Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 74
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18521, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876744

RESUMO

Genetic testing of children is faced with numerous problems. High-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are needed to ensure its safe, and appropriate use. This study aimed to systematically identify the current CPGs for genetic testing in children, and to assess the methodological quality of these CPGs.We searched 6 databases, 3 guideline clearinghouses, and 9 web sites of relevant academic agencies from inception to February 2019. CPGs focused on genetic testing in children were included. Four reviewers independently appraised the quality of the eligible CPGs using the appraisal of guidelines for research, and evaluation (AGREE) II instrument.Seventeen CPGs meeting our inclusion criteria were included. Among them, 16 CPGs were focused on the genetic diagnosis/evaluation of diseases, while only 1 CPG was focused on pharmacogenetics. The median domain scores from highest to lowest were: scope and purpose 80.56% (range: 56.95%-87.50%), clarity of presentation 72.22% (range: 45.83%-88.89%), stakeholder involvement 45.83% (range: 27.78%-55.56%), applicability 31.25% (range: 19.79%-54.17%), rigor of development 21.88%, (range: 13.02%-71.88%), and editorial independence 18.75% (range: 0%-83.33%). According to the overall quality, 6 (35%) CPGs were "not recommended," 8 (47%) CPGs were "recommended with modifications," and only 3 (18%) CPGs were "recommended." The clinical topics of the "recommended" CPGs were warfarin, familial Mediterranean fever, and pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension.The quality of CPGs for genetic testing in children was generally low, and variable across different CPGs and different AGREE II domains. In future guideline development, more attention should be paid to the aspects of stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, applicability, and editorial independence. Not only will guideline users benefit from our results when determining whether to adopt related CPGs to guide genetic testing in children, but guideline developers could also take into account our results to improve the quality of future CPGs.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Farmacogenética/normas
2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224562, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of volatile anesthetics in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients remain controversial. We aimed to conduct an updated meta-analysis to assess whether the use of volatile anesthetics during CABG could reduce mortality and other outcomes. METHODS: We searched eight databases from inception to June 2019 and included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of volatile anesthetics versus total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) in CABG patients. The primary outcomes were operative mortality and one-year mortality. The secondary outcomes included the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital and postoperative safety outcomes (myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmia, stroke, delirium, postoperative cognitive impairment, acute kidney injury, and the use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) or other mechanical circulatory support). Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed to control for random errors. RESULTS: A total of 89 RCTs comprising 14,387 patients were included. There were no significant differences between the volatile anesthetics and TIVA groups in operative mortality (relative risk (RR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-1.24, p = 0.59, I2 = 0%), one-year mortality (RR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.32-1.26, p = 0.19, I2 = 51%), or any of the postoperative safety outcomes. The lengths of stay in the ICU and hospital were shorter in the volatile anesthetics group than in the TIVA group. TSA revealed that the results for operative mortality, one-year mortality, length of stay in the ICU, heart failure, stroke, and the use of IABP were inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional meta-analysis suggests that the use of volatile anesthetics during CABG is not associated with reduced risk of mortality or other postoperative safety outcomes when compared with TIVA. TSA shows that the current evidence is insufficient and inconclusive. Thus, future large RCTs are required to clarify this issue.

3.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 28: 102-104, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that occurs in the external auditory canal (EAC) is rare. Currently reported cases are mainly treated with surgical resection. Here, we described an early-detected BCC of the EAC, which achieved good results with photodynamic therapy (PDT). METHODS: 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) solution was applied on the tumor and its surrounding area of 0.5 cm normal skin. The skin lesion was encapsulated with sterile plastic film and covered with black film to avoid light. Then a special semiconductor laser fiber with 635 nm wavelength red light was directly inserted into the EAC to irradiate the lesion. RESULTS: The wound was healed. After 1 year of follow-up, there was no recurrence of the tumor. CONCLUSION: Our case shows that PDT for BCC of the EAC can also achieve good results. It adds a new treatment option for BCC of EAC patients, especially for those who cannot or refuse to use surgery.

