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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416305

RESUMO

Passivating the defective surface of perovskite films is becoming a particularly effective approach to further boost the efficiency and stability of their solar cells. Organic ammonium halide salts are extensively utilized as passivation agents in the form of their corresponding 2D perovskites to construct the 2D/3D perovskite bilayer architecture for superior device performance; however, this bilayer device partly suffers from the postannealing-induced destructiveness to the 3D perovskite bulk and charge transport barrier induced by the quantum confinement existing in the 2D perovskite. Hence, developing direct passivation of the perovskite layer by organic ammonium halides for high-performance devices can well address the above-mentioned issues, which has rarely been explored. Herein, an effective passivation strategy is proposed to directly modify the perovskite surface with an organic halide salt 4-fluorophenethylammonium iodide (F-PEAI) without further postannealing. The F-PEAI passivation largely inhibits the formation of the iodine vacancies and thus dramatically reduces the film defects, resulting in a much slower charge trapping process. Consequently, the F-PEAI-modified device achieves a much higher champion efficiency (21%) than that (19.5%) of the control device, which dominantly results from more efficient suppression of interfacial nonradiative recombination and the subsequent decreased recombination losses. Additionally, the F-PEAI-treated device maintains 90% of its initial efficiency after 720 h of humidity aging owing to the enhanced hydrophobicity and decreased trap states, highlighting good ambient stability. These results provide an effective passivation strategy toward efficient and stable perovskite solar cells.

2.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 10, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397454

RESUMO

Distinguishing biological from technical variation is crucial when integrating and comparing single-cell genomics datasets across different experiments. Existing methods lack the capability in explicitly distinguishing these two variations, often leading to the removal of both variations. Here, we present an integration method scMC to remove the technical variation while preserving the intrinsic biological variation. scMC learns biological variation via variance analysis to subtract technical variation inferred in an unsupervised manner. Application of scMC to both simulated and real datasets from single-cell RNA-seq and ATAC-seq experiments demonstrates its capability of detecting context-shared and context-specific biological signals via accurate alignment.

3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469710

RESUMO

In this study, a novel method which involved in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) using an attapulgite (ATP) nanoparticles-based hydrophobic monolithic column was successfully developed. It was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of three phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, including thiosildenafil, pseudovardenafil, and norneosildenafil, in functional foods. The monolithic column was prepared by one-step polymerization, using 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate-modified ATP nanoparticles and 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (VBIMBr) as the functional monomers, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker. The obtained poly(ATP-VBIMBr-EDMA) monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption capacity, up to 2.00 µg/cm calculated by the Langmuir isotherm model, was about six times that of the poly(VBIMBr-EDMA) monolith. Crucial factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including sample solvent, elution solvent, flow rates of sampling loading and elution, sample loading volume, and elution volume, were investigated in details. Under the optimal in-tube SPME conditions, the proposed method showed good reproducibility with run-to-run, column-to-column, and batch-to-batch relative standard deviations less than 7.2%, and low limits of detection of 0.5-0.9 ng/mL in real samples. Thiosildenafil was detected in four types of functional foods with the contents of 1.30-4.78 µg/g. This newly proposed in-tube SPME method based on poly(ATP-VBIMBr-EDMA) monolith may provide a simple, efficient, and promising alternative to daily monitoring of PDE-5 inhibitors in functional foods.

4.
Anal Methods ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458731

RESUMO

Estrogen exposure has already been considered to be associated with tumorigenesis and breast cancer progression. To study the epigenetic regulation mechanism in MCF-7 cells under estrogen exposure, which normally results in cell proliferation and malignancy, a stable isotope labeling of amino acid (SILAC) based quantitative proteomics strategy was used to analyse histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and protein differential expressions. In total, we have unambiguously identified 49 histone variants and quantified 42 of them, in which two differentially expressed proteins were found to be associated with breast cancers. Through the quantitative analysis of 470 histone peptides with a combination of different PTM types, including methylation (mono-, di-, and tri-), acetylation and phosphorylation, 150 of them were found to be differentially expressed. Through the biological analysis of the quantification results of both histone PTMs and proteins in MCF-7 cells, we found that (1) the histone variants H10 and H2AV have an effect on the adjustment of the nucleosome or chromatin structure and activate target genes; (2) after estrogen receptor (ER) activation by estrogen, the recruitment of histone acetyltransferase KAT7 might affect the acetylation at the N terminal of H4 (K5, K8 and K12) and also result in cross-talk between different acetylation sites; (3) different expression of histone deacetylase HDAC2 and its nucleo-cytoplasmic transportation process is important in the regulation of histone acetylation in MCF-7 cells under estrogen exposure.

