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1.
J Psychiatr Res ; 177: 11-23, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964090

RESUMO

Although several studies have examined the relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the Big Five personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis comprehensively examined the relationships between OCD and these traits. In total, 23 studies (29 independent datasets) with 30,138 participants were analyzed. The pooled effect size was 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28, 0.40) for neuroticism, -0.14 (95% CI: -0.18, -0.10) for extraversion, -0.04 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.02) for openness, -0.10 (95% CI: -0.16, -0.04) for agreeableness, and -0.03 (95% CI: -0.11, 0.05) for conscientiousness, indicating that OCD was associated with higher scores for neuroticism and lower scores for extraversion and agreeableness. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses indicated that heterogeneity was mainly due to differences in sample types and OCD measurement instruments. Sensitivity analysis showed that the results of the meta-analysis were robust. Overall, neuroticism was a maladaptive trait, whereas extraversion and agreeableness were adaptive traits for OCD. Although the results could be sample- and instrument-specific, our findings may inform preventions and interventions for OCD symptoms.

2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 276: 116639, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964259

RESUMO

Since influenza virus RNA polymerase subunit PAN is a dinuclear Mn2+ dependent endonuclease, metal-binding pharmacophores (MBPs) with Mn2+ coordination has been elucidated as a promising strategy to develop PAN inhibitors for influenza treatment. However, few attentions have been paid to the relationship between the optimal arrangement of the donor atoms in MBPs and anti-influenza A virus (IAV) efficacy. Given that, the privileged hydroxypyridinones fusing a seven-membered lactam ring with diverse side chains, chiral centers or cyclic systems were designed and synthesized. A structure-activity relationship study resulted in a hit compound 16l (IC50 = 2.868 ± 0.063 µM against IAV polymerase), the seven-membered lactam ring of which was fused a pyrrolidine ring. Further optimization of the hydrophobic binding groups on 16l afforded a lead compound (R, S)-16s, which exhibited a 64-fold more potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.045 ± 0.002 µM) toward IAV polymerase. Moreover, (R, S)-16s demonstrated a potent anti-IAV efficacy (EC50 = 0.134 ± 0.093 µM) and weak cytotoxicity (CC50 = 15.35 µM), indicating the high selectivity of (R, S)-16s. Although the lead compound (R, S)-16s exhibited a little weaker activity than baloxavir, these findings illustrated the utility of a metal coordination-based strategy in generating novel MBPs with potent anti-influenza activity.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; : 133631, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964688

RESUMO

Controllable heparin-release is of great importance and necessity for the precise anticoagulant regulation. Efforts have been made on designing heparin-releasing systems, while, it remains a great challenge for gaining the external-stimuli responsive heparin-release in either intravenous or catheter delivery. In this study, an azobenzene-containing ammonium surfactant is designed and synthesized for the fabrication of photoresponsive heparin ionic complexes through the electrostatic complexation with heparin. Under the assistance of photoinduced trans-cis isomerization of azobenzene, the obtained heparin materials perform reversible athermal phase transition between ordered crystalline and isotropic liquid state at room temperature. Compared to the ordered state, the formation of isotropic state can effectively improve the dissolving of heparin from ionic materials in aqueous condition, which realizes the photo-modulation on the concentration of free heparin molecules. With good biocompatibility, such a heparin-releasing system addresses photoresponsive anticoagulation in both in vitro and in vivo biological studies, confirming its great potential clinical values. This work provides a new designing strategy for gaining anticoagulant regulation by light, also opening new opportunities for the development of photoresponsive drugs and biomedical materials based on biomolecules.

