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1.
Int J Mol Med ; 45(4): 1176-1186, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124959

RESUMO

Carbon monoxide­releasing molecule­3 (CORM­3), which is an exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) compound, slowly releases CO under physiological conditions; this exerts neuroprotective effects against incomplete ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the administration of CORM­3 protects against nucleotide­binding oligomerization domain­like receptor pyrin domain­3 (NLRP3) inflammasome formation and neuronal pyroptosis in the hippocampus following hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR). To establish this, an HSR model was created. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in adult male Sprague­Dawley rats under sevoflurane anesthesia by bleeding using a heparinized syringe to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 30±5 mmHg for 60 min. Resuscitation was performed by reperfusion of the blood and, if necessary, administering sterile saline to achieve the baseline arterial pressure. Following resuscitation, CORM­3 (4 mg/kg) was injected via the femoral vein. Neuronal pyroptosis in the hippocampus, mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), brain magnetic resonance imaging, expression levels of NLRP3 and the interaction of pro­caspase­1 and apoptosis­associated speck­like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) were examined 12 h after HSR; locomotor activity was assessed 7 days after HSR. Compared with HSR­treated rats, CORM­3 administration resulted in a lower level of neuronal pyroptosis in the hippocampus, improved mitochondrial morphology, a lower mtDNA level, steadier levels of metabolites, decreased expression levels of NLRP3 and pro­caspase­1 interacting with ASC and enhanced locomotor activity. In conclusion, treatment with CORM­3 ameliorated impairments of locomotor and exploratory activities in a rat model of HSR. The mechanism may be associated with the inhibition of mitochondrial DNA­induced pyroptosis via improvements in cell metabolism.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1874387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104680

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the ability of asiatic acid to interfere with the invasion and proliferation of breast cancer cells by inhibiting WAVE3 expression and activation through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Methods: The MDA-MB-231 cells with strong invasiveness were screened by transwell assay, and plasmids with high expression of WAVE3 were constructed for transfection. The transfection effect and protein expression level of plasmids were verified by PCR and WB. The effects of asiatic acid on cell proliferation and invasion were investigated by flow cytometry. The xenografted tumor models in nude mice were established to study the antitumor activity of asiatic acid. Results: Asiatic acid significantly inhibited the activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, and the expression level of WAVE3 increased significantly in the tissue of ductal carcinoma in situ and was lower than that in the metastasis group. After plasmid transfection, the mRNA and protein expression of WAVE3 increased significantly in the cells. Asiatic acid at different concentrations had an impact on cell apoptosis and invasion and could significantly inhibit the expression of WAVE3, P53, p-PI3K, p-AKT, and other proteins. The T/C(%) of asiatic acid (50 mg/kg) for MDA-MB-231(F10) xenografted tumor in nude mice was 46.33%, with a tumor inhibition rate of 59.55%. Asiatic acid could significantly inhibit the growth of MDA-MB-231 (F10) xenografted tumors in nude mice (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Asiatic acid interferes with the ability of breast cancer cells to invade and proliferate by inhibiting WAVE3 expression and activation and the mechanism of action may be related to the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 54, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress mediates the nerve injury during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protecting against oxidative stress damage is an important strategy to prevent and treat AD. Di-Huang-Yi-Zhi (DHYZ) is a Chinese medicine used for the treatment of AD, but its mechanism remains unknown. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of DHYZ on H2O2 induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells. METHODS: PC12 cells were treated with H2O2 and DHYZ. Cell proliferation was detected by Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cytotoxicity of H2O2 was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Apoptosis were identified by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Caspase 3 activity was detected by commercial kit. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected by JC-1 staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was 2', 7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining. Protein expression and phosphorylation was identified by western blot. RESULTS: The results showed that DHYZ antagonized H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and proliferation inhibition. DHYZ reduced ROS production, stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibit Caspase-3 activity and apoptosis induced by H2O2. In addition, DHYZ inhibited the phosphorylation of ASK1, JNK1/2/3 and p38 MAPK which were up-regulated by H2O2. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that DHYZ protected PC12 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative stress damage and was related to inhibition of ROS production and ASK1-JNK/p38 MAPK signaling. The present study provides experimental evidence for the application of DHYZ for the management of oxidative stress damage and AD.