5.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442762

RESUMO

The policy and practice of ecological restoration and conservation in China obtained some remarkable results. For example, Sphagnum moss growing on abandoned farmland, which was peatland before agricultural use, has rapidly expanded the wetland area in SW China. Microorganisms such as testate amoebae are sensitive to environmental change and thus have been widely used as ecological indicators in various habitats. We analyzed differently aged Sphagnum growing plots on a Sphagnum growing farmland and natural Sphagnum plots in SW China to examine how Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoeba communities and corresponding protozoic silicon (Si) pools respond to ecological restoration practice. We found that abundance, taxon richness, and diversity of testate amoebae were higher in Sphagnum growing farmland plots compared to natural Sphagnum plots. Protozoic Si pools showed an increase with Sphagnum growing time representing increased Si accumulation by idiosomic testate amoeba shells. However, protozoic Si pools were negatively correlated with taxon richness and diversity of testate amoebae. Our results showed that (i) natural Sphagnum plots were not characterized by the expected higher biodiversity of testate amoebae compared to Sphagnum growing plots and (ii) consequently protozoic Si pool quantity in natural Sphagnum plots was less driven by biodiversity of testate amoebae than expected. We concluded our results to underline the value of (i) environmental restoration policy in general and (ii) testate amoeba communities and corresponding protozoic Si pools for Si cycling in restoration areas of peatlands in particular. Based on our results, we recommend a sustainable cultivation of Sphagnum moss and an additional establishment of protected areas, where no Sphagnum harvesting occurs. These protected Sphagnum areas might represent hot spots of undisturbed testate amoeba communities and corresponding protozoic Si pools and thus of microbial Si cycling.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438300

RESUMO

Fabrication of 3 d metal-based core@shell nanocatalysts with engineered Pt-surfaces provides an effective approach for improving the catalytic performance. The challenges in such preparation include shape control of the 3 d metallic cores and thickness control of the Pt-based shells. Herein, we report a colloidal seed-mediated method to prepare octahedral CuNi@Pt-Cu core@shell nanocrystals using CuNi octahedral cores as the template. By precisely controlling the synthesis conditions including the deposition rate and diffusion rate of the shell-formation through tuning the capping ligand, reaction temperature, and heating rate, uniform Pt-based shells can be achieved with a thickness of < 1 nm. The resultant carbon-supported CuNi@Pt-Cu core@shell nano-octahedra showed superior activity in electrochemical methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) compared with the commercial Pt/C catalysts and carbon-supported CuNi@Pt-Cu nano-polyhedron counterparts, demonstrating that both the lattice strain and shape effects arising from the as-prepared CuNi@Pt-Cu octahedral nanocatalysts play a crucial role in MOR performance.

7.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 12269-12279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273832

RESUMO

Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the effect of miRNA let-7a-5p on the proliferation, invasion, and migration of human hepatoma cells as well as to determine BZW2 expression in these cells. Methods: Western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to detect changes in the expression of miRNA let-7a-5p and BZW2 protein and gene, respectively. A luciferase reporter gene assay was used to examine whether BZW2 is the target gene of miR-let-7a-5p. The effect of miR-let-7a-5p on the invasion, migration, and proliferation of human hepatoma Bel-7404 and HepG2 cells was determined using the transwell invasion assay, scratch test, and CCK-8 assay, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to assess the effect of miR-let-7a-5p and BZW2 expression on apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Results: The luciferase reporter gene assay identified BZW2 as the target gene of miR-let-7a-5p. Moreover, increased expression of miR-let-7a-5p was found to significantly decrease BZW2 expression; inhibit proliferation, invasion, and migration; and promote apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Conclusion: miR-let-7a-5p can inhibit proliferation, invasion, and migration as well as promote apoptosis of hepatoma cells by decreasing BZW2 expression.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6226, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277485

RESUMO

Protein N-phosphorylation plays a critical role in central metabolism and two/multicomponent signaling of prokaryotes. However, the current enrichment methods for O-phosphopeptides are not preferred for N-phosphopeptides due to the intrinsic lability of P-N bond under acidic conditions. Therefore, the effective N-phosphoproteome analysis remains challenging. Herein, bis(zinc(II)-dipicolylamine)-functionalized sub-2 µm core-shell silica microspheres (SiO2@DpaZn) are tailored for rapid and effective N-phosphopeptides enrichment. Due to the coordination of phosphate groups to Zn(II), N-phosphopeptides can be effectively captured under neutral conditions. Moreover, the method is successfully applied to an E.coli and HeLa N-phosphoproteome study. These results further broaden the range of methods for the discovery of N-phosphoproteins with significant biological functions.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 131-137, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316718