4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2404558, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965690

RESUMO

Harmonic generation and utilization are significant topics in nonlinear science. Although the progress in the microwave region has been expedited by the development of time-modulated metasurfaces, one major issue of these devices is the strong entanglement of multiple harmonics, leading to criticism of their use in frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) applications. Previous studies have attempted to overcome this limitation, but they suffer from designing complexity or insufficient controlling capability. Here a new space-time-coding metasurface (STCM) is proposed to independently and precisely synthesize not only the phases but also the amplitudes of various harmonics. This promising feature is successfully demonstrated in wireless space- and frequency-division multiplexing experiments, where modulated and unmodulated signals are simultaneously transmitted via different harmonics using a shared STCM. To illustrate the advantages, binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation schemes are respectively implemented. Behind the intriguing functionality, the mechanism of the space-time coding strategy and the analytical designing method are elaborated, which are validated numerically and experimentally. It is believed that the achievements can potentially propel the time-vary metasurfaces in the next-generation wireless applications.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2305353, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965806

RESUMO

A fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in biological invasions is crucial to developing effective risk assessment and control measures against invasive species. The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a highly invasive pest that has rapidly spread from its native Americas into much of the Eastern Hemisphere, with a highly homogeneous nuclear genetic background. However, the exact mechanism behind its rapid introduction and propagation remains unclear. Here, a systematic investigation is conducted into the population dynamics of FAW in China from 2019 to 2021 and found that FAW individuals carrying "rice" mitochondria (FAW-mR) are more prevalent (>98%) than that with "corn" mitochondria (FAW-mC) at the initial stage of the invasion and in newly-occupied non-overwintering areas. Further fitness experiments show that the two hybrid-strains of FAW exhibit different adaptions in the new environment in China, and this may have been facilitated by amino acid changes in mitochondrial-encoded proteins. FAW-mR used increases energy metabolism, faster wing-beat frequencies, and lower wing loadings to drive greater flight performance and subsequent rapid colonization of new habitats. In contrast, FAW-mC individuals adapt with more relaxed mitochondria and shuttle energetics into maternal investment, observed as faster development rate and higher fecundity. The presence of two different mitochondria types within FAW has the potential to significantly expand the range of damage and enhance competitive advantage. Overall, the study describes a novel invasion mechanism displayed by the FAW population that facilitates its expansion and establishment in new environments.

6.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; : 1-15, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967384

RESUMO

The gut microbiota features an abundance of diverse microorganisms and represents an important component of human physiology and metabolic homeostasis, indicating their roles in a wide array of physiological and pathological processes in the host. Maintaining balance in the gut microbiota is critical for normal functionality as microbial dysbiosis can lead to the occurrence and development of diseases through various mechanisms. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that perform important regulatory functions for many processes. Furthermore, the gut microbiota and lncRNAs/circRNAs are known to interact in a range of both physiological and pathological activities. In this article, we review existing research relevant to the interaction between the gut microbiota and lncRNAs/circRNAs and investigate the role of their crosstalk in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Studies have shown that, the gut microbiota can target lncRNAs ENO1-IT1, BFAL1, and LINC00152 to regulate colorectal cancer development via various signaling pathways. In addition, the gut microbiota can influence mental diseases and lung tumor metastasis by modulating circRNAs such as circNF1-419, circ_0001239, circHIPK2 and mmu_circ_0000730. These findings provide a theoretical basis for disease prevention and treatment and suggest that gut microbiota-lncRNA/circRNA crosstalk has high clinical value.

7.
Explor Target Antitumor Ther ; 5(3): 641-677, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966172

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is the tenth most common malignancy globally. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a major type of BC, and advanced UC (aUC) is associated with poor clinical outcomes and limited survival rates. Current options for aUC treatment mainly include chemotherapy and immunotherapy. These options have moderate efficacy and modest impact on overall survival and thus highlight the need for novel therapeutic approaches. aUC patients harbor a high tumor mutation burden and abundant molecular alterations, which are the basis for targeted therapies. Erdafitinib is currently the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved targeted therapy for aUC. Many potential targeted therapeutics aiming at other molecular alterations are under investigation. This review summarizes the current understanding of molecular alterations associated with aUC targeted therapy. It also comprehensively discusses the related interventions for treatment in clinical research and the potential of using novel targeted drugs in combination therapy.

