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1.
Front Oncol ; 12: 852044, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574422

RESUMO

Introduction: Early diagnosis could lead to a cure of colorectal cancer (CRC). Since CRC is related to aging and lifestyles, we tested if the environmental information-enriched monosaccharide composite (MC) of circulating glycans could serve as an early diagnostic biomarker for CRC. Meanwhile, we evaluated its role in predicting prognosis. Methods: HPAEC-PAD was used to quantify glycan monosaccharide compositions from a total of 467 serum samples including CRC patients, colorectal adenoma (CRA) patients and healthy individuals. Two diagnostic model was constructed by logistic regression analysis. The diagnostic performance of the two models was verified in the retrospective validation group and the prospective validation group. The prognostic performance of the model was assessed by survival analysis. Results: The concentrations of monosaccharides in serum were significantly higher in CRA and CRC patients than in healthy individuals. Two diagnostic models were constructed: MC1 was used to distinguish between healthy individuals and CRC; MC2 was used to distinguish between healthy individuals and CRA. Area under receptor operating characteristic curve (AUC) of MC2 and MC1 was 0.8025 and 0.9403 respectively. However, the AUC of CEA between healthy individuals and CRC was 0.7384. Moreover, in early stage of CRC (without lymph node metastasis), the positive rates of CEA and MC1 were 28% and 80%, respectively. The follow-up data showed that the increased MC1 value was associated with poor survival in patients with CRC (p=0.0010, HR=5.30). Discussion: The MC1 model is superior to CEA in the diagnosis of CRC, especially in the early diagnosis. MC1 can be used for predicting prognosis of CRC patients, and elevated MC1 values indicate poor survival.

2.
Small ; : e2201123, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35555970

RESUMO

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are used to treat various nervous system diseases because of their self-renewal ability and multidirectional differentiation potential. However, an insufficient ability to track their migration in vivo and poor control over their survival and differentiation efficiency are two major critical challenges for clinical application. Here, it is shown that when magnetic nanobubbles (MNBs), which are assembled from magnetic nanoparticles, are internalized by NSCs, intramembrane volumetric oscillation of the MNBs induces an increase in intracellular hydrostatic pressure and cytoskeleton force, resulting in the activation of the Piezo1-Ca2+ mechanosensory channel. This subsequently triggers the BMP2/Smad biochemical signaling pathway, leading to differentiation of NSCs into the neuronal phenotype. Signaling through the Piezo1-Ca2+ -BMP2/Smad pathway can be further accelerated by application of an external shear stress force using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. More importantly, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound imaging surveillance of NSCs based on MNB labeling can be leveraged to provide NSC therapeutic outcomes. Both the in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that a bubble nanostructure-induced physical force can modulate and control the mechanical signaling pathway regulating stem cell development.

4.
Water Res ; 219: 118570, 2022 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597221

RESUMO

When facing wastewater with high organic and ammonia, e. g. swine wastewater, microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is emerging for energy extraction as hydrogen and methane. However, the effects of highly concentrated ammonia on MEC haven't been fully evaluated. In this study, single-chamber MECs were operated with acetate and sucrose as substrates under various ammonia concentrations. The current generally increased with ammonia loading from 80 to 3000 mg L-1. Yet, the substrate consumption in MECs was inhibited with ammonia concentrations above 1000 mg L-1. As a combined result, the energy recovery efficiency of MECs was stable. The electrochemical activity of anode biofilm reached the peak under 1000 mg L-1 ammonia and was restricted under higher ammonia loadings. Under neutral pH, the NH4+ increases the cell membrane permeability, which benefited the electrochemical activity of exoelectrogens to a proper extent. Nevertheless, the toxic ammonia also accelerated the anode biomass loss and stimulated the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) secretion. Due to the current increase, the abundance of exoelectrogens generally raised with ammonia loading from 80 to 3000 mg L-1. However, except for anode biomass loss, the carbon and methane metabolism pathways were inhibited in acetate-fed MEC, while the glycolysis acted as the rate-limiting step for substrate degradation in sucrose-fed conditions. This study systematically examined the influences of high ammonia loading on MEC performances, bio-community and anode electrochemical activities, and evaluated practical feasibility and application inch of MECs for the energy recovery and pollutant removal of high concentration organic and ammonia wastewater.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564879

