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1.
J Rehabil Med ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide detailed data on the effects of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with moderate to severe disability. DESIGN: A pilot randomized control study. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS: A total of 39 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder were randomized into intervention or control groups. METHODS: The intervention group received multidisciplinary rehabilitation 5 times/week for 4 weeks in a hospital, and the patients were guided to continue community- or home-based rehabilitation for 3 months. The control group did not receive any specific rehabilitation intervention. Disability was assessed using the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Functional Systems (FS) scores after 4 weeks of rehabilitation and 3 months of follow-up. RESULTS: The mean EDSS score was 7.5 at admission for both groups. Improvements (p<0.05) in the EDSS score and domains of bowel, bladder and motor functions (pyramidal and walking function) were noted in the multidisciplinary rehabilitation group after 4 weeks. After 3 months, the patients in the usual care group showed improvement in EDSS score and walking ability score; however, no significant changes in other variables were noted. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that multidisciplinary rehabilitation potentially promotes motor functional recovery in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD010126, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective treatment for children with persistent asthma. Although treatment with ICS is generally considered to be safe in children, the potential adverse effects of these drugs on growth remains a matter of concern for parents and physicians. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of different inhaled corticosteroid drugs and delivery devices on the linear growth of children with persistent asthma. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED and PsycINFO. We handsearched respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also conducted a search of ClinicalTrials.gov and manufacturers' clinical trial databases, or contacted the manufacturer, to search for potential relevant unpublished studies. The literature search was initially conducted in September 2014, and updated in November 2015, September 2018, and April 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected parallel-group randomized controlled trials of at least three months' duration. To be included, trials had to compare linear growth between different inhaled corticosteroid molecules at equivalent doses, delivered by the same type of device, or between different devices used to deliver the same inhaled corticosteroid molecule at the same dose, in children up to 18 years of age with persistent asthma. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently selected studies and assessed risk of bias in included studies. The data were extracted by one author and checked by another. The primary outcome was linear growth velocity. We conducted meta-analyses using Review Manager 5.3 software. We used mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs ) as the metrics for treatment effects, and the random-effects model for meta-analyses. We did not perform planned subgroup analyses due to there being too few included trials. MAIN RESULTS: We included six randomized trials involving 1199 children aged from 4 to 12 years (per-protocol population: 1008), with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. Two trials were from single hospitals, and the remaining four trials were multicentre studies. The duration of trials varied from six to 20 months.One trial with 23 participants compared fluticasone with beclomethasone, and showed that fluticasone given at an equivalent dose was associated with a significant greater linear growth velocity (MD 0.81 cm/year, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.16, low certainty evidence). Three trials compared fluticasone with budesonide. Fluticasone given at an equivalent dose had a less suppressive effect than budesonide on growth, as measured by change in height over a period from 20 weeks to 12 months (MD 0.97 cm, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.32; 2 trials, 359 participants; moderate certainty evidence). However, we observed no significant difference in linear growth velocity between fluticasone and budesonide at equivalent doses (MD 0.39 cm/year, 95% CI -0.94 to 1.73; 2 trials, 236 participants; very low certainty evidence).Two trials compared inhalation devices. One trial with 212 participants revealed a comparable linear growth velocity between beclomethasone administered via hydrofluoroalkane-metered dose inhaler (HFA-MDI) and beclomethasone administered via chlorofluorocarbon-metered dose inhaler (CFC-MDI) at an equivalent dose (MD -0.44 cm/year, 95% CI -1.00 to 0.12; low certainty evidence). Another trial with 229 participants showed a small but statistically significant greater increase in height over a period of six months in favour of budesonide via Easyhaler, compared to budesonide given at the same dose via Turbuhaler (MD 0.37 cm, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.62; low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that the drug molecule and delivery device may impact the effect size of ICS on growth in children with persistent asthma. Fluticasone at an equivalent dose seems to inhibit growth less than beclomethasone and budesonide. Easyhaler is likely to have less adverse effect on growth than Turbuhaler when used for delivery of budesonide. However, the evidence from this systematic review of head-to-head trials is not certain enough to inform the selection of inhaled corticosteroid or inhalation device for the treatment of children with persistent asthma. Further studies are needed, and pragmatic trials and real-life observational studies seem more attractive and feasible.