RESUMO

Background The social distancing during COVID-19 is likely to cause a feeling of alienation, which may pose a threat to the public's mental health. Our research aims to examine the relationship between negative emotions and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), considering the mediation effect of alienation and how it is moderated by anxiety and depression. Methods For this, the current study conducted a cross-sectional survey on 7145 participants during the outbreak of COVID-19, via online questionnaires comprised of a self-designed Negative emotions questionnaire, Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90), PTSD Checklist-civilian version (PCL-C), and Adolescent Students Alienation Scale (ASAS). Results A total of 6666 pieces of data from the general population were included in the statistical analysis. The descriptive statistics showed a relatively mild level of mental disorders. Besides, results of Conditional Process Model analysis supported our hypotheses that negative emotions and alienation were both predictors for PTSD symptoms, and their direct and indirect effects were all moderated by the level of anxiety. Limitations This study was limited by the generality and causality of the conclusion. The moderating effect of depression was left for further study due to the collinearity problem of variables. Conclusions Social distancing may have an impact on individuals' mental health by the feeling of alienation, which was moderated by affective disorders. Clinical psychologists should identify individuals' particular cognition and mental disorders to provide a more accurate and adequate intervention for them.

10.
Sci Adv ; 6(51)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355120

RESUMO

Characterizing genome-wide binding profiles of transcription factors (TFs) is essential for understanding biological processes. Although techniques have been developed to assess binding profiles within a population of cells, determining them at a single-cell level remains elusive. Here, we report scFAN (single-cell factor analysis network), a deep learning model that predicts genome-wide TF binding profiles in individual cells. scFAN is pretrained on genome-wide bulk assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq), DNA sequence, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data and uses single-cell ATAC-seq to predict TF binding in individual cells. We demonstrate the efficacy of scFAN by both studying sequence motifs enriched within predicted binding peaks and using predicted TFs for discovering cell types. We develop a new metric "TF activity score" to characterize each cell and show that activity scores can reliably capture cell identities. scFAN allows us to discover and study cellular identities and heterogeneity based on chromatin accessibility profiles.

11.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence of skin pigmentation disorders has been on the rise globally. This calls for safer and more effective topical skin lightening and freckle-removing products. In this study, we hypothesized that Soluble Pearl Extract (SPE) may possess endothelin antagonizing compounds with good skin whitening effects. OBJECTIVES: (a) To determine the effect and mechanisms of SPE on ET-1-treated B16 melanoma cells. (b) To explore the cytotoxic effects of SPE on B16 melanoma cells. METHODS: CCK-8 assay was performed to determine how SPE and ET-1 affect the proliferation rate of B16 melanoma cells, the NaOH lysis assay was conducted to quantify the content of melanin while the tyrosinase activity was determined by DOPA oxidation test. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TYR and TRP-1 were determined by qRT-PCR assay and Western blot assay, respectively. RESULTS: We found that SPE at 0.1 and 1 µg/mL concentrations has no effect on the proliferation of the cells and 10 nmol/L ET-1 promoted B16 melanoma cells proliferation. Notably, B16 melanoma cells treated with 10 nmol/L ET-1 exhibited significantly higher melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity, TYR, and TRP-1 mRNA expression levels compared with untreated cells. Of note, the effects of 10 nmol/L ET-1 treatment were abolished with SPE in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: SPE inhibits endothelin thereby safely and effectively lightening lightens the skin by antagonizing endothelin. Moreover, SPE is safe and effective.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23438, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The organ donation in China has developed rapidly since fully launched donations after citizens death in 2015. This study was conducted to evaluate how the Chinese general public views changed on deceased organ donation, and to improve the donation process. METHODS: A total of 110 eligible studies, including 103, 410 individuals, were selected to analyze through searching PubMed, CBMdisc, CQVIP, CNKI, and Wanfang Data from Jan 1, 1990 to May 31, 2019. The pooled proportions (and 95% CIs) of cognition, attitudes and willingness related to organ donation were calculated using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. RESULTS: The pooled proportions of knowing about organ donation and willing to donate increased from 84.6% (73.0-93.4) and 32.4% (23.9-41.6) before 2015, to 86.4% (74.5-95.1) and 39.9% (32.8-47.2) after 2015, respectively. The willingness to posthumous organ donation for cornea, heart, kidney, and liver had a significant improvement. Especially, the proportion of willingness to donate cornea increased to 56.0% (43.3-68.3) after 2015, from 39.2% (31.2-47.4) before 2015. However, although 69.7% (62.7-76.4) of participants approved the deceased organ donation, only 35.6% (29.7-41.8) and 43.9% (37.2-50.8) were willing to donate their own and relatives organs postmortem, respectively. The leading reasons for refraining from donating organs postmortem were distrusting the medical professionals (49.8%, 35.2-64.4) and traditional Chinese values (40.6%, 32.4-49.0). Popularizing knowledge about organ donation (61.5%, 45.7-76.1), humanitarian aid (57.1%, 48.8-65.3), and priority of using donated organs for relatives (53.1%, 30.8-74.7) were the applauded strategies to improve the willingness to posthumous organ donation. CONCLUSIONS: The willingness toward posthumous organ donation has a significant improvement among Chinese general public since 2015, however, several important measures still need to be taken to promote the favorable attitudes and willingness toward organ donation.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Transplante de Órgãos/psicologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/provisão & distribução , Adulto , China , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143035, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131864