RESUMO

Frequent outbreaks of harmful algal blooms (HABs) represent one of the most serious outcomes of eutrophication, and light radiation plays a critical role in the succession of species. Therefore, a better understanding of the impact of light radiation is essential for mitigating HABs. In this study, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and non-toxic and toxic Microcystis aeruginosa were mono-cultured and co-cultured to explore algal responses under different nutrient regimes. Comparisons were made according to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), UV-B radiation exerted oxidative stresses, and negative effects on the photosynthesis and growth of three species under normal growth conditions, and algal adaptive responses included extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, the regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, photosynthetic pigments synthesis, etc. Three species had strain-specific responses to UV-B radiation and toxic M. aeruginosa was more tolerant and showed a higher adaptation capability to UV-B in the mono-cultures, including the lower sensitivity and better self-repair efficiency. In addition to stable µmax in PAR ad UV-B treatments, higher EPS production and enhanced production of photosynthetic pigments under UV-B radiation, toxic M. aeruginosa showed a better recovery of its photosynthetic efficiency. Nutrient enrichment alleviated the negative effects of UV-B radiation on three species, and the growth of toxic M. aeruginosa was comparable between PAR and UV-B treatment. In the co-cultures with nutrient enrichment, M. aeruginosa gradually outcompeted C. pyrenoidosa in the PAR treatment and UV-B treatment enhanced the growth advantages of M. aeruginosa, when toxic M. aeruginosa showed a greater competitiveness. Overall, our study indicated the adaptation of typical algal species to ambient UV-B radiation and the stronger competitive ability of toxic M. aeruginosa in the UV-radiated waters with severer eutrophication.

6.
Chemosphere ; 302: 134772, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526686

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most frequently detected hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in the environment. They may form clusters because of the strong hydrophobic and π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions among PAHs molecules. However, previous experimental studies and theoretical simulations generally ignored the impact of molecular clusters on the adsorption, which may result in the misunderstanding of the environmental fate and risk. In this work, naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) were selected to investigate intermolecular interaction as well as the consequent impact on their adsorption on graphene. The density field of C atoms in equilibrium configurations of self-interacted PAHs suggested that the formation of PAHs molecular clusters was a spontaneous process, and was favored in solvents with stronger polarity and for PAHs with more benzene rings. It should be noted that the molecular dynamics simulations with the initial state of molecular clusters matched better with the published experimental results compared with those of individual PAHs. The formed compact PAHs clusters in polar solvents increased the apparent PAHs adsorption, because of their higher hydrophobic and π-π EDA interactions. This study emphasized that the self-interaction of PAHs should be carefully considered in both experimental and theoretical simulation studies.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 51(20): 7966-7974, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546497

RESUMO

In this paper, three zinc porphyrins bearing carboxyl, amino or hydroxyl groups on the porphyrin ring, namely, 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) zinc porphyrin (ZnTCPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl) zinc porphyrin (ZnTHPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-aminophenyl) zinc porphyrin (ZnTAPP), reacted with the doughnut-like molybdenum crown cluster [(MoO3)176(H2O)63(CH3OH)17H16]16- (denoted as {Mo176}), resulting in the formation of three porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrids (denoted as hybrids 1-3), respectively, with the ratio of {Mo176} to the porphyrin molecules in each compound being 1 : 3. Compared with the corresponding parent porphyrins, the fluorescence quenching efficiency of hybrid 1, hybrid 2 and hybrid 3 was found to be 51%, 58% and 66%, respectively, indicating electron/energy transfer occurring from the porphyrin moiety to the POM moiety. Z-Scan experimental results showed that the three porphyrins and hybrids 1-3 exhibited nonlinear reverse saturated absorption and self-defocusing properties. The molecular second hyperpolarizability (γ) values of hybrids 1-3 (7.38 × 10-27, 7.26 × 10-27 and 4.26 × 10-27 (esu)) are higher than those of the corresponding porphyrins (1.18 × 10-27, 1.34 × 10-27 and 1.36 × 10-27 (esu)), indicating that the doughnut-like molybdenum crown cluster in the hybrids 1-3 improved the third-order optical nonlinearities of the accommodated H-aggregate of the zinc porphyrin molecules, wherein the optical nonlinearities of the porphyrin with the electron-withdrawing functional group of -COOH (γ = 7.38 × 10-27 for hybrid 1vs. γ = 1.18 × 10-27 for ZnTCPP) were enhanced the most. In addition, studies on the optical limiting properties of hybrid 1 and hybrid 2 showed that the nonlinear attenuation factor (NAF) of both hybrid 1 and hybrid 2 was larger than that of their corresponding porphyrins (NAF = 5.65 for hybrid 1vs. 1.82 for ZnTCPP) and the limiting threshold of hybrid 1 and hybrid 2 can reach 0.3 J cm-2 and 0.32 J cm-2, which proved that hybrids 1 and 2 are potential optical limiting materials.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 795972, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371084