8.
Pharm Res ; 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955997

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polysorbates are among the most used surfactants in biopharmaceutical products containing proteins. Our work aims to develop a high-throughput fluorometric assay to further diversify the analytical toolbox for quantification of PSs. METHOD: The assay leverages the micelle activated fluorescence signal from N-Phenyl-1-Naphthylamine (NPN). The development and optimization of assay parameters were guided by the pre-defined analytical target profile. Furthermore, NMR was used to probe the interaction between protein, PS80 and NPN in the measurement system and understand protein interference. RESULTS: All assay parameters including excitation and emission wavelengths, standard curve, NPN concentration, and incubation time have been optimized and adapted to a microplate format, making it compatible with automated solutions that will be pursued in the near future to drive consistency and efficiency in our workflows. The specificity, accuracy, and precision of the assay have been demonstrated through a case study. Furthermore, NMR results provided additional insight into the change of the interaction dynamics between PS80 and NPN as the protein concentration increases. The results indicate minimal interaction between the protein and PS80 at lower concentration. However, when the concentration exceeds 75 mg/mL, there is a significant interaction between the protein and PS-80 micelle and monomer. CONCLUSION: A high-throughput fluorometric assay has been developed for quantification of polysorbates in biopharmaceutical samples including in-process samples, drug substance and drug product. The assay reported herein could serve as a powerful analytical tool for polysorbate quantification and control, complementing the widely used liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection method.

9.
Elife ; 122024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953517

RESUMO

The hippocampal-dependent memory system and striatal-dependent memory system modulate reinforcement learning depending on feedback timing in adults, but their contributions during development remain unclear. In a 2-year longitudinal study, 6-to-7-year-old children performed a reinforcement learning task in which they received feedback immediately or with a short delay following their response. Children's learning was found to be sensitive to feedback timing modulations in their reaction time and inverse temperature parameter, which quantifies value-guided decision-making. They showed longitudinal improvements towards more optimal value-based learning, and their hippocampal volume showed protracted maturation. Better delayed model-derived learning covaried with larger hippocampal volume longitudinally, in line with the adult literature. In contrast, a larger striatal volume in children was associated with both better immediate and delayed model-derived learning longitudinally. These findings show, for the first time, an early hippocampal contribution to the dynamic development of reinforcement learning in middle childhood, with neurally less differentiated and more cooperative memory systems than in adults.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado , Hipocampo , Aprendizagem , Reforço Psicológico , Humanos , Criança , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Feminino , Masculino , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
10.
Burns Trauma ; 12: tkae020, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38957662

RESUMO

Burns are an underestimated serious injury negatively impacting survivors physically, psychologically and economically, and thus are a considerable public health burden. Despite significant advancements in burn treatment, many burns still do not heal or develop serious complications/sequelae. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a critical regulator of wound healing, including burn wound healing. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the healing of burn wounds may help find optimal therapeutic targets to promote the healing of burn wounds, reduce complications/sequelae following burn, and maximize the restoration of structure and function of burn skin. This review aimed to summarize current understanding of the roles and regulatory mechanisms of the NLRP3 inflammasome in burn wound healing, as well as the preclinical studies of the involvement of NLRP3 inhibitors in burn treatment, highlighting the potential application of NLRP3-targeted therapy in burn wounds.

11.
Virology ; 597: 110142, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The specific humoral immune response resulting from inactivated vaccination following by BA.5 infection, and predictors of XBB variants re-infection in BA.5 infection-recovered nasopharyngeal carcinoma (BA.5-RNPC) patients, were explored. METHODS: Serum SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels were assessed using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the magnitude of specific humoral immunity and susceptibility to re-infection by XBB variants. RESULTS: Our data demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels were comparable between BA.5-RNPC patients and BA.5 infection-recovered-non-cancerous (BA.5-RNC) individuals. Specifically, serum levels of anti-ancestral-S1-IgG, anti-ancestral-nucleocapsid-protein (NP)-IgG, anti-BA.5-receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG and anti-XBB.1.1.6-RBD-IgG were higher in BA.5-RNPC patients compared to those without a prior infection. Compared to BA.5-RNPC patients without vaccination, individuals who received inactivated vaccination exhibited significantly higher levels of anti-ancestral-S1-IgG and anti-XBB.1.16-RBD-IgG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that inactivated vaccination was the most significant predictor of all tested SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies response. Subsequent analysis indicated that a low globulin level is an independent risk factor for XBB re-infection in BA.5-RNPC patients. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies have been improved in vaccinated BA.5-RNPC patients. However, the baseline immunity status biomarker IgG is an indicators of XBB variant re-infection risk in BA.5-RNPC patients.