4.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 112, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), one paramount breeding objective is to increase grain quality. The nutritional quality and end use value of sorghum grains are primarily influenced by the proportions of tannins, starch and proteins, but the genetic basis of these grain quality traits remains largely unknown. This study aimed to dissect the natural variation of sorghum grain quality traits and identify the underpinning genetic loci by genome-wide association study. RESULTS: Levels of starch, tannins and 17 amino acids were quantified in 196 diverse sorghum inbred lines, and 44 traits based on known metabolic pathways and biochemical interactions amongst the 17 amino acids calculated. A Genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 3,512,517 SNPs from re-sequencing data identified 14, 15 and 711 significant SNPs which represented 14, 14, 492 genetic loci associated with levels of tannins, starch and amino acids in sorghum grains, respectively. Amongst these significant SNPs, two SNPs were associated with tannin content on chromosome 4 and colocalized with three previously identified loci for Tannin1, and orthologs of Zm1 and TT16 genes. One SNP associated with starch content colocalized with sucrose phosphate synthase gene. Furthermore, homologues of opaque1 and opaque2 genes associated with amino acid content were identified. Using the KEGG pathway database, six and three candidate genes of tannins and starch were mapped into 12 and 3 metabolism pathways, respectively. Thirty-four candidate genes were mapped into 16 biosynthetic and catabolic pathways of amino acids. We finally reconstructed the biosynthetic pathways for aspartate and branched-chain amino acids based on 15 candidate genes identified in this study. CONCLUSION: Promising candidate genes associated with grain quality traits have been identified in the present study. Some of them colocalized with previously identified genetic regions, but novel candidate genes involved in various metabolic pathways which influence grain quality traits have been dissected. Our study acts as an entry point for further validation studies to elucidate the complex mechanisms controlling grain quality traits such as tannins, starch and amino acids in sorghum.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(2): 2319-2327, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776910

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from paddy soils is a main source of atmospheric NH3 and the magnitude is affected by many factors. Because of the complex field condition, it is difficult to identify the relative importance of individual factor on NH3 volatilization process in different locations and at different times. In this study, the grey relational entropy method was used to evaluate the relative impact of four main factors (i.e., nitrogen fertilizer application rate, NH4-N concentration, pH, and temperature of the floodwater) on NH3 volatilization loss from three different field experiments. The results demonstrated that floodwater NH4-N concentration was the most important factor governing NH3 volatilization process. Floodwater pH was the second most important factor, followed by temperature of the floodwater and nitrogen fertilizer application rate. We further validated the grey relational entropy method with NH3 volatilization loss data from other published study and confirmed the order of importance for the four factors. We hope the findings of this study will be helpful for guiding design to reduce paddy soil NH3 emission.

6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(10): 4505-4512, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854818

RESUMO

In shallow eutrophic lakes, benthic bioclastic deposits accumulate abundant organic carbon derived from macrophyte detritus. Taking the typical macrophyte-dominated Xukou Bay as the study area, field investigations were performed using sediment cores to evaluate benthic phytodetritus accumulation. Specifically, nutrient contents, TOC/TN ratios, pigmentation, and biodegradable compounds were measured as descriptive parameters. The results show that the benthic bioclastic deposit had accumulated abundant pigments, nutrients, and biodegradable compounds derived from macrophytes detritus. These were mainly localized in the top 15 cm of sediments. Nitrogen loading in the sediments was significantly higher than phosphorous loading, with a distinct spatial difference; the total nitrogen content ranged from 127.2-2092.8 mg·kg-1 and total phosphorous content ranged from 222.1-528.4 mg·kg-1. Moreover, nitrogen loading (1033.6 mg·kg-1) in the vegetated zones were higher than in the unvegetated zones (325.2 mg·kg-1). In addition, carbohydrate (3.7 mg·g-1) was the dominant component of sedimentary bioclastic material, with lipids (2.8 mg·g-1) being the second most abundant of the biodegradable compounds. The major sources of nutrients and biodegradable compounds in the sediment were massive aggregates of macrophyte detritus. The pigment, nutrient, and biodegradable compound contents in the vegetated zones were significantly higher than in unvegetated zones (P<0.01). The benthic eutrophic state showed a trend from mesotrophic to eutrophic in Xukou Bay, which should be given more attention in the future management of freshwater lake ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , China , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitrogênio , Fósforo
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(21): 9264-9279, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683259