RESUMO

Patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (LACRC) have a high risk of recurrence and metastasis, although neoadjuvant therapy may provide some benefit. However, patients with high microsatellite instability/deficient mismatch repair (MSI-H/dMMR) LACRC receive little benefit from neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT). The 2015 KEYNOTE-016 trial identified MSI-H/dMMR as a biomarker indicative of immunotherapy efficacy, and pointed to the potential use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). In 2017, the FDA approved two ICIs (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) for treatment of MSI-H/dMMR metastatic CRC (mCRC). In 2018, the CheckMate-142 trial demonstrated successful treatment of mCRC based on "double immunity" provided by nivolumab with ipilimumab, a regimen that may become a standard first-line treatment for MSI-H mCRC. In 2018, the FDA approved nivolumab alone or with ipilimumab for patients who progressed to MSI-H/dMMR mCRC after standard chemotherapy. The FDA then approved pembrolizumab alone as a first-line treatment for patients with MSI-H/dMMR CRC that was unresectable or metastatic. There is now interest in using these drugs in neoadjuvant immunotherapy (nIT) for patients with MSI-H/dMMR non-mCRC. In 2020, the NICHE trial marked the start of using nIT for CRC. This novel treatment of MSI-H/dMMR LACRC may change the approaches used for neoadjuvant therapy of other cancers. Our review of immunotherapy for CRC covers diagnosis and treatment, clinical prognostic characteristics, the mechanism of nIT, analysis of completed prospective and retrospective studies, and ongoing clinical trials, and the clinical practice of using nIT for MSI-H/dMMR LACRC. Our team also proposes a new organ-preservation strategy for patients with MSI-H/dMMR low LARC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 846044, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433406

RESUMO

Background: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a very heterogeneous group of myeloid disorders with high prevalence and risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. The more accurate risk stratification can provide a better guidance of treatment. The platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR) is a parameter reported in complete blood cell count tests, and was associated with many diseases, but its role in MDS is not clear. Purpose: This study aims to explore the impact of the P-LCR on the prognosis of patients with MDS, which is of great significance for clinical treatment. Methods: In the retrospective study, 122 newly diagnosed MDS patients were enrolled. We used the bioinformatics tool X-tile to define a P-LCR threshold of 36.7% to predict prognosis. Patients were divided into P-LCRlow and P-LCRhigh groups, and their characteristics were compared between the two groups. Results: Results show that the P-LCRlow was associated with worse overall survival (OS) than the P-LCRhigh patients (median OS, 18.53 months versus 25.77 months, p=0.0057), but there were no statistical differences in progression-free survival (PFS) between the two groups (p=0.2001). The results of univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses adjusted for gender, bone marrow blast level, platelet count, and International Prognostic Scoring System scores showed that the P-LCR was useful in the evaluation of PFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.212, 95%CI 0.064-0.702, p=0.011] and OS of MDS (HR 0.464, 95%CI 0.284-0.757, p=0.002). Conclusion: This study is the first report showing that the P-LCR would be a simple and immediately available biomarker for predicting the prognosis of MDS.