RESUMO

To meet the food demands of a growing population, the maize production systems deployed by smallholders in China have tended towards extremely intensive planting and excessive use of fertilizers, which have caused serious environmental impacts. This study investigated the balance between the maize yield and nitrogen (N) input in the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of the most important grain-producing region in China. Our study compared yield simulations generated by the DSSAT-CERES-Maize model with actual data from a number of multi-site field experiments and an extensive household surveys encompassing 1671 farmers. The smallholders' maize cultivars, plant population, and amount of N input on the crop yield and how these affects the economic benefits were analyzed. The results showed that the average traditional farming methods' yield was 72% of the attainable yield, which means that farmers have ample room to improve their yields. We also found that the maize yields varied widely between farmers, and that most of them applied excessive amounts of N but failing to achieve an optimal yield due to poor fertilization management techniques. The study found that the economic benefits achieved by the farmers were low, but after deploying high-yield (HY) methods, the yield was increased by 34.9% and the economic benefits by 14.4%. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the traditional farming methods were high and could potentially be reduced by 48.6%. All in all, farmers should be given guidance on how to appropriately increase the plant population, reduce the input of N fertilizer, and optimize farmland management measures, so that China can achieve intensive but sustainable agricultural production at a lower environmental cost. It was concluded that there are still numerous biological and abiotic factors that restrict production increases by smallholders. These factors vary from region to region and require further investigation.

14.
J Pathol ; 252(4): 371-383, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245573

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is associated with gut dysbiosis and hepatic inflammasome activation. While it is known that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a critical role in the regulation of bacterial homeostasis in ALD, the functional role of AMPs in the alcohol-induced inflammasome activation is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on inflammasome activation in ALD. CRAMP knockout (Camp-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to binge-on-chronic alcohol feeding and synthetic CRAMP peptide was administered. Serum/plasma and hepatic tissue samples from human subjects with alcohol use disorder and/or alcoholic hepatitis were analyzed. CRAMP deficiency exacerbated ALD with enhanced inflammasome activation as shown by elevated serum interleukin (IL)-1ß levels. Although Camp-/- mice had comparable serum endotoxin levels compared to WT mice after alcohol feeding, hepatic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding protein (LBP) and cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 were increased. Serum levels of uric acid (UA), a Signal 2 molecule in inflammasome activation, were positively correlated with serum levels of IL-1ß in alcohol use disorder patients with ALD and were increased in Camp-/- mice fed alcohol. In vitro studies showed that CRAMP peptide inhibited LPS binding to macrophages and inflammasome activation stimulated by a combination of LPS and UA. Synthetic CRAMP peptide administration decreased serum UA and IL-1ß concentrations and rescued the liver from alcohol-induced damage in both WT and Camp-/- mice. In summary, CRAMP exhibited a protective role against binge-on-chronic alcohol-induced liver damage via regulation of inflammasome activation by decreasing LPS binding and UA production. CRAMP administration may represent a novel strategy for treating ALD. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