RESUMO

This study explored the influence of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG14 on α-synuclein (α-syn) expression and Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Firstly, we found that the expression level of SNHG14 was elevated in brain tissues of PD mice. In MN9D cells, the rotenone treatment (1µmol/L) enhanced the binding between transcriptional factor SP-1 and SNHG14 promoter, thus promoting SNHG14 expression. Interference of SNHG14 ameliorated the DA neuron injury induced by rotenone. Next, we found an interaction between SNHG14 and miR-133b. Further study showed that miR-133b down-regulated α-syn expression by targeting its 3'-UTR of mRNA and SNHG14 could reverse the negative effect of miR-133b on α-syn expression. Interference of SNHG14 reduced rotenone-induced DA neuron damage through miR-133b in MN9D cells and α-syn was responsible for the protective effect of miR-133b. Similarly, interference of SNHG14 mitigated neuron injury in PD mouse model. All in all, silence of SNHG14 mitigates dopaminergic neuron injury by down-regulating α-syn via targeting miR-133b, which contributes to improving PD.

8.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(20): 3237-3246, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroscopy and colonoscopy are important and common endoscopic methods for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal and colorectal diseases. However, endoscopy is usually associated with adverse reactions such as nervousness, nausea, vomiting, choking cough, and pain. Severe discomfort, such as vomiting, coughing, or body movement, may lead to aggravation of a pre-existing condition or even interruption of examination or treatment, especially in some critically ill patients with physiological dysfunction (e.g., cardiovascular or respiratory disease). The optimal methods for inducing analgesia and sedation in endoscopy are areas of ongoing debate; nevertheless, determining an appropriate regimen of sedation and analgesia is important. AIM: To evaluate the effects of propofol combined with dezocine, sufentanil, or fentanyl in painless gastroscopy and colonoscopy. METHODS: Four hundred patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups for anesthesia: intravenous dezocine, sufentanil, fentanyl, or saline. Propofol was administered intravenously for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. RESULTS: The dosage of propofol in the dezocine group was significantly lower than those in other groups (P < 0.01). Bispectral index and Steward score (0-6 points, an unresponsive, immobile patient whose airway requires maintenance to a fully recovered patient) after eye opening in the dezocine group were significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.01). Awakening time and postoperative pain score (0-10 points, no pain to unbearable pain) in the dezocine group were significantly lower than those in other groups (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure and pulse oxygen saturation in the dezocine group were significantly more stable at various time points (before dosing, disappearance of eyelash reflex, and wakeup) than those in other groups (P < 0.01). The rates of hypopnea, jaw thrust, body movements, and usage of vasoactive drugs in the dezocine group were significantly lower than those in other groups (P < 0.01). Additionally, the rates of reflex coughing, nausea, and vomiting were not statistically different between the four groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of propofol and dezocine can decrease propofol dosage, reduce the risk for the development of inhibitory effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, increase analgesic effect, decrease body movement, shorten awakening time, and improve awakening quality.

9.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(9): e201900903, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778525

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of mesenteric lymph drainage on the spleen injury and the expressions of inflammatory cytokines in splenic tissue in mice following hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Male C57 mice were randomly divided into the sham shock, shock and shock+drainage groups. The mice in both shock and shock+drainage groups suffered femoral artery bleeding, maintained mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40±2 mmHg for 90 min, and were resuscitated. And mesenteric lymph drainage was performed in the shock+drainage group at the time of resuscitation. After three hours of resuscitation, the splenic tissues were harvested for the histological observation and protein and mRNA expression analysis of cytokines. RESULTS: The spleen in the shock group revealed a significantly structural damage and increased mRNA expressions of MyD88 and TRAF6 and protein expressions of TIPE2, MyD88, TRIF and TRAF3 compared to the sham group. By contrast, the splenic pathological injury in the shock+drainage group was alleviated significantly, and the mRNA and protein expressions of TIPE2, MyD88, TRIF, TRAF3 and TRAF6 were significantly lower than those in the shock group. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates hemorrhagic shock-induced spleen injury and the expressions of inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Vasos Linfáticos/cirurgia , Mesentério , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Baço/lesões , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drenagem/métodos , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ressuscitação
10.
World Neurosurg ; 132: e21-e27, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate role of Low-dose, Early Fresh frozen plasma Transfusion (LEFT) therapy in preventing perioperative coagulopathy and improving long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A prospective, single-center, parallel-group, randomized trial was designed. Patients with severe TBI were eligible. We used a computer-generated randomization list and closed opaque envelops to randomly allocate patients to treatment with fresh frozen plasma (5 mL/kg body weight; LEFT group) or normal saline (5 mL/kg body weight; NO LEFT group) after admission in the operating room. RESULTS: Between January 1, 2018, and November 31, 2018, 63 patients were included and randomly allocated to LEFT (n = 28) and NO LEFT (n = 35) groups. The final interim analysis included 20 patients in the LEFT group and 32 patients in the NO LEFT group. The study was terminated early for futility and safety reasons because a high proportion of patients (7 of 20; 35.0%) in the LEFT group developed new delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma after surgery compared with the NO LEFT group (3 of 32; 9.4%) (relative risk, 5.205; 95% confidence interval, 1.159-23.384; P = 0.023). Demographic characteristics and indexes of severity of brain injury were similar at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: LEFT therapy was associated with a higher incidence of delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma than normal fresh frozen plasma transfusion in patients with severe TBI. A restricted fresh frozen plasma transfusion protocol, in the right clinical setting, may be more appropriate in patients with TBIs.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Plasma , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Craniotomia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/cirurgia , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/terapia , Humanos , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Prevenção Secundária , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Surg Res ; 244: 69-76, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute hemorrhage-induced excessive excitation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system (SAS) leads to gut hypoperfusion and barrier dysfunction, which is a critical event during hemorrhagic shock-induced multiple organ injury. Stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) has been widely used for suppression of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system in the clinical practice. However, whether SGB improves intestinal barrier function after hemorrhagic shock remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that the implementation of SGB restores intestinal barrier function and reduces gut injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats received the SGB pretreatment and underwent hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation. The 96-h survival rate, intestinal permeability and morphology, D-lactic acid concentration and diamine oxidase activity in plasma, and expressions of F-actin, Claudin-1, and E-cadherin in intestinal tissues were observed. RESULTS: Pretreatment with SGB significantly enhances the 96-h survival rate in rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock (from 8.3% to 66.7%). Hemorrhagic shock reduced the coverage scale of intestinal mucus and intestinal villus width and height, enhanced the intestinal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4 and D-lactic acid concentration in plasma, and decreased the expressions of F-actin, Claudin-1, and E-Cadherin in intestinal tissue. These hemorrhagic shock-induced adverse effects were abolished by SGB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: SGB treatment has a beneficial effect during hemorrhagic shock, which is associated with the improvement of intestine barrier function. SGB may be considered as a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of hemorrhagic shock.


