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1.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 30(4): 428-439, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241507

RESUMO

Intimate partners of people living with HIV are at risk of HIV infection. We assessed the acceptability of female condom use among 89 married, heterosexual, HIV-serodiscordant couples from Sichuan and Hunan provinces in China for this prospective observational cohort study. Participants used female condoms for 3 months, reporting use and attitudes in written logs and questionnaires. At the end of the study, 58.4% of couples expressed willingness to continue using female condoms. Factors associated with willingness to use female condoms were (a) the female partner reporting having experienced forced sex by the male partner, (b) applying a lubricant to the penis, (c) understanding the correct application method, (d) being married more than 20 years, and (e) experiencing no difficulty during the first use. Most HIV-serodiscordant couples found female condoms to be acceptable. Increasing access to female condoms could be an acceptable alternative barrier method to male condoms for preventing HIV transmission.

2.
J Biophotonics ; 12(10): e201800468, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140754

RESUMO

Although having shown promising clinical outcomes, the effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and glioblastoma remains to be improved. The analgesic drug methadone is able to sensitize various tumors to chemotherapy. In this in vitro study, the influence of methadone to the effectiveness of ALA-PDT for SCC (FADU) and glioblastoma (A172) was investigated on the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence, survival rates, apoptosis, and cell cycle phase, each with or without the presence of methadone. The production of PpIX was increased by methadone in FADU cells while it was decreased in A172 cells. The survival rates of both cell lines treated by ALA-PDT were significantly reduced by the combination with methadone (P < .05). Methadone also significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells and improved the effect of ALA-PDT on the cell cycle phase arrest in the G0/G1 phase (P < .05). This study demonstrates the potential of methadone to influence the cytotoxic effect of ALA-PDT for both SCC and glioblastoma cell lines.

3.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 92-94, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100448

RESUMO

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm arising in apocrine rich area of the skin. Surgery is the standard treatment but relapse is common. The postoperative skin defects, penile reconstruction, functional effects and old age are also challenges for curing disease. Herein, a case of postoperative recurrent EMPD, which was treated by combination therapy of non-invasive repeatable ALA-PDT and deep penetrated holmium laser is reported. Ultrasonography monitor of lesions showed light vascularity and the formerly hypoechoic lesion disappeared after treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059460

RESUMO

Cataract is one of the most serious eye diseases leading to blindness. Early detection and treatment can reduce the rate of blindness in cataract patients. However, the professional knowledge of ophthalmologists is necessary for the clinical cataract detection. Therefore, the potential costs may make it difficult for the widespread use of cataract detection to prevent blindness. Artificial intelligence assisted diagnosis based on medical images has attracted more and more attention of researchers. Many studies have focused on the use of pre-defined feature sets for cataract classification, but the predefined feature sets can be incomplete or redundant. On account of the above issues, some studies have proposed deep learning methods to automatically extract image features, but all based on global features and none has analyzed the layer-by-layer transformation process of the middle-tier features. This paper uses Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to learn useful features directly from input data, and Deconvolution Network (DN) method is employed to investigate how CNN characterizes cataract layer-by-layer. We found that compared to the global feature set, the detail vascular information which is lost after multi-layer convolution calculation also plays an important role in cataract grading task. And this finding fits with the morphological definition of fundus image. Through the finding, we gained insights into the design of hybrid Global-local feature representation model to improve the recognition performance of automatic cataract grading.

5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 26: 389-394, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active recruitment of inflammatory cells into tumors may be vital for antitumor immunity in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) after photodynamic therapy. Chemokines play important roles in inflammatory cell recruitment. Moreover, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) is thought to be a pivotal chemokine involved in inflammatory response and antitumor effect. Here, we examined the roles of CXCL13 in the response of cSCC to ALA-PDT. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to select the chemokines involved in cSCC treated with ALA-PDT. The expression and transcriptional activity of CXCL13 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting was used to detect C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) expression. The role of CXCL13 in ALA-PDT efficacy was assessed in vivo. RESULTS: Microarray analysis of total 63 chemokines and their receptors showed that the expression of 21 chemokines and 13 receptors were up-regulated in cSCC after ALA-PDT; in particular, CXCL13 was significantly upregulated. Immunohistochemistry showed that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) may be the main source of CXCL13 upregulation in the cSCC microenvironment after ALA-PDT. The efficacy of ALA-PDT in the treatment of cSCC was significantly reduced after CXCL13 inhibition. CONCLUSION: CXCL13 plays important roles in the antitumor effect of ALA-PDT for cSCC and may originate mainly from CAFs in the cSCC microenvironment.