4.
New Phytol ; 222(3): 1507-1522, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632163

RESUMO

miRNAs contribute to plant resistance against pathogens. Previously, we found that the function of miR398b in immunity in rice differs from that in Arabidopsis. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we characterized the mutants of miR398b target genes and demonstrated that multiple superoxide dismutase genes contribute to miR398b-regulated rice immunity against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Out of the four target genes of miR398b, mutations in Cu/Zn-Superoxidase Dismutase1 (CSD1), CSD2 and Os11g09780 (Superoxide DismutaseX, SODX) led to enhanced resistance to M. oryzae and increased hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation. By contrast, mutations in Copper Chaperone for Superoxide Dismutase (CCSD) resulted in enhanced susceptibility. Biochemical studies revealed that csd1, csd2 and sodx displayed altered expression of CSDs and other superoxide dismutase (SOD) family members, leading to increased total SOD enzyme activity that positively contributed to higher H2 O2 production. By contrast, the ccsd mutant showed CSD protein deletion, resulting in decreased CSD and total SOD enzyme activity. Our results demonstrate the roles of different SODs in miR398b-regulated resistance to rice blast disease, and uncover an integrative regulatory network in which miR398b boosts total SOD activity to upregulate H2 O2 concentration and thereby improve disease resistance.

5.
Plant J ; 98(1): 55-70, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552775

RESUMO

The extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) is a host-derived interfacial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew fungi. Arabidopsis thaliana RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8.2 (RPW8.2) is specifically targeted to the EHM via two EHM-targeting signals. Here, we demonstrate that proper coordination between the trafficking forces engaged via the EHM-targeting signals and the nuclear localization signals (NLSs), as well as the nuclear export signals (NESs), in RPW8.2 is critical for the activation of cell death and defense. We show that in the absence of pathogens, RPW8.2 is partitioned between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and turned over via both the 26S proteasome- and the vacuole-dependent pathways. Enhanced cytoplasmic localization of RPW8.2 by tagging it with a NES led to lethal cell death. By contrast, enhanced nuclear localization of RPW8.2 by adding an NLS to it resulted in resistance to powdery mildew. Whereas expression of the NES-containing C-terminal domain of RPW8.2 in the cytoplasm is sufficient to trigger cell death, no such cell death-inducing activity is found with RPW8.2 variants that contain the two EHM-targeting signals along with the NES-containing C-terminal domain. In addition, we present evidence for the involvement of a leaf senescence pathway in RPW8.2-mediated cell death and defense. Taken together, our data suggest that RPW8.2 is subject to adjustment by distinct and perhaps coordinated mechanisms for its localization and function via interaction with the multiple intramolecular trafficking signals, which should provide further insights into RPW8.2-activated, EHM-focused resistance against powdery mildew.

6.
Pharmacopsychiatry ; 52(1): 7-15, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antipsychotic drugs for tic disorders (TDs) in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and 4 Chinese databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs for TDs were included. RESULTS: Sixty RCTs were included. In terms of tic symptom score, compared with placebo, haloperidol, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, olanzapine, and ziprasidone can significantly improve tic symptom score (standardized mean differences [SMD] ranged from -12.32 to -3.20). Quetiapine was superior to haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, tiapride, aripiprazole, and penfluridol for improving tic symptom score (SMD ranged from -28.24 to -7.59). Compared with tiapride, aripiprazole could significantly improve tic symptom score (SMD=-4.27). Compared with all other drugs, penfluridol was not effective. Atypical antipsychotics were generally well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical antipsychotics (risperidone and aripiprazole) appear to be the most robust evidence-based options for the treatment of TDs. Quetiapine may be a promising therapy. Ziprasidone and olanzapine are also effective, but the evidence is lacking. Further high-quality directly comparing different pharmacological treatment studies are justified.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Tique/tratamento farmacológico , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos
7.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 68(12): 3713-3719, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307389