10.
Eye (Lond) ; 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an end-to-end region-based deep convolutional neural network (R-DCNN) to jointly segment the optic disc (OD) and optic cup (OC) in retinal fundus images for precise cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) measurement and glaucoma screening. METHODS: In total, 2440 retinal fundus images were retrospectively obtained from 2033 participants. An R-DCNN was presented for joint OD and OC segmentation, where the OD and OC segmentation problems were formulated into object detection problems. We compared R-DCNN's segmentation performance on our in-house dataset with that of four ophthalmologists while performing quantitative, qualitative and generalization analyses on the publicly available both DRISHIT-GS and RIM-ONE v3 datasets. The Dice similarity coefficient (DC), Jaccard coefficient (JC), overlapping error (E), sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP) and area under the curve (AUC) were measured. RESULTS: On our in-house dataset, the proposed model achieved a 98.51% DC and a 97.07% JC for OD segmentation, and a 97.63% DC and a 95.39% JC for OC segmentation, achieving a performance level comparable to that of the ophthalmologists. On the DRISHTI-GS dataset, our approach achieved 97.23% and 94.17% results in DC and JC results for OD segmentation, respectively, while it achieved a 94.56% DC and an 89.92% JC for OC segmentation. Additionally, on the RIM-ONE v3 dataset, our model generated DC and JC values of 96.89% and 91.32% on the OD segmentation task, respectively, whereas the DC and JC values acquired for OC segmentation were 88.94% and 78.21%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed approach achieved very encouraging performance on the OD and OC segmentation tasks, as well as in glaucoma screening. It has the potential to serve as a useful tool for computer-assisted glaucoma screening.

11.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 874703, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463927

RESUMO

More and more studies showed that strabismus is not simply an ocular disease, but a neuro-ophthalmology disease. To analyze potential changes in brain activity and their relationship to behavioral performance in comitant strabismus patients and healthy controls. Our study recruited 28 patients with comitant strabismus and 28 people with matched weight, age range, and sex ratio as healthy controls. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated fALFF to compare spontaneous brain activity between comitant strabismus and healthy controls. We did hospital anxiety and depression scale questionnaires for these patients. We found significantly lower fALFF value in comitant strabismus patients compared with controls in the left frontal superior medial gyrus and the right middle cingulum. In the latter region, fALFF was significantly negatively correlated with the hospital anxiety and depression scale, as well as the duration of disease. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the fALFF method has clear potential for the diagnosis of comitant strabismus patients. These results revealed abnormal spontaneous activity in two brain regions of comitant strabismus patients, which may indicate underlying pathologic mechanisms and may help to advance clinical treatment.

12.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 790678, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463933

RESUMO

Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated altered brain activity in strabismic amblyopia (SA). In this study, low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied in children with strabismic amblyopia after they had undergone strabismus surgery. The effect of rTMS was investigated by measuring the changes of brain features using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). Materials and Methods: In this study, 21 SA patients (12 males and 9 females) were recruited based on their age (7-13 years old), weight, and sex. They all had SA in their left eyes and they received rTMS treatment one month after strabismus surgery. Their vision before and after surgery were categorized as pre-rTMS (PRT) and post-rTMS (POT). All participants received rTMS treatment, underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and their data were analyzed using the repeated measures t-test. The team used correlation analysis to explore the relationship between logMAR visual acuity and ALFF. Results: Pre- versus post-rTMS values of ALFF were significantly different within individuals. In the POT group, ALFF values were significantly decreased in the Angular_R (AR), Parietal_Inf_L (PIL), and Cingulum_Mid_R (CMR) while ALFF values were significantly increased in the Fusiform_R (FR) and Frontal_Inf_Orb_L(FIL) compared to the PRT stage. Conclusion: Our data showed that ALFF recorded from some brain regions was changed significantly after rTMS in strabismic amblyopes. The results may infer the pathological basis of SA and demonstrate that visual function may be improved using rTMS in strabismic amblyopic patients.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(8)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454449

RESUMO

Cf/C-SiC composites have become the preferred material for high-temperature load-bearing applications because of their low density, high strength, and excellent thermal-physical properties. Due to the composite's poor sintering performance, the sintering temperature and pressure required for the preparation of Cf/C-SiC by traditional methods are also relatively high, which limits its engineering application. Herein, based on the precursor-derived ceramic route and C/C composites material preparation process, a binary binder (coal pitch and polysilylacetylene) is developed, which combines a carbon source, SiC precursor, and semi-ceramic SiC filler organically. Then, the SiC phase was successfully introduced into C/C composites by the slurry impregnation-hot pressing sintering method. The prepared Cf/C-SiC composites showed good mechanical properties, with a density of 1.53 g/cm3 and a bending strength of 339 ± 21 MPa. Moreover, the effects of the binary binder on the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of Cf/C-SiC composites were investigated. This work provides a novel and effective approach to fabricating Cf/C-SiC composites with low density and high strength.