6.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 26: 73-78, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, it has been reported that the intrinsic factors(lesions location, lesions area, disease tynpes) and extrinsic factors(fluence rate) contribute to the pain during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). But there are few studies on pain during ALA-PDT and lack of sufficient clinical evidence related to the pain intensity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate pain intensity and its relative factors during ALA-PDT and to provide clinical implication. METHODS: The pain numeric rating scale (PNRS) score was used to evaluate the patients' pain intensity at different times during ALA-PDT irradiation from 0 to 10 min during treatment. Gender, age, lesions location, lesions area, ALA concentration and fluence rate were recored. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 274 patients in total, including 118 acne patients (in face), 30 actinic keratosis(AK)patients(in face), 126 Condylomatata acuminate patients(in genitalia). The average pain score in PDT was highest in the patients with actinic keratosis(7.3 ± 0.7), and that of condylomata acuminata was the lowest (4.5 ± 1.1) (p < 0.05). The highest pain score in patients with AK, acne and condylomata acuminata was 8, 6 and 6 respectively which occurred at 4 min, 4 min and 6 min respectively. The pain score of males was higher compared with females in all of the three diseases (p < 0.05). The pain score of facial diseases (5.6 ± 1.2) was higher than that of the genitalia (4.5 ± 1.1) (p < 0.05). The lesions area was positively correlated with the pain score (p < 0.05). In facial diseases, the pain score of patients with high fluence rate (7.3 ± 0.7) was higher than patients with low fluence rate (5.1 ± 0.9) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors both correlate with pain during PDT. Intrinsic factors are difficult to change, so extrinsic factors are the key point to control. We can reduce the fluence rate and extend the treatment time, relieving pain intensity while still ensuring equivalent efficacy.

7.
Arch Oral Biol ; 100: 42-48, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nowadays, caries prevention focuses on controlling pathogenic bacteria, inhibiting demineralization and promoting re-mineralization. The aim of this study is to design a more clinically powerful anti-caries treatment by combining amelogenin-derived peptide QP5 with antibacterial chitosan in a hydrogel (CS-QP5 hydrogel), and characterize its effects on inhibition of cariogenic bacteria and promotion of remineralization of initial caries lesions. DESIGN: CS-QP5 interactions at different pH and chitosan concentrations were studied using UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. Antibacterial activity was measured using broth microdilution and biofilm assays. Remineralizing activity was measured using tests of surface micro-hardness(SMH), polarized light microscopy(PLM) and transverse microradiography(TMR) in a pH cycling model that simulates intra-oral pH conditions. RESULTS: The results of UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism analyses suggest that the micro-environment of QP5 changes upon addition of chitosan and the interaction between QP5 and chitosan is reversible and dependent on pH. CS-QP5 hydrogel showed good antibacterial potency towards Streptococcus mutans with MIC/MBC of 5 mg/mL, reducing adhesion and biofilm formation up to 95.43% and nearly 100% respectively. According to the results of remineralizing studies, CS-QP5 hydrogel demonstrated 50.06% surface micro-hardness recovery, shallower lesion depth, significantly less mineral loss and more mineral content at different depth in the lesion body after pH cycling. CONCLUSIONS: The hydrogel showed promise as a dual-action caries control agent in vitro, whether it could present good effects in vivo still needs to be determined, which requires further study. Nonetheless, the new design of bioactive hydrogel with antibacterial and remineralizing properties has the potential to substantially benefit oral health.