RESUMO

A bacterium, designated strain CM134L-2T, was isolated from a chitin-enriched wheat leaf microbiome in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China. It was Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile, rod-shaped, and bright yellow in colour. Strain CM134L-2T grew at 4-35 °C, at pH 6.0-9.0 and could use chitin as the only carbon resource. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CM134L-2T was most closely related to Pedobacter nanyangensis Q-4T (97.7 %) and Pedobacter zeaxanthinifaciens TDMA-5T (97.4 %). Digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strain CM134L-2T with these two type strains were 26.8  and 20.8 %, respectively, and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values were 83.2 and 76.2 %; these values are lower than the proposed and generally accepted species boundaries of 70 % for dDDH and 95-96 % for ANI, which suggests strain CM134L-2T represents a novel species. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CM134L-2T was 39.3 mol%, menaquinone-7 was the major respiratory quinone, phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid and the major components of the cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, and C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c (summed feature 3); these features supported the affiliation of strain CM134L-2T to the genus Pedobacter. Overall, strain CM134L-2T belongs to the genus Pedobacter, but can be classified as a novel species, for which the name Pedobacter chitinilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CM134L-2T (=CGMCC 1.16520T=KCTC 62643T).


Assuntos
Pedobacter/classificação , Filogenia , Triticum/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Quitina/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pedobacter/genética , Pedobacter/isolamento & purificação , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
8.
J Genet Genomics ; 45(9): 467-476, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279093

RESUMO

It has been well documented that Tel1 positively regulates telomere-end resection by promoting Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) activity, while Rif2 negatively regulates telomere-end resection by inhibiting MRX activity. At uncapped telomeres, whether Tel1 or Rif2 plays any role remains largely unknown. In this work, we examined the roles of Tel1 and Rif2 at uncapped telomeres in yku70Δ and/or cdc13-1 mutant cells cultured at non-permissive temperature. We found that deletion of TEL1 exacerbates the temperature sensitivity of both yku70Δ and cdc13-1 cells. Further epistasis analysis indicated that MRX and Tel1 function in the same pathway in telomere protection. Consistently, TEL1 deletion increases accumulation of Exo1-dependent telomeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at uncapped telomeres, which stimulates checkpoint-dependent cell cycle arrest. Moreover, TEL1 deletion in yku70Δ cells facilitates Rad51-dependent Y' recombination. In contrast, RIF2 deletion in yku70Δ cells decreases the accumulation of telomeric ssDNA after 8 h of incubation at the non-permissive temperature of 37 °C and suppresses the temperature sensitivity of yku70Δ cells, likely due to the increase of Mre11 association at telomeres. Collectively, our findings indicate that Tel1 and Rif2 regulate telomere protection at uncapped telomeres via their roles in balancing MRX activity in telomere resection.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo , Telômero/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Endodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Epistasia Genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Telômero/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética
9.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 72: 64-76, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254011

RESUMO

Histone H2B lysine 123 mono-ubiquitination (H2Bub1), catalyzed by Rad6 and Bre1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, modulates chromatin structure and affects diverse cellular functions. H2Bub1 plays roles in telomeric silencing and telomere replication. Here, we have explored a novel role of H2Bub1 in telomere protection at uncapped telomeres in yku70Δ and cdc13-1 cells. Deletion of RAD6 or BRE1, or mutation of H2BK123R enhances the temperature sensitivity of both yku70Δ and cdc13-1 telomere capping mutants. Consistently, BRE1 deletion increases accumulation of telomeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in yku70Δ and cdc13-1 cells, and EXO1 deletion improves the growth of yku70Δ bre1Δ and cdc13-1 bre1Δ cells and decreases ssDNA accumulation. Additionally, deletion of BRE1 exacerbates the rate of entry into senescence of yku70Δ mre11Δ cells with telomere defects, and increases the recombination of subtelomeric Y' element that is required for telomere maintenance and survivor generation. Furthermore, Exo1 contributes to the abrupt senescence of yku70Δ mre11Δ bre1Δ cells, and Rad51 is essential for Y' recombination to generate survivors. Finally, deletion of BRE1 or mutation of H2BK123R results in nucleosome instability at subtelomeric regions. Collectively, this study provides a mechanistic link between H2Bub1-mediated chromatin structure and telomere protection after telomere uncapping.