Assuntos
Enteropatias/prevenção & controle , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Gânglio Estrelado/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enteropatias/etiologia , Enteropatias/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/inervação , Masculino , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ressuscitação , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 141: 299-309, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carbon monoxide (CO) releasing molecule (CORM)-3, a water-soluble CORM, has protective effects against inflammatory and ischemia/reperfusion injury. We determined the effect of CORM-3 against neuronal pyroptosis in a model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR) in rats via mitochondrial regulation. METHODS: Rats were treated with CORM-3 (4 mg/kg) in vitro after HSR. We measured cortical CO content 3-24 h after HSR; assessed neuronal pyroptosis, mitochondrial morphology, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane potential at 12 h after HSR; and evaluated brain magnetic resonance imaging at 24 h after HSR and learning ability 30 days after HSR. We also measured soluble guanylate-cyclase (sGC)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway activity using a blocker of sGC, NS2028, and 125I-cGMP assay. RESULTS: Among rats that underwent HSR, CORM-3-treated rats had more CO in the cortical tissue than sham- and iCORM-3-treated rats. CORM-3-treated rats had significantly less neuronal pyroptosis in the cortical tissue; higher sGC activity and cGMP content; lower ROS production; better mitochondrial morphology, function, and membrane potential; and enhanced learning/memory ability than HSR-treated rats. However, these neuroprotective effects of CORM-3 were partially inhibited by NS2028. CONCLUSION: CORM-3 may alleviate neuronal pyroptosis and improve neurological recovery in HSR through mitochondrial regulation mediated by the sGC-cGMP pathway. Thus, CO administration could be a promising therapeutic strategy for hemorrhagic shock.

13.
J BUON ; 24(1): 227-232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941974

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the associations among diabetes status, Metformin administration and prostate cancer (PCa) detection at biopsy in Chinese population. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among a prospectively enrolled prostate biopsy cohort of 518 patients from Jan 2013 to Dec 2014 at our institute. Diabetes status and Metformin administration were determined through medical records and self-report. Different clinical characteristics were registered and compared among different groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of diabetes status and Metformin administration on the detection of overall as well as high-grade PCa at biopsy. RESULTS: PCa was detected in 229 (44.2%) men, and high-grade PCa (Gleason score ≥8) was detected in 65 (12.5%) men. Diabetes was observed in 96 men, and 28 of them were administered with Metformin. Both overall and high-grade cancer detection rates were significantly higher in diabetic patients (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, diabetes status was a risk factor for high-grade cancer detection (OR 7.699, 95%CI 3.483-17.020, p<0.001), but not for total PCa detection (OR 1.774, 95%CI 0.831-3.787, p=0.138). Meanwhile, Metformin administration was proved to be a protective factor for high-grade disease (OR 0.420, 95%CI 0.201-0.879, p=0.021) in multivariate analysis, while no correlation was detected with overall cancer detection (OR 0.786, 95%CI 0.172-3.593, p=0.756). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes status was positively associated with biopsy-mediated high-grade PCa detection in Chinese population, while the positive association would be partly compromised by Metformin administration.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Diabetes Mellitus , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(8): 7476-7485, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659484