8.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater ; 17(1): 2280800019827798, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808229

RESUMO

Nowadays, dental caries is one of the most common oral health problems, affecting most individuals. It has been found that, by remineralizing enamel at an early stage in the formation of enamel caries, teeth can be effectively protected from dental caries. In this work, a peptide with eight repetitive sequences of aspartate-serine-serine (8DSS) is applied as the bio-mineralizer in an in-vivo rat enamel caries model. Nondestructive quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) imaging and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) are used to evaluate the remineralization of enamel carious lesions by measuring the total fluorescence radiance loss of the molar area (Δ QTotal), acquired using QLF-D imaging, and the mineral density and residual molar enamel volume, acquired using micro-CT. Correlations are explored between Δ QTotal and mineral density (strong correlation, r = 0.8000, p < 0.001) and Δ QTotal and residual molar enamel volume (moderate correlation, r = 0.6375, p < 0.001). Our results demonstrate that 8DSS is a promising in-vivo remineralization agent that exhibits comparable effects to NaF ( p < 0.05), which has been verified using the classical Keyes method. Moreover, the nondestructive QLF-D and micro-CT methods can be combined to quantify the remineralization of enamel carious lesions three-dimensionally in vivo, making them broadly applicable in quantifying hard tissues.


Assuntos
Dente Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacocinética , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/patologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Fluorescência Quantitativa Induzida por Luz , Ratos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Microtomografia por Raio-X
9.
Arch Oral Biol ; 99: 31-42, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599395

RESUMO

Saliva contains a large number of proteins that play various crucial roles to maintain the oral health and tooth integrity. This oral fluid is proposed to be one of the most important host factors, serving as a special medium for monitoring aspects of microorganisms, diet and host susceptibility involved in the caries process. Extensive salivary proteomic and peptidomic studies have resulted in considerable advances in the field of biomarkers discovery for dental caries. These salivary biomarkers may be exploited for the prediction, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of dental caries, many of which could also provide the potential templates for bioactive peptides used for the biomimetic management of dental caries, rather than repairing caries lesions with artificial materials. A comprehensive understanding of the biological function of salivary proteins as well as their derived biomimetic peptides with promising potential against dental caries has been long awaited. This review overviewed a collection of current literature and addressed the majority of different functions of salivary proteins and peptides with their potential as functional biomarkers for caries risk assessment and clinical prospects for the anti-caries application.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Peptidomiméticos/metabolismo , Peptidomiméticos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/fisiologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária/fisiologia , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Proteômica , Medição de Risco , Saliva/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/classificação , Remineralização Dentária
10.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 25: 369-375, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether photodynamic therapy (HMME-PDT) is an effective method for treating port wine stains (PWS). However, methods to evaluate the treatment of HMME-PDT for PWS effectively and objectively are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the different noninvasive diagnostic techniques used in the evaluation of treatment response to HMME-PDT for PWS. METHODS: Thirty-one lesions of 22 patients with PWS were treated with HMME-PDT. Four noninvasive diagnostic techniques including VISIA-CR™ system, dermoscopy, high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS), and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) were used to obtain standard radiographic data on skin color, skin thickness, blood vessel morphology, blood vessel distribution, and blood perfusion from lesions and surrounding normal skin before and after HMME-PDT. RESULTS: The standard image pattern of VISIA-CR™ system showed color change in the lesions of PWS after HMME-PDT. RBX red image of VISIA-CR™ system showed that erythema was highly aggregated even in invisible lesions at baseline but decreased after HMME-PDT. The erythema index reduced value d was related to the efficacy rating (γ = 0.631, P < 0.05). Dermoscopy showed that the number of spot-like and irregular linear vessels increased, which was correlated with the increase in clinical classification. After HMME-PDT, vascular rupture was observed by dermoscopy. The response rate of lesions with vascular rupture was 100.00% (20/20). Moreover, the response rate of lesions without vascular rupture was 63.64% (7/11). Vascular rupture sign was correlated with better efficacy (P < 0.05). HFUS showed that the dermis of PWS thickened and was arranged loosely with scattered linear hypoechoic signal. After HMME-PDT, the dermal layer of the lesions became thinner with a decreased linear hypoechoic signal. The response rate of the lesions with linear hypoechoic signal was 76.92% (10/13), and that without linear hypoechoic signal was 94.44% (17/18). The lesions without linear hypoechoic signal in the dermis showed better efficacy (P < 0.05). In some lesions, LSCI showed high blood perfusion signal in PWS lesions and blood perfusion reduction after HMME-PDT. CONCLUSION: VISIA-CR™ system can be used to observe not only visible but also invisible lesions of PWS. Moreover, lesions fading after HMME-PDT can be described objectively by VISIA-CR™ system. Dermoscopy played an important role in the clinical classification of PWS, including assessing vascular injury after HMME-PDT, guiding the adjustment of therapeutic dose, and selecting the end point of treatment. Both HFUS and LSCI can be used to assist treatment response evaluation of HMME-PDT.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia/métodos , Hematoporfirinas/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Mancha Vinho do Porto/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermoscopia/instrumentação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mancha Vinho do Porto/diagnóstico por imagem , Mancha Vinho do Porto/patologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 690-693, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440490