Assuntos
Exodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Telômero/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Recombinação Genética
10.
Nature ; 560(7718): 331-335, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069045

RESUMO

Eukaryotic genomes are generally organized in multiple chromosomes. Here we have created a functional single-chromosome yeast from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cell containing sixteen linear chromosomes, by successive end-to-end chromosome fusions and centromere deletions. The fusion of sixteen native linear chromosomes into a single chromosome results in marked changes to the global three-dimensional structure of the chromosome due to the loss of all centromere-associated inter-chromosomal interactions, most telomere-associated inter-chromosomal interactions and 67.4% of intra-chromosomal interactions. However, the single-chromosome and wild-type yeast cells have nearly identical transcriptome and similar phenome profiles. The giant single chromosome can support cell life, although this strain shows reduced growth across environments, competitiveness, gamete production and viability. This synthetic biology study demonstrates an approach to exploration of eukaryote evolution with respect to chromosome structure and function.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Artificiais de Levedura/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Aptidão Genética/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Fusão Gênica Artificial/métodos , Centrômero/genética , Evolução Molecular , Meiose , Viabilidade Microbiana/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Telômero/genética , Transcriptoma
11.
Oncotarget ; 9(46): 28240-28266, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963275

RESUMO

The efficacy of all pharmacotherapies for patients suffering from tics were unclear. Literatures were searched from Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and four Chinese databases. The primary efficacy outcome scale was defined as the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Overall estimates of pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each outcome measure. A total of 53 trials were included. Meta-analysis suggested that alpha-2 adrenergic agonist agents and atypical antipsychotic agents were effective in improving tics, which included the maximum number of trials. Typical antipsychotic agents were associated with severer side-effects than alpha-2 adrenergic agonist agents. Besides, Traditional Chinese Medicine showed positive effects in YGTSS (NingDong Granule: WMD=-7.100, 95% CI, -10.430- -3.770; 5-Ling Granule: WMD=-11.300, 95% CI, -14.208- -8.392), while glutamate modulators (D-serine, N-Acetylcysteine and riluzole) might not be working. In summary, alpha-2 adrenergic agonist agents were associated with the optimal weigh between efficacy and safety. However, the significant factor of limited trials and sample sizes discounted these findings. Further better studies are necessary to ascertain them.

13.
Biol Chem ; 399(11): 1285-1295, 2018 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924724

RESUMO

The paxillin and M2 macrophage are all involved in cell proliferation and tumor progression, and this study aims to explore the interaction between them in colon cancer and the role of paxillin in cancer progression. Expression of mRNAs and proteins was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, separately. Endogenous expression of genes was modulated by recombinant plasmids and cell transfection. The levels of cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cell viability, invasion and migration were detected using the MTT assay, the transwell assay and the wound-healing cell migration assay, respectively. A nude mouse model for human colon cancer was constructed for tumor orthotopic expression. Paxillin was up-regulated in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Paxillin was up-regulated in process of M2 macrophage polarization. M2 macrophage polarization was inhibited with paxillin suppressed. Down-regulated paxillin inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in colon cancer through suppressing M2 macrophage polarization. PI3k/Akt inhibitor repressed M2 macrophage polarization through down-regulating paxillin. PI3k/Akt inhibitor inhibited the function of the macrophage in promoting cell proliferation and invasion of colon cancer through down-regulating paxillin. Down-regulated paxillin in macrophages inhibited tumor growth of colon cancer. With the PI3K/AKT pathway inhibited, down-regulated paxillin suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation and invasion by inhibiting the M2 macrophage polarization, thereby restraining the tumor progression.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Paxilina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Paxilina/genética , Paxilina/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 101: 257-263, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the molecular mechanism that modulates the killing effect of natural killer (NK) cells to colorectal cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expressions of miR-24 and Paxillin were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Secretions of IFN-γ and TNF-α were measured by ELISA. The killing effect of NK cells was detected by CytoTox 96 non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay. Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm the regulation of miR-24 on Paxillin. RESULTS: miR-24 was overexpressed in NK cells from patients with colorectal cancer than healthy volunteers. Secretions of IFN-γ and TNF-α in activated NK cells were significantly increased, indicating the enhancement of the killing effect of NK cells. Paxillin expression was overexpressed in activated NK cells. Interference of Paxillin significantly decreased Paxillin expression, secretions of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and the killing effect of NK cells to colorectal cancer cells. In addition, we confirmed that Paxillin was a direct target of miR-24, and miR-24 was negatively correlated with Paxillin. Moreover, overexpression of miR-24 inhibited secretions of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and decreased cytotoxicity by downregulating Paxillin expression. Finally, we observed that overexpression of Paxillin significantly decreased tumor volume of colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of miR-24 supressed the killing effect of NK cells to colorectal cancer cells by downregulating Paxillin expression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Paxilina/genética , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Oncotarget ; 9(19): 15101-15110, 2018 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599930