14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 236: 113490, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398649

RESUMO

To investigate the characteristics of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn) in urban road dust from different cities and functional areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, a total of 294 dust samples were analyzed. The contamination characteristics and health risk of heavy metals in the dust were assessed, their chemical speciation were distinguished, and their sources were identified by the correlations, cluster and principal component analysis (PCA). The mean concentrations of As (15.89 mg/kg), Cd (1.59 mg/kg), Cr (143.75 mg/kg), Cu (184.42 mg/kg), Pb (114.82 mg/kg), Hg (0.11 mg/kg), Ni (41.53 mg/kg) and Zn (645.94 mg/kg) in urban road dust were in high or moderate levels compare with other previous researches. In this case, the contamination of Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn in the industrial area (IA) and the contamination of Cd and Hg in the commercial area (CA) were significantly higher relative to other functional areas (P < 0.05), and the contamination of heavy metals in Foshan City was significantly higher than other cities (P < 0.01). The order of mobility of the heavy metals with higher concentration in urban road dust of the Pearl River Delta declined in the following order: Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cr. Statistical analysis result showed the contaminated heavy metals in urban road dust were mainly contributed by industrial activities, traffic activities and building pollution. There were no significant carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks for adults, children however showed significant noncarcinogenic effect caused by As and Cr in partial points, albeit with low contamination level of the two metals. The ingestion was a principal pathway for heavy metals via urban road dust to exposure population. More protection measures should be considered to reduce children's exposure to the dust, especially in the CA and IA.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Cádmio/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios
15.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 854758, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391752

RESUMO

Objective: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes visual damage and blindness globally. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in functional connectivity (FC) in AMD patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Subjects and Methods: A total of 23 patients (12 male, 11 female) with AMD were enrolled to the AMD patients group (AMDs), and 17 healthy age-, sex-, and education-matched controls (9 male, 8 female) to the healthy controls group (HCs). All participants underwent rs-fMRI and mean FC values were compared between the two groups. Results: Significantly higher FC values were found in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), rectal gyrus (RTG), and superior parietal lobule (SPL) in AMDs compared with HCs. Conversely, FC values in the cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL), middle cingulate gyrus (MCG), medulla (MDL), cerebellum anterior lobe (CAL), and thalamus (TLM) were significantly lower in AMDs than in HCs. Conclusion: This study demonstrated FC abnormalities in many specific cerebral regions in AMD patients, and may provide new insights for exploration of potential pathophysiological mechanism of AMD-induced functional cerebral changes.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(18): 10757-10764, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466337

RESUMO

Polymer micelles with distinct morphologies and unique microphase separation microstructures can exhibit different properties and functions, holding great promise for a range of biomedical applications. In the current work, the topological effects of grafted triblock copolymers on the morphologies and microphase separation microstructures of micelles, including block arrangements and grafting arrangements of hydrophobic side chains, are systematically studied. Using common copolymer components of typical drug carriers, micelles with interesting geometries are achieved, such as raspberry, multicompartment, ellipsoidal and dumbbell shapes, in which the relationship between micelle morphology and copolymer topology is verified. With further exploration of the grafting position and amount of hydrophobic side chains, the microstructure influencing mechanism of copolymer micelles in self-assembly is discussed. The block arrangements of hydrophobic side chains determine the configurations of copolymers (zigzag/bridge) inside micelles, which in turn affect the morphological transitions (from spherical to ringed short-rods and then to cylinders) and the size of the hydrophobic ring, which further gradually change into hydrophobic cage. This study provides insight into the microstructure of hydrophobic side chain grafted copolymer micelles and further helps to understand the mechanism of controlling the morphology of micelles, which might be useful to guide the molecular design and experimental preparation of micelles with controllable morphology for drug encapsulation and delivery.


Assuntos
Micelas , Polímeros , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Polímeros/química
17.
Int J Biometeorol ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477801

RESUMO

Land cover change (LCC) significantly changed the local/regional temperature. This paper attempts to reveal the effects of cropland expansion in different ways on temperature change from the 1900s to 2010s in Heilongjiang Province. To reach this goal, we conducted four simulation research schemes with the coupled Weather Research and Forecast (WRF)-Noah model to investigate the warming/cooling effect of cropland expansion. The results show that cropland expansion exerted different effects with different land-use type conversions. In the last century, the areas with grassland-to-cropland and wetland-to-cropland transition show the warming effect, and the average surface temperature in Heilongjiang Province increased by 0.023 ℃ and 0.024 ℃, respectively. The areas with forest-to-cropland transition show the cooling effect, in which the average temperature decreased by 0.103 ℃. The variation of air temperature is mainly caused by the variation of surface reflectance and surface net radiation flux. The results provide evidence that cropland expansion changes to biophysical landscape characteristics, warming/cooling the land surface and thus enhancing/reducing the temperature, and lead to regional climate change eventually.

18.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(2): 60, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364648

RESUMO

Optic neuritis (ON) is a general term for inflammation of any part of the optic nerve resulting from demyelination or infection. The number of patients with MOG-lgG antibody-related optic neuritis is increasing recently. Our study uses the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method to compare the activity of specific brain regions in MOG-lgG ON patients and healthy controls (HCs). We selected a total of 21 MOG-lgG ON patients and 21 HCs were included in the study. All subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The independent-samples t-test was used to compare demographic data and average fALFF values between groups. The specificity and sensitivity of fALFF values for distinguishing between MOG-lgG ON patients and HCs were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between fALFF values and clinical characteristics in MOG-lgG ON patients. Our results showed that fALFF values of the right cerebellum and left middle cingulum were lower whereas those of bilateral inferior temporal lobes, right gyrus rectus, and the left superior and right middle frontal lobes of MOG-lgG ON patients were higher than those of HCs (P < 0.05). The average fALFF value of the left superior frontal lobe in MOG-lgG ON patients was positively correlated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score (HADS) (r = 0.6004; P < 0.05) and duration of MOG-lgG ON (r = 6487; P < 0.05). Thus, patients with MOG-lgG ON have abnormal activity in the brain regions related to vision. Changes in fALFF value can reflect functional sequelae of MOG-lgG ON, including abnormal anxiety or depressive emotional changes.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neurite Óptica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neurite Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurite Óptica/patologia , Lobo Temporal
19.
Radiology ; : 212192, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380491

RESUMO

Background Microscopic vascular events, such as neovascularization and neurovascular uncoupling, are common in cerebral glioma. Mapping the cerebrovascular network remodeling at the macroscopic level may provide an alternative approach to assess hemodynamic dysregulation in patients with glioma. Purpose To investigate cerebrovascular dynamics and their relevance to tumor aggressiveness by using time-shift analysis (TSA) of the systemic low-frequency oscillation (sLFO) of the resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent signal and a decision tree model. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, 96 patients with histologically confirmed cerebral glioma were consecutively included (March 2012 to February 2017). TSA was performed to quantify the temporal properties of sLFO signals. Alteration in the time-shift properties was assessed in the tumor region and the contralesional hemisphere relative to the brains of healthy controls by using the Mann-Whitney U test. A decision tree model based on time-shift features was developed to predict the World Health Organization (WHO) glioma grade. Results A total of 88 patients with glioma (WHO grade II, 45; grade III, 21; grade IV, 22; mean age, 42 years; age range, 20-73 years; 51 men) and 40 healthy individuals from the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project (mean age, 32 years; age range, 24-49 years; 19 men) were included. The sLFO of the brain tissues was characterized by increased time shift in the tumor region and enhanced correlation with the global reference signal in the contralesional hemisphere compared with healthy brains. The proportion of tumor voxels with negative correlation to the reference signal significantly increased with the glioma malignancy grade. The decision tree model achieved an accuracy of 91% (80 of 88 patients) in predicting the glioma malignancy grade at the individual level (P = .004) based on the time-shift features. Conclusion Gliomas induced grade-specific cerebrovascular dysregulation in the entire brain, with altered time-shift features of systemic low-frequency oscillation signals. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

20.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363481

RESUMO

We introduce a stretchable electronic facial mask (SEFM) as a platform for facial healthcare, which can integrate with various sensors and actuators. As a demonstration, an SEFM for sonophoresis enabling the promotion of the delivery effect of a drug mask is developed. To overcome the technique challenges, several approaches including the design of the joined silicone layer by two planar half-face portions and the single-side soft pressing (SSSP) technique for encapsulation are exploited in this work, which could be extended to the design and fabrication of other stretchable electronics. The mechanical, thermal, electrical, and ultrasonic characteristics of the SEFM are all verified by the finite element analysis and experiments. Finally, we prove the effect of the SEFM on accelerating the delivery of hyaluronic acid (HA) through animal experiments and confirm that the SEFM can enhance the skin moisture content by 20% via human facial experiments.

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