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. The primary means of osteosarcoma diagnosis is through evaluating plain x-rays. Using image analysis techniques, features that clinicians use to diagnose osteosarcoma can be quantified and studied using computer algorithms. In this paper, we classify benign tumor patients and osteosarcoma patients using both image features and metabolomic data. These two types of feature sets are processed with feature selection algorithms - recursive feature elimination and information gain. The selected features are then assessed by two classification models - random forest and support vector machine (SVM). The performances of the two models are evaluated and compared using receiver operating characteristic curves. The random forest classifier outperformed the SVM, with a sensitivity of .92 and a specificity of .78.

12.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 24: 366-371, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional photodynamic therapy (C-PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses (AKs) in Asia, with some unmet needs. Severe PDT-associated pain results in low treatment willingness. Daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is a more simple and tolerable treatment that has the same efficacy as C-PDT in Europe. However, few studies have been conducted with Asian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DL-PDT vs. C-PDT for treating AK patients in China. METHODS: This randomized and prospective study was conducted in Shanghai, China. Sixty patients with AKs (grades I-III) were randomized into two groups (DL-PDT and C-PDT). PDT was performed once every two weeks for a total of three times. Patients were evaluated before each treatment (baseline and two weeks after the first and second treatment) and at one month after the third treatment. Endpoints included efficacy (lesion response) and safety (pain scale and adverse events). RESULTS: A total of 55 patients completed the study. At the first month after 3 sessions of PDT, the overall lesion clearance rate of DL-PDT (95.5%) was similar to that of C-PDT (96.8%). However, in some particular parts (eyebrow and sideburns), C-PDT resulted in higher rates of cured lesions than DL-PDT. Additionally, patients undergoing DL-PDT had nearly no pain, showing significantly lower pain scores than those undergoing C-PDT (1.7 ± 0.9 for DL-PDT vs. 5.2 ± 1.7 for C-PDT). Moreover, fewer subjects undergoing DL-PDT had related adverse events than those undergoing C-PDT (36.7% vs. 63.3%). CONCLUSION: DL-PDT was effective, better tolerated and nearly painless compared with C-PDT in AK patients in China.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16046, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375405

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the molecular epidemic characteristics and viral transmission patterns of HIV-1 in a typical labor export area, Guangyuan city, China. Based on conducting phylogenetic trees and molecular transmission networks, a phylogenetic analysis was performed on HIV-1 pol sequences obtained from 211 migrant-history workers, 83 non-migrant-history individuals, and 21 migrant-history unknown individuals between January, 2012 and February, 2017 in Guangyuan city. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CRF07_BC (48.3%, n = 152) and CRF01_AE (33.3%, n = 105) were the dominant strains in Guangyuan city, and circulated by multiple lineages with various epidemic characteristics. Geographic network analysis showed that Guangyuan city-related sequences with 20.3% CRF07_BC and 28.3% CRF01_AE were linked to that of other provinces, compared to that with 1.7% CRF07_BC and 5.0% CRF01_AE in cities of Sichuan. Molecular transmission network analysis further illustrated that migrant-history workers linked more sequences from other provinces than non-migrant-history individuals in both CRF07_BC (29.3% versus 0.0%, P = 0.013) and CRF01_AE (40.5% versus 10.0%, P = 0.001) networks. Our results highlighted that migrant-history workers in recent year played a vital role in fueling HIV-1 epidemic in Guangyuan city. Molecular transmission network analysis could be a useful approach for disclosing the transmission mechanism of HIV, which should be used in prevention and intervention efforts.