RESUMO

Antipsychotics (AP) are widely used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. However, the association between the AP use and mortality risk is controversial. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and four Chinese databases from inception to June 2016. All observational cohort or case-control studies reporting data on mortality outcomes in individuals exposed to AP drugs were included. This systematic review included 68 studies involving 4,812,370 participants. Sixty-seven studies reported confounding factors, the most common being age, sex, race, concomitant medications, and comorbidities. For all-cause mortality, current users of AP and conventional antipsychotics (CAP) had higher mortality risk than did non-AP users [AP users: RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.99; CAP users: RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.04]. However, the association between the current use of atypical antipsychotics (AAP) and the mortality was of borderline significance, and there was no significant difference for past users of AP. Mortality was higher in current CAP users than in current AAP users. For cardiac death and sudden death, current AP and CAP users also had higher mortality risk than non-AP users. A subgroup analysis showed a possible increased risk in patients with Parkinson's, but not in those with dementia, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, delirium or stroke. An increased risk of all-cause mortality for patients ≧65 years may also exist. AP exposure is associated with an approximately 1.5-fold increased mortality risk. This increased risk may be particularly prominent in patients with Parkinson's and those over 65 years old. Further studies are required to evaluate the mortality risk for individual AP drugs and diseases.

16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 68(1): 99-105, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116035

RESUMO

Two psychrotolerant facultative anaerobes, strains B7-2T and B5T, were isolated from the Zoige Wetland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains B7-2T and B5T shared high similarity (>99 %) with those of the type strains of the genus Trichococcus, while their digital DNA-DNA hybridization values with each other (49 %) and with the reference type strains (48-23 %) were lower than 70 %, which suggest that they represent two novel species of the genus Trichococcus. Cells of strains B7-2T and B5T were immotile cocci, grew in the temperature range of 4-37 °C (optimum 25 °C) and were alkaliphilic with optimum growth at pH 9.0. The major components of the cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C18 : 0 for strain B7-2T, and C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 0 for strain B5T. The genomic DNA G+C contents were 46.0 and 46.7 mol% for strains B7-2T and B5T, respectively. Based on physiological and genomic characteristics, it is suggested that strains B7-2T and B5T represent two novel species within the genus Trichococcus, for which the names Trichococcus paludicola sp. nov. and Trichococcus alkaliphilus sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are B7-2T (=DSM 104691T=KCTC 33886T) and B5T (=DSM 104692T=KCTC 33885T), respectively.


Assuntos
Carnobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Áreas Alagadas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Carnobacteriaceae/genética , Carnobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1999, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693011

RESUMO

Fitness cost is a common phenomenon in rice blast disease-resistance breeding. MiR396 is a highly conserved microRNA (miRNA) family targeting Growth Regulating Factor (OsGRF) genes. Mutation at the target site of miR396 in certain OsGRF gene or blocking miR396 expression leads to increased grain yield. Here we demonstrated that fitness cost can be trade-off in miR396-OsGRFs module via balancing growth and immunity against the blast fungus. The accumulation of miR396 isoforms was significantly increased in a susceptible accession, but fluctuated in a resistant accession upon infection of Magnaporthe oryzae. The transgenic lines over-expressing different miR396 isoforms were highly susceptible to M. oryzae. In contrast, overexpressing target mimicry of miR396 to block its function led to enhanced resistance to M. oryzae in addition to improved yield traits. Moreover, transgenic plants overexpressing OsGRF6, OsGRF7, OsGRF8, and OsGRF9 exhibited enhanced resistance to M. oryzae, but showed different alteration of growth. While overexpression of OsGRF7 led to defects in growth, overexpression of OsGRF6, OsGRF8, and OsGRF9 resulted in better or no significant change of yield traits. Collectively, our results indicate that miR396 negatively regulates rice blast disease- resistance via suppressing multiple OsGRFs, which in turn differentially control growth and yield. Therefore, miR396-OsGRFs could be a potential module to demolish fitness cost in rice blast disease-resistance breeding.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 2044, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250093