RESUMO

Sediment resuspension has been recognized as a crucial internal process in aquatic ecosystems. However, there is still a lack of reliable measuring methods due to the complex hydrodynamic conditions in large shallow eutrophic lakes. In this study, sequential sediment traps (SST) and instantaneous multiple point (IMP) methods were compared at 6 sites located in the littoral zone of Zhushan Bay in Lake Taihu. Results show that the average resuspension rates (RRs) estimated using the IMP method at sites 1 to 6 were 266.39, 272.79, 235.17, 254.95, 392.25, and 483.85 g·m-2d-1, respectively. While the RRs estimated using the SST method were 195.16, 236.99, 116.76, 156.23, 389.53, and 509.85 g·m-2d-1, respectively. In wind-disturbed areas, both methods were suitable for RR analysis in large and shallow eutrophic lakes and SST provides high-resolution temporal RR estimations. However, in the areas with cyanobacterial blooms and vegetation cover, the IMP method overestimated the RR. Therefore, SST was more suitable across different conditions in large and shallow eutrophic lakes, providing a simple, accurate, and high-resolution temporal estimation of RR, while furthering our understanding of lake evolution processes.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/química , Vento , China , Ecossistema , Ecótipo , Eutrofização , Hidrodinâmica
15.
J Surg Res ; 235: 591-599, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neuroprotection and neurotoxicity induced by sevoflurane have been gradually established. Choosing anesthetic agents after hemorrhage shock and resuscitation (HSR) induced by bleeding can be challenging. We determined the dual neuroprotective-neurotoxic effects of sevoflurane postconditioning after HSR injury using a model of blood loss and reinfusion in rats via the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal pathway. METHODS: The rats were exposed to 2%-4% sevoflurane postconditioning in vivo after HSR. Learning ability was assessed 30 d after HSR by Morris water maze tests. Hippocampal apoptosis was assessed 7 d after HSR by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling combined with cleaved caspase-3 (17 kDa). The ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), HO-1 expression, and HO activity 1 d after HSR were assessed by fluorometric, JC-1, Western blot, and bilirubin assays, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with HSR alone, 2% sevoflurane postconditioning improved latency and increased MMP levels, HO-1 expression, and HO activity but decreased TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells, cleaved caspase-3 (17 kDa) expression, and ROS production. Pretreatment with hemin, an HO-1 agonist, reversed these effects. Compared with 2% sevoflurane postconditioning plus HSR, slower latency; decreased MMP levels; and increased TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells, cleaved caspase-3 (17 kDa), HO-1 expression, HO activity, and ROS production were shown in HSR plus 4% sevoflurane postconditioning, whereas Tin-mesoporphyrin, an HO-1 inhibitor, partially reversed the neurodegeneration of 4% sevoflurane postconditioning. CONCLUSION: The dual neuroprotective-neurotoxic effects of 2%-4% sevoflurane postconditioning after HSR injury might be associated with increased ROS via the "threshold effect" of HO-1.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
World Neurosurg ; 122: e1312-e1320, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colloid transfusion during surgical decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) to treat space-occupying cerebral infarction induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA) is controversial. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted to determine whether an increased colloid transfusion during surgery is associated with a lower incidence of postoperative pneumonia and better long-term outcomes after space-occupying cerebral infarction. METHODS: Data from surgical DHC within 48 hours to treat space-occupying cerebral infarction that took place between November 30, 2013, and March 30, 2016, were collected in a multicenter chart. Univariate analysis, Spearman correlation, χ2 test, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to account for the associations between colloid transfusion and postoperative pneumonia or long-term outcomes (indicated by modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores). RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that surgical duration and mRS were significantly different between the subjects older and younger than 60 years who underwent surgical DHC (P < 0.05). In the entire population studied, increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was associated with a greater incidence of postoperative pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] 1.255, P = 0.003) and increased mRS (OR 1.229, P = 0.014). In the population older than 60 years, it was revealed that increased colloid transfusion was associated with a lower incidence of postoperative pneumonia (OR 0.761, P = 0.030) or better outcomes, as indicated with lower mRS (OR 0.837, P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Our retrospective study demonstrated that there is a robust association between increased perioperative colloid transfusion and lower incidence of postoperative pneumonia and better outcomes among the patients older than 60 years after space-occupying cerebral infarction.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Craniectomia Descompressiva/efeitos adversos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Tempo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Plant Cell ; 30(10): 2286-2307, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309900