15.
Stem Cell Res ; 49: 102077, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176267

RESUMO

The role of muscle LIM protein (MLP), encoded by CSRP3, is not well understood in humans. CSRP3 knockout mice developed dilated cardiomyopathy with hypertrophy and heart failure after birth. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we generated an MLP deficient human ESC line WAe009-A-41 carrying a compound heterozygous 13 bp deletion/1 bp insertion in the CSRP3 gene. The WAe009-A-41 line exhibited a normal female karyotype (46, XX), expressed pluripotency markers and exhibited capability to differentiate into the three germ layers in vitro. MLP expression was not detectable in WAe009-A-41 line. This cell line can be a useful tool for studying the role of CSRP3 in cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113601, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220358

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. (family Caprifoliaceae, NJ) is well-documented and commonly used in the systems of traditional medicine in China, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, India and Japan for curing digestive and neuropsychiatric disorders with a long history of medication. However, the possible action mechanisms of antidepressant effects of NJ remain unraveled. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to systematically investigate chemical substances of NJ and their effects on serotonin transporter (SERT) in antidepressant activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antidepressant effects of total methanol extract of NJ were evaluated by tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT). Then the total extract was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method, and its effect on SERT activity was evaluated by high content assay (HCA) to determine half maximal effective concentration (EC50). This total extract was subfractioned into twenty subfractions by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (p-HPLC) method, and 'subfraction-SERT activity' relationship curve was fitted with medians of the retention time of those subfractions and their SERT activity values. Then, the fraction NJFr.01 enriched with SERT enhancers was optimized, prepared and analyzed by UHPLC method. Antidepressant effects of the fraction NJFr.01 were evaluated by TST and OFT. Further, major constituents of the total extract and fraction NJFr.01 were isolated by p-HPLC and identified by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses and comparisons with those reported data, and their SERT activities were also evaluated. Finally, antagonistic effects of chlorogenic acid and desoxo-narchinol A against fluoxetine on SERT were evaluated. RESULTS: Results of TST and OFT demonstrated antidepressant effects of toatal extract of NJ. The EC50 of total extract on SERT enhancement was 31.63 µg/mL. The fitted 'subfraction-SERT activity' relationship curve revealed that fraction NJFr.01 was enriched with SERT enhancing constituents. Both total extract and fraction NJFr.01 significantly enhanced SERT activity, while the rest fraction NJFr.02 didn't show any SERT activity. Then, antidepressant effects of fraction NJFr.01 were demonstrated by TST and OFT. Further, phytochemistry investigation and UHPLC analyses confirmed the identification of fourteen constituents in the total extract of NJ, including 7-oxonardinoperoxide (1), desoxo-narchinol A (2), kanshone B (3), narchinol B (4), nardosinonediol (5), kanshone A (6), 1-hydroxylaristolone (7), debilon (8), nardosinone (9), kanshone H (10), 1,8,9,10-tetradehydroaristolan-2-one (11), (-)-aristolone (12), 1(10)-aristolene-2-one (13) and jatamol A (14), and seven constituents in the fraction NJFr.01, including chlorogenic acid (15), 8α-dihydrogeniposide (16), 7-deoxy-8-epi-loganic acid (17), adoxosidic acid (18), 8-epi-loganic acid (19), 8α-6,7-dihydroapodantheroside acetate (20) and 6″-acetylpatrinalloside (21). Their structures were established by NMR analyses and comparisons with those reported data. HCA results of these constituents demonstrated the major components of fraction NJFr.01 enhanced SERT activity. Antagonistic results showed that chlorogenic acid and desoxo-narchinol A reversed inhibition effect of fluoxetine on SERT activity. CONCLUSION: This study first systematically expatiated the roles of SERT activity in antidepressant effects of NJ, including total methanol extract and the water-soluble fraction NJFr.01 enriched with SERT enhancing constituents. This is the first report of natural SERT enhancing extract and fractions with antidepressant potential in NJ.