RESUMO

Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) boosts pattern-triggered immunity leading to enhanced resistance to different pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we report that XAP5 CIRCADIAN TIMEKEEPER (XCT, At2g21150) positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance. Forward genetic screen identified the b3-17 mutant that exhibited less cell death and susceptibility to powdery mildew and bacterial pathogens. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation at the 3' splice site of the 8th intron, which resulted in splice shift to 8-bp down-stream of the original splice site of XCT in b3-17, and introduced into a stop codon after two codons leading to a truncated XCT. XCT has previously been identified as a circadian clock gene required for small RNA biogenesis and acting down-stream of ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) in the ethylene-signaling pathway. Here we further showed that mutation or down-regulation of XCT by artificial microRNA reduced RPW8.1-mediated immunity in R1Y4, a transgenic line expressing RPW8.1-YFP from the RPW8.1 native promoter. On the contrary, overexpression of XCT in R1Y4 background enhanced RPW8.1-mediated cell death, H2O2 production and resistance against powdery mildew. Consistently, the expression of RPW8.1 was down- and up-regulated in xct mutant and XCT overexpression lines, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that XCT positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance, and provide new insight into the regulatory mechanism of RPW8.1-mediated immunity.

19.
Elife ; 62017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027902

RESUMO

Histone tail modifications can greatly influence chromatin-associated processes. Asymmetrically modified nucleosomes exist in multiple cell types, but whether modifications on both sister histones contribute equally to chromatin dynamics remains elusive. Here, we devised a bivalent nucleosome system that allowed for the constitutive assembly of asymmetrically modified sister histone H3s in nucleosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sister H3K36 methylations independently affected cryptic transcription in gene coding regions, whereas sister H3K79 methylation had cooperative effects on gene silencing near telomeres. H3K4 methylation on sister histones played an independent role in suppressing the recruitment of Gal4 activator to the GAL1 promoter and in inhibiting GAL1 transcription. Under starvation stress, sister H3K4 methylations acted cooperatively, independently or redundantly to regulate transcription. Thus, we provide a unique tool for comparing symmetrical and asymmetrical modifications of sister histone H3s in vivo.


Assuntos
Histonas/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Transcrição Genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Metilação
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 67(10): 4100-4103, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28901896

RESUMO

A psychrotolerant chitinolytic bacterium, designated NC1253T, was isolated from Zoige wetland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This strain was a Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming and rod-shaped anaerobe. NC1253T grew at 4-35 °C, at pH 6.0-8.5 and could grow on chitin as the only carbon resource. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain NC1253T represented a novel bacterial genus within the family Ruminococcaceae. Strain NC1253T has less than 91.0 % similarity with other type strains, such as Harryflintia acetispora V20-281aT (90.9 %), Clostridium methylpentosum DSM 5476T (90.8 %), Anaerotruncus colihominis DSM 17241T (89.8 %), Eubacterium siraeum DSM 15702T (89.6 %), and Acetanaerobacterium elongatum Z7T (89.6 %). The major components of the cellular fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.4 mol%. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics allowed strain NC1253T to be clearly distinguished from genera in the family Ruminococcaceae. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic data, the isolate is considered to represent a novel genus and novel species in the family Ruminococcaceae, for which the name Paludicola psychrotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type species is NC1253T (DSM 104738T=KCTC 15582T).


Assuntos
Clostridiales/classificação , Filogenia , Áreas Alagadas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Quitina/metabolismo , Clostridiales/genética , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA