which would provide new evidence for the initiation of MA-effect and improve the understanding of the scientific basis of acupuncture analgesia.

8.
Innovation (N Y) ; : 100060, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169118

RESUMO

We report a case series of ozonated autohemotherapy of four COVID-19 patients, classified as critically ill (1 patient), severe (1 patient), and moderate (2 patients). Each ozonated autohemotherapy treatment was performed at a concentration of 40 µg/ml of ozone per 100 ml of blood. The number of treatments varied from 1 to 9 depending on the disease severity. All 4 patients, including 1 critically ill patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and life-threatening refractory hypoxemia, recovered uneventfully and were discharged from the hospital after viral clearance. The younger sibling of the critically ill patient was also diagnosed with COVID-19 and developed ARDS with hypoxemia, who received mechanical ventilation through an endotracheal tube and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. The overall medical cost for 18 days spent in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 56 days of hospitalization was $139,935 USD. On the other hand, our critically ill patient underwent 9 ozonated autohemotherapy treatments and spent 10 days in the ICU and was discharged on hospital day 30; his hospitalization cost amounted to $15,466.50 USD. This case series suggests that ozonated autohemotherapy may be an alternative noninvasive medical treatment for COVID-19 patients.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19196, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154542

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred imaging method for diagnosing 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID19) pneumonia. We aimed to construct a system based on deep learning for detecting COVID-19 pneumonia on high resolution CT. For model development and validation, 46,096 anonymous images from 106 admitted patients, including 51 patients of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and 55 control patients of other diseases in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were retrospectively collected. Twenty-seven prospective consecutive patients in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were collected to evaluate the efficiency of radiologists against 2019-CoV pneumonia with that of the model. An external test was conducted in Qianjiang Central Hospital to estimate the system's robustness. The model achieved a per-patient accuracy of 95.24% and a per-image accuracy of 98.85% in internal retrospective dataset. For 27 internal prospective patients, the system achieved a comparable performance to that of expert radiologist. In external dataset, it achieved an accuracy of 96%. With the assistance of the model, the reading time of radiologists was greatly decreased by 65%. The deep learning model showed a comparable performance with expert radiologist, and greatly improved the efficiency of radiologists in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Small ; 16(40): e2004548, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881381

RESUMO

Tumor vasculature and cancer stem cells (CSCs) accelerate the development of metastatic renal cancer. Dual inhibition of vascular endothelium and CSCs is still a challenge due to their different pathological features. Herein, a transformable dual-inhibition system (TDS) based on a self-assembly peptide is proposed to construct nanofibrous barriers on the cell membrane in situ, which contributes to 1) reducing endothelial permeability and angiogenesis; and 2) inhibiting stemness and metastasis of CSCs in renal cancer. TDS specifically targets overexpressed receptor CD105 that provides the possibility to modulate both endothelial cells and CSCs for cancer therapy. Subsequently, owing to ligand-receptor interaction-induced transformation, the nanofibers form a barrier on the cell membrane. For vascular endothelium, TDS reduces the vascular permeability to 67.0% ± 4.7% and decreases angiogenesis to 62.0% ± 4.0%, thereby preventing the renal cancer metastasis. For human-derived CSCs, TDS inhibits stemness by reducing endogenic miR-19b and its transportation via CSCs-derived exosomes, which increases PTEN expression and consequently suppresses CSCs-mediated metastasis. In patient-derived xenograft mice, TDS significantly inhibits the tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. It also reduces the metastatic nodules in lung 5.0-fold compared with the control group. TDS opens up a promising avenue for suppressing the metastasis of cancer.