12.
J Proteomics ; 305: 105247, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950696

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore potential novel plasma protein biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). A plasma proteomics analysis was carried out and candidate protein biomarkers were validated in 102 LUAD cases and 102 matched healthy controls. The same LUAD tumor tissues were detected to explore the correlation between the expression of candidate proteins in tissues and plasma and vascular normalization. A LUAD active metastasis mice model was constructed to explore the role of candidate proteins for lung metastasis. GPI and PGD were verified to be upregulated in plasma from LUAD patients, and the expression of GPI in tumor tissue was positively correlated with the expression of GPI in plasma and negatively correlated with the normalization of tumor blood vessels. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the expression of GPI and PGD in plasma and tumor vascular normalization was discovered. In the LUAD active metastasis model, the lowest levels of vascular normalization and the highest expression of GPI and PGD were found in mice with lung metastases. This study found that GPI and PGD may be potential plasma biomarkers for LUAD, and monitoring those may infer the risk of metastasis and malignancy of the tumor. SIGNIFICANT: We identified GPI and PGD as potential novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for LUAD. PGD and GPI can be used as diagnostic biomarkers in combination with other available strategies to assist in the screening and diagnosis of LUAD, and as prognostic biomarkers aid in predict the risk of tumor metastasis and malignancy in patients with LUAD.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959143

RESUMO

The goal of protein structure refinement is to enhance the precision of predicted protein models, particularly at the residue level of the local structure. Existing refinement approaches primarily rely on physics, whereas molecular simulation methods are resource-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, we employ deep learning methods to extract structural constraints from protein structure residues to assist in protein structure refinement. We introduce a novel method, AnglesRefine, which focuses on a protein's secondary structure and employs transformer to refine various protein structure angles (psi, phi, omega, CA_C_N_angle, C_N_CA_angle, N_CA_C_angle), ultimately generating a superior protein model based on the refined angles. We evaluate our approach against other cutting-edge methods using the CASP11-14 and CASP15 datasets. Experimental outcomes indicate that our method generally surpasses other techniques on the CASP11-14 test dataset, while performing comparably or marginally better on the CASP15 test dataset. Our method consistently demonstrates the least likelihood of model quality degradation, e.g., the degradation percentage of our method is less than 10%, while other methods are about 50%. Furthermore, as our approach eliminates the need for conformational search and sampling, it significantly reduces computational time compared to existing refinement methods.

14.
Clin Exp Med ; 24(1): 154, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972952

RESUMO

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) and prefibrotic primary myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) are Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. These conditions share overlapping clinical presentations; however, their prognoses differ significantly. Current morphological diagnostic methods lack reliability in subtype differentiation, underlining the need for improved diagnostics. The aim of this study was to investigate the multi-omics alterations in bone marrow biopsies of patients with ET and pre-PMF to improve our understanding of the nuanced diagnostic characteristics of both diseases. We performed proteomic analysis with 4D direct data-independent acquisition and microbiome analysis with 2bRAD-M sequencing technology to identify differential protein and microbe levels between untreated patients with ET and pre-PMF. Laboratory and multi-omics differences were observed between ET and pre-PMF, encompassing diverse pathways, such as lipid metabolism and immune response. The pre-PMF group showed an increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and decreased high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels. Protein analysis revealed significantly higher CXCR2, CXCR4, and MX1 levels in pre-PMF, while APOC3, APOA4, FABP4, C5, and CFB levels were elevated in ET, with diagnostic accuracy indicated by AUC values ranging from 0.786 to 0.881. Microbiome assessment identified increased levels of Mycobacterium, Xanthobacter, and L1I39 in pre-PMF, whereas Sphingomonas, Brevibacillus, and Pseudomonas_E were significantly decreased, with AUCs for these genera ranging from 0.833 to 0.929. Our study provides preliminary insights into the proteomic and microbiome variations in the bone marrow of patients with ET and pre-PMF, identifying specific proteins and bacterial genera that warrant further investigation as potential diagnostic indicators. These observations contribute to our evolving understanding of the multi-omics variations and possible mechanisms underlying ET and pre-PMF.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Mielofibrose Primária , Proteômica , Trombocitemia Essencial , Humanos , Trombocitemia Essencial/patologia , Trombocitemia Essencial/diagnóstico , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medula Óssea/patologia , Medula Óssea/microbiologia , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Idoso , Adulto , Microbiota , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Biópsia , Multiômica
15.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1418717, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979426

RESUMO

Background: A burgeoning body of evidence has substantiated the association between alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nevertheless, our understanding of the intricate mechanisms underpinning this association is limited. Methods: To investigate whether the gut microbiota influences the pathogenesis of RA through metabolism or immunity, we performed rigorous synthesis analyses using aggregated statistics from published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) and mediated MR techniques, including two-step MR and multivariate MR analyses. Subsequently, we conducted in vitro cellular validation of the analyzed Microbial-Cytokine-RA pathway. We determined the optimal culture conditions through co-culture experiments involving concentration and time. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays were employed to assess cellular viability, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to assess tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels. Results: Our univariable MR results confirmed 15 microbial traits, 7 metabolites and 2 cytokines that may be causally associated with RA (P FDR < 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that microbial traits influence the risk of RA through metabolite or cytokine (proportion mediated: 7.75% - 58.22%). In vitro experiments demonstrated that TSG-6 was highly expressed in the Subdoligranulum variabile treatment group and was correlated with decreased RA severity (reduced TNF-α expression). Silencing the TSG-6 gene significantly increased TNF-α expression, regardless of treatment with S. variabile. Additionally, S. variabile-secreted exosomes exhibited the same effect. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that S. variabile has the potential to promote TSG-6 secretion, thereby reducing RA inflammation.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Moléculas de Adesão Celular , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Humanos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Clostridiales , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
16.
Research (Wash D C) ; 7: 0413, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979516

RESUMO

Although cytochrome P450 enzymes are the most versatile biocatalysts in nature, there is insufficient comprehension of the molecular mechanism underlying their functional innovation process. Here, by combining ancestral sequence reconstruction, reverse mutation assay, and progressive forward accumulation, we identified 5 founder residues in the catalytic pocket of flavone 6-hydroxylase (F6H) and proposed a "3-point fixation" model to elucidate the functional innovation mechanisms of P450s in nature. According to this design principle of catalytic pocket, we further developed a de novo diffusion model (P450Diffusion) to generate artificial P450s. Ultimately, among the 17 non-natural P450s we generated, 10 designs exhibited significant F6H activity and 6 exhibited a 1.3- to 3.5-fold increase in catalytic capacity compared to the natural CYP706X1. This work not only explores the design principle of catalytic pockets of P450s, but also provides an insight into the artificial design of P450 enzymes with desired functions.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980772

RESUMO

Deep optics has been endeavoring to capture hyperspectral images of dynamic scenes, where the optical encoder plays an essential role in deciding the imaging performance. Our key insight is that the optical encoder of a deep optics system is expected to keep fabrication-friendliness and decoder-friendliness, to be faithfully realized in the implementation phase and fully interacted with the decoder in the design phase, respectively. In this paper, we propose the non-serial quantization-aware deep optics (NSQDO), which consists of the fabrication-friendly quantization-aware model (QAM) and the decoder-friendly non-serial manner (NSM). The QAM integrates the quantization process into the optimization and adaptively adjusts the physical height of each quantization level, reducing the deviation of the physical encoder from the numerical simulation through the awareness of and adaptation to the quantization operation of the DOE physical structure. The NSM bridges the encoder and the decoder with full interaction through bidirectional hint connections and flexibilize the connections with a gating mechanism, boosting the power of joint optimization in deep optics. The proposed NSQDO improves the fabrication-friendliness and decoder-friendliness of the encoder and develops the deep optics framework to be more practical and powerful. Extensive synthetic simulation and real hardware experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982755