14.
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 293, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human saliva is a protein-rich, easily accessible source of potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. However, little is known about the changes in salivary proteome associated with aging of patients with dental caries. Here, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) in combination with multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to characterize the salivary proteome profiles of subjects of different ages, presenting with and without caries, with the aim of identifying age-related biomarkers for dental caries. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 40 caries-free and caries-susceptible young adults and elderly individuals. Salivary proteins were extracted, reduced, alkylated, digested with trypsin and then analyzed using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS, followed by GO annotation, biological pathway analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and protein-protein interaction analysis. Candidate verification was then conducted using MRM-MS. RESULTS: Among 658 salivary proteins identified using tandem mass spectrometry, 435 proteins exhibited altered expression patterns in different age groups with and without caries. Of these proteins, 96 displayed age-specific changes among caries-susceptible adults and elderly individuals, and were mainly associated with salivary secretion pathway, while 110 age-specific proteins were identified among healthy individuals. It was found that the age factor caused significant variations and played an important role in both healthy and cariogenic salivary proteomes. Subsequently, a total of 136 target proteins with complex protein-protein interactions, including 14 age-specific proteins associated with caries, were further successfully validated using MRM analysis. Moreover, non-age-specific proteins (histatin-1 and BPI fold-containing family B member 1) were verified to be important candidate biomarkers for common dental caries. CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomic analysis performed using the discovery-through-verification pipeline revealed distinct variations caused by age factor in both healthy and cariogenic salivary proteomes, highlighting the significance of age in the great potential of saliva for caries diagnosis and biomarker discovery.

15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(24)2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341079

RESUMO

Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated disease that occurs when acidogenic/aciduric bacteria obtain an ecological advantage over commensal species. In previous studies, the effects of the antimicrobial peptide GH12 on planktonic bacteria and monospecies biofilms were confirmed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of GH12 on a cariogenic multispecies biofilm and to preliminarily explain the mechanism. In this biofilm model, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 70061 was the representative of cariogenic bacteria, while Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 35105 and Streptococcus sanguinis JCM 5708 were selected as healthy microbiota. The results showed that GH12 was more effective in suppressing S. mutans than the other two species, with lower MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values among diverse type strains and clinical isolated strains. Therefore, GH12, at no more than 8 mg/liter, was used to selectively suppress S. mutans in the multispecies biofilm. GH12 at 4 mg/liter and 8 mg/liter reduced the cariogenic properties of the multispecies biofilm in biofilm formation, glucan synthesis, and lactic acid production. In addition, GH12 suppressed S. mutans within the multispecies biofilm and changed the bacterial composition. Furthermore, 8 mg/liter GH12 showed a selective bactericidal impact on S. mutans, and GH12 promoted hydrogen peroxide production in S. sanguinis and S. gordonii, which improved their ecological advantages. In conclusion, GH12 inhibited the cariogenic properties and changed the composition of the multispecies biofilm through a two-part mechanism by which GH12 directly suppressed the growth of S. mutans as well as enhanced the ecological competitiveness of S. sanguinis and S. gordonii IMPORTANCE Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic infectious diseases worldwide, with substantial economic and quality-of-life impacts. Streptococcus mutans has been considered the principal pathogen of dental caries. To combat dental caries, an antimicrobial peptide, GH12, was designed, and its antibacterial effects on planktonic S. mutans and the monospecies biofilm were confirmed. As etiological concepts of dental caries evolved to include microecosystems, the homeostasis between pathogenic and commensal bacteria and a selective action on cariogenic virulence have increasingly become the focus. The novelty of this research was to study the effects of the antimicrobial peptides on a controlled cariogenic multispecies biofilm model. Notably, the role of an antimicrobial agent in regulating interspecific competition and composition shifts within this multispecies biofilm was investigated. With promising antibacterial and antibiofilm properties, the use of GH12 might be of importance in preventing and controlling caries and other dental infections.

16.
Oral Dis ; 2018 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Initial dental caries often occurs in clinic. Reduction of cariogenic bacteria and promotion of remineralization are effective ways to control them. This study was to develop bifunctional anticaries peptides with antibacterial and remineralizing properties. METHODS: We designed peptides TDH19, TNH19, and TVH19 and selected one through comparing their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) against Streptococcus mutans and their reaction on mineralization. Then the bifunction of the selected peptide was studied through: (a) effects on S. mutans biofilm, (b) remineralizing effects on initial lesions and (c) stability in saliva and cytocompatibility to human oral keratinocytes (HOKs). RESULTS: TVH19 showed the lowest MIC and MBC and a better mineralizing ability. It inhibited new biofilm formation and reduced the viability of old biofilm (p < 0.05). Treating initial caries with TVH19 led to greater recovery of surface microhardness, shallower lesion depth, and higher mineral content (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between TVH19 and NaF samples (p > 0.05). TVH19 was stable in saliva and had little effect on HOKs. CONCLUSIONS: The novel bifunctional anticaries peptide TVH19 was developed with remarkable antibacterial activity and the potential to enhance remineralization of initial caries.

17.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 489-492, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect mutations of the NF1 gene in two sporadic cases with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and explore their molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Clinical data of the two patients was collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples. Specific primers were designed to exclude pseudogenes. PCR was performed to amplify all coding exons of the NF1 gene. PCR products were directly sequenced. RESULTS: Two novel mutations of the NF1 gene (c.1019-1020delCT in exon 9 and c.7189G to A in exon 48) were respectively identified in the two patients but not among their unaffected parents or 100 healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Mutations of the NF1 gene may have predisposed to the NF1 in the two patients.

18.
J Cosmet Laser Ther ; : 1-3, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040520

RESUMO

Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a good option for erythema and telangiectasia of rosacea. Demodex, which is light and heat sensitive, is an important risk of Rosacea. Sometimes, IPL can induce rosacea aggravation. Here, we show two cases of erythema rosacea aggravated as pustule in several hours after IPL. Both cases show high density of Demodex after IPL. Neither of them had photosensitivity, systemic disease, or any other contraindication for IPL. One of the patients received IPL again after Demodex infection relieved and this time there was no inflammation induction. We need to attract more attention to IPL-induced rosacea aggravation and latent Demodex infection may act as a cofactor.

19.
Dermatol Surg ; 44(12): 1516-1524, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29994952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bowen's disease (BD) is treated effectively with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). Plum-blossom needling (PBN) may enhance topical drug delivery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of and adverse reactions to PBN and ALA-PDT of BD with those associated with ALA-PDT alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three lesions from 24 patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The PBN-ALA-PDT group underwent vertical skin tapping with PBN before applying 10% ALA cream and narrow-band light-emitting diode irradiation (λ = 633 ± 10 nm; 100-200 J/cm). The ALA-PDT group received ALA cream and irradiation only. RESULTS: At 6 weeks, the PBN-ALA-PDT and ALA-PDT groups achieved complete response (CR) rates of 77.78% (14/18 lesions) and 40% (7/20 lesions), respectively, (p < .05), and 2/18 and 10/20 lesions, respectively, achieved CRs after further treatment; 2.9 ± 0.8 sessions and 3.4 ± 0.7 sessions, respectively, were required for the lesions to achieve CRs. The PBN-ALA-PDT group required fewer treatment sessions and had higher protoporphyrin IX fluorescence levels (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Plum-blossom needling may improve the efficacy of ALA-PDT by enhancing ALA delivery for BD treatment.

20.
J Biophotonics ; : e201800149, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952075

RESUMO

Refractory cutaneous warts are difficult to eliminate. In situ photo-immunotherapy (ISPI) is an innovative treatment concept combining local photothermal therapy (PTT) and topical immunotherapy using imiquimod. To compare the efficacy of ISPI vs topical imiquimod alone, a prospective randomized controlled trial was performed with patients suffering from refractory cutaneous warts. In both groups, approximately 50% of the skin surface containing warts was treated for 6 weeks. On the basis of topical imiquimod, ISPI includes an additional 808 nm laser irradiation. Treatment response, temperatures during irradiation and histopathologic examination were evaluated. The complete response rate in the ISPI-group (22/36, 61.1%) was significantly higher than in the imiquimod alone group (11/34, 32.4%). In the ISPI-group, the mean maximum temperature was 44.5 ± 5.1°C, and obvious lymphocytic infiltration was found in the perivasculature of the dermis. There was no recurrence or worsening in both groups during the 12-month follow-up. No obvious adverse reaction was observed. This study demonstrates that ISPI can be used as an effective and safe treatment modality for refractory cutaneous warts.

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