11.
Front Physiol ; 11: 729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733267

RESUMO

Background: Cardiac re-expression of fetal genes in patients with heart failure (HF) suggests the presence of low cardiac tissue thyroid hormone (TH) function. However, serum concentrations of T3 and T4 are often normal or subclinically low, necessitating an alternative serum biomarker for low cardiac TH function to guide treatment of these patients. The clinical literature suggests that serum Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) levels are inversely associated with serum triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) levels. The objective of this study was to investigate BNP as a potential serum biomarker for TH function in the heart. Methods: Two animal models of thyroid hormone deficiency: (1) 8-weeks of propyl thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism (Hypo) in adult female rats were subsequently treated with oral T3 (10 µg/kg/d) for 3, 6, or 14 days; (2) HF induced by coronary artery ligation (myocardial infarction, MI) in adult female rats was treated daily with low dose oral T3 (5 µg/kg/d) for 8 or 16 wks. Results: Six days of T3 treatment of Hypo rats normalized most cardiac functional parameters. Serum levels of BNP increased 5-fold in Hypo rats, while T3 treatment normalized BNP by day 14, showing a significant inverse relationship between serum BNP and free or total T3 concentrations. Myocardial BNP mRNA was increased 2.5-fold in Hypo rats and its expression was decreased to normal values by 14 days of T3 treatment. Measurements of hemodynamic function showed significant dysfunction in MI rats after 16 weeks, with serum BNP increased by 4.5-fold and serum free and total T3 decreased significantly. Treatment with T3 decreased serum BNP while increasing total T3 indicating an inverse correlation between these two biologic factors (r 2 = 0.676, p < 0.001). Myocardial BNP mRNA was increased 5-fold in MI rats which was significantly decreased by T3 over 8 to 16 week treatment periods. Conclusions: Results from the two models of TH dysfunction confirmed an inverse relationship between tissue and serum T3 and BNP, such that the reduction in serum BNP could potentially be utilized to monitor efficacy and dosing of T3 treatment. Thus, serum BNP may serve as a reliable biomarker for cardiac TH function.

12.
Sci Adv ; 6(22): eaaz4107, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766439

RESUMO

Platelets play a critical role in the regulation of coagulation, one of the essential processes in life, attracting great attention. However, mimicking platelets for in vivo artificial coagulation is still a great challenge due to the complexity of the process. Here, we design platelet-like nanoparticles (pNPs) based on self-assembled peptides that initiate coagulation and form clots in blood vessels. The pNPs first bind specifically to a membrane glycoprotein (i.e., CD105) overexpressed on angiogenetic endothelial cells in the tumor site and simultaneously transform into activated platelet-like nanofibers (apNFs) through ligand-receptor interactions. Next, the apNFs expose more binding sites and recruit and activate additional pNPs, forming artificial clots in both phantom and animal models. The pNPs are proven to be safe in mice without systemic coagulation. The self-assembling peptides mimic platelets and achieve artificial coagulation in vivo, thus providing a promising therapeutic strategy for tumors.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802117

RESUMO

Manual acupuncture (MA) can effectively treat a variety of diseases, but its specific mechanism remains unclear. The "acupoint network" activated by MA participates in MA signal transduction, in which immune-related cells and cytokines play an important role. However, which cells and cytokines in the acupoint have changed after MA? What is the network relationship between them? Which cells and cytokines may play the most important role in MA effect? These problems are unclear. In this study, on the basis of affirming the analgesic, detumescence, and anti-inflammatory effect of MA, the concentration of 24 cytokines in ST36 acupoint in rats with inflammatory pain after MA treatment was detected by multiplex immunoassay technology. Then, using statistical and complex network and cell-cell communication (CCC) network diagram method to analyze the detected data depicts the network relationship between the cytokines and related cells objectively and establishes cytokine connection network and CCC network, respectively. The results showed that MA reinforced communication intensity between cells while reducing the overall correlation intensity. On this basis, the key cytokines and key cells at three MA time-points were screened out, cytokines IL-6, MCP-1, fibroblasts cell, and monocyte macrophage screened by the three methods at three MA time-points might be the key cytokines or key cells. After that, we detected the macrophages in ST36 acupoint by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence and found that the relative amount of macrophages increased significantly after MA, especially the macrophage of the dermis of skin. This study provided a basis for revealing the initiated mechanism of MA effect.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803209

RESUMO

Efficient production of cyclic polymers has been a hot topic in the past few decades. In this work, we found that an adsorptive porous template with an appropriate size has the capability to accelerate the ring closure of a linear polymer chain in a dilute solution with a higher yield. The restricted pore provides a confined space and the effect of its characteristics, such as pore size, shape and adsorption strength on cyclization time, is systematically studied by using dissipative particle dynamics simulations. As a prerequisite of cyclization in confinement, the entry process of linear precursors has been studied as well. Total production time is governed by a tradeoff between the size effect caused by decreasing the size of the pore and the adsorption of the pore. The strong size effect suppresses polymer entry but accelerates cyclization. The stronger adsorption promotes polymer entry but decelerates cyclization. According to our defined total production time, a small spherical confinement with strong adsorption results in a shorter total production time of cyclic polymers compared to that in free solution. If chain cyclization is permitted during its entering the confinement, the interplay between steric hindrance caused by pore size and adsorption provides an additional 'virtual' confinement at the boundary between confinement and free solution. In this case, an optimal cyclization time is observed with an appropriate adsorption strength under small confinement. Our results provide useful guidance for designing suitable porous templates for producing cyclic polymers with high efficiency.

15.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113247, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622169

RESUMO

The effect of light therapy in treating seasonal affective disorder has been demonstrated amongst previous studies. However, the effect of light therapy in treating non-seasonal depression remains unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy of light therapy in non-seasonal depression. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedical Database up to February 2020. The pooled post-trial standardized mean difference in depression scores with corresponding 95% confidence intervals was calculated to evaluate the efficacy of light therapy in non-seasonal depression. A total of 23 RCTs with 1120 participants were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated the light therapy was significantly more effective than comparative treatments. Subgroup analyses revealed that none of the factors explained the significantly heterogeneity. Light therapy has a statistically significant mild to moderate treatment effect in reducing depressive symptoms, can be used as a clinical therapy in treating non-seasonal depression. But the quality of evidence is still low, more well-designed studies with larger sample size and high quality are needed to confirm the efficiency of light therapy in treating non-seasonal depression.

16.
J Leukoc Biol ; 108(1): 189-198, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645257

RESUMO

Acupuncture is a centuried and unfading treatment of traditional Chinese medicine, which has been proved to exert curative effects on various disorders. Numerous works have been put in to uncover the effective mechanisms of acupuncture. And the interdependent interaction between acupuncture and acupoint microenvironment is a crucial topic. As a benign minimally invasive stimulation, the insertion and manipulation of needle at acupoint could cause deformation of local connective tissue and secretion of various molecules, such as high mobility group box 1 and ATP. The molecules are secreted into extracellular space and bind to the corresponding receptors thus active NF-κB, MAPK, ERK pathways on mast cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, among others. This is supposed to trigger following transcription and translation of immune factors and neural active substance, as well as promote the free ion movement (such as Ca2+ influx) and the expansion of blood vessels to recruit more immune cells to acupoint. Finally, acupuncture could enhance network connectivity of local microenvironment at acupoints. The earlier mentioned substances further act on a variety of receptors in local nerve endings, transmitting electrical and biochemical signals to the CNS, and giving full play to the acupuncture action. In conclusion, we portrayed a neuro-immune microenvironment network of acupoints that medicates the acupuncture action, and would lay a foundation for the systematic study of the complex network relationship of acupoints in the future.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura , Microambiente Celular/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Humanos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708629

RESUMO

As air pollution becomes highly focused in China, the accurate identification of its influencing factors is critical for achieving effective control and targeted environmental governance. Land-use distribution is one of the key factors affecting air quality, and research on the impact of land-use distribution on air pollution has drawn wide attention. However, considerable studies have mostly used linear regression models, which fail to capture the nonlinear effects of land-use distribution on PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns) and to show how impacts on PM2.5 vary with land-use magnitudes. In addition, related studies have generally focused on annual analyses, ignoring the seasonal variability of the impact of land-use distribution on PM2.5, thus leading to possible estimation biases for PM2.5. This study was designed to address these issues and assess the impacts of land-use distribution on PM2.5 in Weifang, China. A machine learning statistical model, the boosted regression tree (BRT), was applied to measure nonlinear effects of land-use distribution on PM2.5, capture how land-use magnitude impacts PM2.5 across different seasons, and explore the policy implications for urban planning. The main conclusions are that the air quality will significantly improve with an increase in grassland and forest area, especially below 8% and 20%, respectively. When the distribution of construction land is greater than around 10%, the PM2.5 pollution can be seriously substantially increased with the increment of their areas. The impact of gardens and farmland presents seasonal characteristics. It is noted that as the weather becomes colder, the inhibitory effect of vegetation distribution on the PM2.5 concentration gradually decreases, while the positive impacts of artificial surface distributions, such as construction land and roads, are aggravated because leaves drop off in autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February). According to the findings of this study, it is recommended that Weifang should strengthen pollution control in winter, for instance, expand the coverage areas of evergreen vegetation like Pinus bungeana Zucc. and Euonymus japonicus Thunb, and increase the width and numbers of branches connecting different main roads. The findings also provide quantitative and optimal land-use planning and strategies to minimize PM2.5 pollution, referring to the status of regional urbanization and greening construction.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
18.
Sci Adv ; 6(19): eaaz4767, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494712

RESUMO

Using broad-spectrum antibiotics for microbial infection may cause flora disequilibrium, drug-resistance, etc., seriously threatening human health. Here, we design a human defensin-6 mimic peptide (HDMP) that inhibits bacterial invasion in vivo through mimicking the mechanisms of human defensin-6 with high efficiency and precision. The HDMP with ligand and self-assembling peptide sequence recognizes bacteria through ligand-receptor interactions and subsequently traps bacteria by an in situ adaptive self-assembly process and resulting nanofibrous networks; these trapped bacteria are unable to invade host cells. In four animal infection models, the infection rate was markedly decreased. Notably, administration of HDMP (5 mg/kg) nanoparticles increased the survival rate of mice with methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia by as much as 100%, even more than that of vancomycin treatment (5 mg/kg, 83.3%)-treated group, the golden standard of antibiotics. This biomimetic peptide shows great potential as a precise and highly efficient antimicrobial agent.

19.
Bioresour Technol ; 311: 123576, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470867

RESUMO

The potential of the system, a hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor (HABR) coupled with a multi-stage active biological process (MSABP) reactor, for simulated dairy wastewater at various temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and pH was investigated. Percentage removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4+ were optimized using response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions (temperature, 33 °C; HRT, 24 h; pH, 7.35), the removal efficiencies of COD and NH4+ were 99.89% and 97.83%, respectively. Miseq sequencing analysis exhibited that the anaerobic segment of the system was dominated by fermentation and acetogenic bacteria, and in the aerobic segment, microorganisms involved in the nitrogen cycle were significantly enriched. Meanwhile, it could be found that the excess sludge production of the process was much lower than that of other bio-processes. The average excess sludge production rate was 0.025-0.05 g SS/g COD removed under different organic loadings.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
20.
Water Res ; 180: 115813, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438139

RESUMO

In this study, a novel coupling process with partial nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) (PNA) and sulfur autotrophic denitrification (SAD) was studied using an upflow biofilm reactor with mechanical vibration. At a lower dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration (0.40 ±â€¯0.20 mg L-1), ammonia could be efficiently removed from synthetic wastewater by the coupling system with a total nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of 98% and an influent NH4+-N concentration of 600 mg L-1. In this system, the nitrate, which was produced during the anammox reaction, could be timely reduced by the SAD reaction. Compared with the conventional PNA and SAD processes, coupling the PNA and SAD processes in a single reactor prevented nitrite accumulation in the SAD reaction and reduced the total sulfate production by 59%. The high-throughput sequencing analysis supported that the SAD bacteria (Thiobacillus) and anammox bacteria (Candidatus Kuenenia) could coexist on the elemental sulfur stone. Additionally, sulfur consumption and sulfate production were increased under a high DO concentration. The sulfate production/nitrate reduction ratio and changing profile of the substrate suggested that the short-cut SAD process mainly occurred in this coupling system. Otherwise, batch experiments also suggested that the nitrite removal rate in the anammox process was 34.5 times higher than that in the SAD process. The outcomes of these experiments revealed that most of the nitrite, as an intermediate product in the SAD reaction, served as an electron acceptor for the anammox reaction. A stoichiometric calculation of this coupling process indicated that the novel reaction scheme with a high NRE was successfully achieved. Under an ideal short-cut SAD process, almost 55% of the sulfur consumption could be reduced in this coupling system. The coupling system provides a new perspective for nitrogen removal in a single reactor and further promotes anammox and SAD performance in wastewater treatment processes.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Desnitrificação , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Enxofre , Águas Residuárias
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