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) researchers have made progress in understanding atmospheric Hg, especially with respect to oxidized Hg (HgII) that can represent 2 to 20% of Hg in the atmosphere. Knowledge developed over the past ∼10 years has pointed to existing challenges with current methods for measuring atmospheric Hg concentrations and the chemical composition of HgII compounds. Because of these challenges, atmospheric Hg experts met to discuss limitations of current methods and paths to overcome them considering ongoing research. Major conclusions included that current methods to measure gaseous oxidized and particulate-bound Hg have limitations, and new methods need to be developed to make these measurements more accurate. Developing analytical methods for measurement of HgII chemistry is challenging. While the ultimate goal is the development of ultrasensitive methods for online detection of HgII directly from ambient air, in the meantime, new surfaces are needed on which HgII can be quantitatively collected and from which it can be reversibly desorbed to determine HgII chemistry. Discussion and identification of current limitations, described here, provide a basis for paths forward. Since the atmosphere is the means by which Hg is globally distributed, accurately calibrated measurements are critical to understanding the Hg biogeochemical cycle.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202409750, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982974

RESUMO

Splitting the five and seven-membered rings of azulene and embedding them separately into a conjugated backbone provides azulene-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are of great interest in quantum and material chemistry. However, the synthetic accessibility poses a significant challenge. In this study, we present the synthesis of a novel azulene-like PAH, Pery-57, which can be viewed as the integration of a perylene framework into the split azulene. The compact structure of Pery-57 displays several intriguing characteristics, including NIR II absorption at 1200 nm, a substantial dipole moment of 3.5 D, and head-to-tail alternating columnar packing. Furthermore, Pery-57 exhibits remarkable redox properties. The cationic radical Pery-57•+ readily captures a hydrogen atom. Variable-temperature NMR (VT-NMR) and variable-temperature EPR (VT-EPR) studies reveal that the dianion Pery-572- possesses an open-shell singlet ground state and demonstrates significant global anti-aromaticity. The dication Pery-572+ is also predicted to exhibit diradical character. Despite bearing three bulky substituents, Pery-57 displays p-type transport characteristics with a mobility of 0.03 cm2 V-1 s-1, attributed to its unique azulene-like structure. Overall, this work directs interest in azulene-like PAHs, a unique member of nonalternant PAHs showcasing exceptional properties and applications.

20.
Pain Manag Nurs ; 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38991907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder, a debilitating condition causing pain and restricted joint mobility, often challenges conventional physical therapy methods. This study investigates the efficacy of combined acupuncture and physical therapy regimen, as opposed to physical therapy alone, for pain reduction and improvement of the clinical effective rate and the range of motion in patients with frozen shoulder. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Trial, and Web of Science databases was done for randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, and nonrandomized studies, reporting data of adult (>18 years) patients with frozen shoulder who received physical therapy with or without acupuncture. Outcomes of interest were pain, clinical effective rate, active and passive range of motion. Data were analyzed using STATA software, employing a random-effects model and standardized mean differences (SMD) and odds ratios (OR) for outcome measures. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies were included. The combined approach significantly reduced pain (SMD = -0.891) with considerable heterogeneity (I² = 85.3%) and improved clinical effective rates (OR = 3.693, I² = 0%). Significant improvements were also observed in active and passive range of motion, with varying degrees of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: The combination of acupuncture and physical therapy is more effective than physical therapy alone in managing pain, improving clinical effective rates, and enhancing range of motion in patients with frozen shoulder. These findings suggest that incorporating acupuncture into standard rehabilitation protocols could enhance patient outcomes.

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