RESUMO

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is the fifth most popular crop worldwide and a C4 model plant. Domesticated sorghum comes in many forms, including sweet cultivars with juicy stems and grain sorghum with dry, pithy stems at maturity. The Dry locus, which controls the pithy/juicy stem trait, was discovered over a century ago. Here, we found that Dry gene encodes a plant-specific NAC transcription factor. Dry was either deleted or acquired loss-of-function mutations in sweet sorghum, resulting in cell collapse and altered secondary cell wall composition in the stem. Twenty-three Dry ancestral haplotypes, all with dry, pithy stems, were found among wild sorghum and wild sorghum relatives. Two of the haplotypes were detected in domesticated landraces, with four additional dry haplotypes with juicy stems detected in improved lines. These results imply that selection for Dry gene mutations was a major step leading to the origin of sweet sorghum. The Dry gene is conserved in major cereals; fine-tuning its regulatory network could provide a molecular tool to control crop stem texture.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sorghum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Sorghum/fisiologia
18.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1202, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210364

RESUMO

Objectives: Abnormal rheological properties induce adverse effects during sepsis. This study sought to investigate the hypothesis that resveratrol (Res) improves blood rheological properties in rats following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and provide a novel approach for treatment of sepsis. Methods: The rats were intraperitoneally or intramuscularly injected with vehicle, LPS (8 mg/kg), Res (30 mg/kg), or both to yield four groups: control, Res, LPS, and LPS + Res. After 6 h of LPS and/or Res injection, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), regional blood flow, erythrocyte and leukocyte parameters, and blood viscosity were observed. Results: LPS administration had no significant effects on the erythrocyte parameters and plasma viscosity. LPS administration reduced the MAP, whole blood viscosity at low and medium shear rates, the blood flow in the spleen and kidney, and the leukocyte content in whole blood when compared to control group, and increased the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lung. Treatment with Res alone had no effects on most of parameters observed except increasing the whole blood relative viscosity. However, Res treatment after LPS resulted in further decrease in whole blood viscosity at high and medium shear rates. Furthermore, Res treatment conversely decreased the red blood cell distribution width-CV, blood flow of stomach, whole blood relative viscosity and MPO activity in lung, and increased the leukocyte content, but did not restore LPS-induced decrease in MAP and the blood flow in the spleen and kidney. Conclusion: The Res treatment partly reduce the whole blood viscosity and regional blood flow, and increase WBC content in peripheral blood following the LPS challenge, suggesting a favorable role in expanding the quasi-sympathetic effects of LPS in blood viscosity at early stages.

19.
Transl Neurodegener ; 7: 19, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128145

RESUMO

Background: Abnormal expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) is increased in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Low-molecular-mass protein 7 (ß5i) is a proteolytic subunit of the immunoproteasome that regulates protein degradation and the MHC pathway in immune cells. Methods: In this study, we investigated the role of ß5i in DA neurons using a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model in vitro and vivo. Results: We showed that 6-OHDA upregulated ß5i expression in DA neurons in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inhibition and downregulation of ß5i induced the expression of glucose-regulated protein (Bip) and exacerbated 6-OHDA neurotoxicity in DA neurons. The inhibition of ß5i further promoted the activation of Caspase 3-related pathways induced by 6-OHDA. ß5i also activated transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) and promoted MHC-I expression on DA neurons. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that ß5i is activated in DA neurons under 6-OHDA treatment and may play a neuroprotective role in PD.

20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(23): 22810-22817, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855881

RESUMO

Reversed A2O process (anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic) and conventional A2O process (anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic) are widely used in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Asia. However, at present, there are still no consistent results to figure out which process has better total phosphorous (TP) removal performance and the mechanism for this difference was not clear yet. In this study, the treatment performances of both processes were compared in the same full-scale WWTP and the TP removal dynamics was analyzed by a modeling method. The treatment performance of full-scale WWTP showed the TP removal efficiency of the reversed A2O process was more efficient than in the conventional A2O process. The modeling results further reveal that the TP removal depends highly on the concentration and composition of influent COD. It had more efficient TP removal than the conventional A2O process only under conditions of sufficient influent COD and high fermentation products content. This study may lay a foundation for appropriate selection and optimization of treatment processes to suit practical wastewater properties.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Fósforo/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Anaerobiose , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Fósforo/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Águas Residuárias/química
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