17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019778

RESUMO

Currently, controlled release formulations (CRFs) of pesticides in response to biotic and/or abiotic stimuli have shown great potential for providing "on-demand" smart release of loaded active ingredients. In this study, amphiphilic biopolymers were prepared by introducing hydrophobic (7-diethylaminocoumarin-4-yl)methyl succinate (DEACMS) onto the main chain of hydrophilic carboxymethylchitosan (CMCS) via the formation of amide bonds which were able to self-assemble into spherical micelles in aqueous media and were utilized as light-responsive nanocarriers for the controlled release of pesticides. FTIR and NMR characterizations confirmed the successful synthesis of the CMCS-DEACMS conjugate. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) decreased with the increase in the substitution of DEACMS on CMCS, which ranged from 0.013 to 0.042 mg/mL. Upon irradiation under simulated sunlight, the hydrodynamic diameter, morphology, photophysical properties and photolysis were researched by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Moreover, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used as a model pesticide and encapsulated into the CMCS-DEACMS micelles. In these micelle formulations, the release of 2,4-D was promoted upon simulated sunlight irradiation, during which the coumarin moieties were cleaved from the CMCS backbone, resulting in a shift of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance and destabilization of the micelles. Additionally, bioassay studies suggested that this 2,4-D contained which micelles showed good bioactivity on the target plant without harming the nontarget plant. Thereby, the light-responsive CMCS-DEACMS micelles bearing photocleavable coumarin moieties provide a smart delivery platform for agrochemicals.

18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(24)2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036987

RESUMO

The application of starter is a common practice to accelerate and steer the pomegranate wine fermentation process. However, the use of starter needs a better understanding of the effect of the interaction between the starter and native microorganisms during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, high-throughput sequencing combined with metabolite analysis was applied to analyze the effect of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculation on the native fungal community interaction and metabolism during pomegranate wine fermentation. Results showed that there were diverse native fungi in pomegranate juice, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora valbyensis, S. cerevisiae, Pichia terricola, and Candida diversa Based on ecological network analysis, we found that S. cerevisiae inoculation transformed the negative correlations into positive correlations among the native fungal communities and decreased the Granger causalities between native yeasts and volatile organic compounds. This might lead to decreased contents of isobutanol, isoamylol, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, ethyl laurate, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexadecanoate, phenethyl acetate, and 2-phenylethanol during fermentation. This study combined correlation and causality analysis to gain a more integrated understanding of microbial interaction and the fermentation process. It provided a new strategy to predict certain behaviors between inoculated and selected microorganisms and those coming directly from the fruit.IMPORTANCE Microbial interactions play an important role in flavor metabolism during traditional food and beverage fermentation. However, we understand little about how selected starters influence interactions among native microorganisms. In this study, we found that S. cerevisiae inoculation changed the interactions and metabolisms of native fungal communities during pomegranate wine fermentation. This study not only suggests that starter inoculation should take into account the positive features of starters but also characterizes the microbial interactions established among the starters and the native communities. It may be helpful to select appropriate starter cultures for winemakers to design different styles of wine.

19.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(11): 2757-2766, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025399

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To enhance the understanding of the clinical significance of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in follicular fluid, we aimed to determine the variability of AMH concentrations in follicular fluid within and across IVF cycles and whether high follicular fluid AMH concentrations are associated with improved clinical IVF outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of companion follicular fluid and serum samples from 162 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study between 2010 and 2016. AMH concentrations were quantified using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman correlation and intra-class correlation (ICC) were calculated to assess variability of follicular fluid AMH, and generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the associations of FF AMH with IVF outcomes. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range, IQR) age of the 162 women was 34.0 years (32.0, 37.0). Follicular fluid AMH concentrations were highly correlated between follicles within each IVF cycle (Spearman r = 0.78 to 0.86) and across cycles for each woman (ICC 0.87 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.92)). Compared with women in the highest tertile of FF AMH (mean AMH = 2.3 ng/ml), women in the lowest tertile (mean AMH = 0.2 ng/ml) had lower serum AMH (T1 = 0.1 ng/ml vs. T3 = 0.6 ng/ml, p < 0.0001). In adjusted models, higher tertiles of follicular fluid AMH concentrations were associated with lower mean endometrial thickness and higher probability of clinical pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Follicular fluid AMH concentrations show little variability between pre-ovulatory follicles, and higher pre-ovulatory follicular fluid AMH may predict a higher probability of clinical pregnancy.

20.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002136

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) provides a powerful tool to determine expression patterns of thousands of individual cells. However, the analysis of scRNA-seq data remains a computational challenge due to the high technical noise such as the presence of dropout events that lead to a large proportion of zeros for expressed genes. Taking into account the cell heterogeneity and the relationship between dropout rate and expected expression level, we present a cell sub-population based bounded low-rank (PBLR) method to impute the dropouts of scRNA-seq data. Through application to both simulated and real scRNA-seq datasets, PBLR is shown to be effective in recovering dropout events, and it can dramatically improve the low-dimensional representation and the recovery of gene‒gene relationships masked by dropout events compared to several state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, PBLR also detects accurate and robust cell sub-populations automatically, shedding light on its flexibility and generality for scRNA-seq data analysis.

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