3.
J Neuroimmunol ; 330: 59-66, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826699

RESUMO

Interactions among cytokines have important roles in the inflammatory processes underlying Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Resistin and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are involved in many inflammatory processes. This study examined 51 GBS patients, and found that serum resistin levels were elevated in 51 patients with GBS and correlated with HMGB1 levels. In vitro, resistin induced the release of HMGB1, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6 in THP-1 macrophages. This process was dependent on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. These results suggest that signaling between resistin and HMGB1 might be a potential therapeutic target in GBS.

4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 41, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to elucidate the effects and mechanisms of Radix Linderae (RL) extracts on a mouse model of diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD), especially on later decompensated phase. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ) after 4 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. DBD mouse models (later decompensated phase) were developed by 12-weeks persistent hyperglycemia and then treated with RL extracts for 4 weeks. During administration, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) test was performed once a week. Four weeks later, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), voided stain on paper (VSOP), and urodynamic alteration were explored. We also performed haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome staining to observe the histology of the bladder. Then, the contractile responses to α, ß-methylene ATP, capsaicin (CAP), KCl and carbachol were measured. Moreover, qPCR assay was performed to analyse the bladder gene expression levels of M3 receptors and TRPV1. RESULTS: The diabetic mice exhibited higher FBG, OGTT and urine production, and no substantial alteration was observed after RL treatment. Urodynamic test showed the maximum bladder capacity (MBC), residual volume (RV) and bladder compliance (BC), as well as the decrement of voided efficiency (VE) and micturition volume (MV), remarkably increased in the DBD mice. Furthermore, RL treatment significant improved urodynamic urination, with lower MBC, RV, and, BC, as well as higher VE and MV, as compared with the model groups. The wall thickness of the bladder and the ratio of smooth muscle/collagen remarkably increased, and RL could effectively attenuate the pathological change. The response of bladder strips to the stimulus was also reduced in the DBD mice, and RL treatment markedly increased the contraction. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of M3 receptors and TRPV1 were down-regulated in the bladders of the diabetic mice, whereas RL treatment retrieved those gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: RL extracts can improve the bladder voiding functions of the DBD model mice in later decompensated phase, and underlying mechanisms was associated with mediating the gene expression of M3 receptors and TRPV1 in the bladder instead of improving blood sugar levels.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Lindera/química , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Raízes de Plantas , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia
6.
Sleep Med ; 54: 28-34, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy would significantly impact hard clinical outcomes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of CPAP in survival and secondary prevention of major cardiovascular events in patients with OSA and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, LILACS, and SciElo databases (up to January 2018) were searched for randomized trials that compared CPAP with no active treatment in adults with OSA and CVD. The primary outcomes were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and any major cardiovascular event. We used risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as the effect measures for dichotomous data, and weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI for continuous variables. We used the random-effects method for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Nine trials involving 3314 patients contributed data for meta-analysis of at least one outcome. The duration (median) of CPAP treatment varied from one month to 56.9 months. The pooled RR (95% CI) was 0.86 (0.60-1.23, I2 = 0.0%) for all-cause death, 0.58 (0.19-1.74, I2 = 47%) for cardiovascular death, 1.11 (0.76-1.62, I2 = 0.0%) for myocardial infarction, 0.77 (0.46-1.28, I2 = 16%) for stroke, and 0.93 (0.70-1.24, I2 = 49%) for any major cardiovascular event. The quality of evidence for these outcomes was low. CONCLUSIONS: Low-quality evidence suggests that CPAP therapy does not significantly improve survival or prevent major cardiovascular events in adults with OSA and cardiovascular disease.

7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(supl.1): S10-S22, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002480

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: To assess the impact of asthma and its treatment (inhaled corticosteroids and other control medications) on growth. Data sources: The authors searched PubMed (up to August 24, 2018) and screened the reference lists of retrieved articles. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis were selected. If there was no such article, the authors selected either randomized clinical trials or observational studies. Data synthesis: A total of 37 articles were included in this review. The findings from 21 studies suggest that asthma per se, especially more severe and/or uncontrolled cases, can transitorily impair child's growth. Two Cochrane reviews of randomized clinical trials showed a small mean reduction in linear growth (-0.91 cm/year for beclomethasone, -0.59 cm/year for budesonide, and -0.39 cm/year for fluticasone) in the first year of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in prepubertal children with persistent asthma. The effects were likely to be molecule- and dose-dependent. A recent review showed that most of "real-life" observational studies had not found significant effects of inhaled corticosteroids on growth in asthmatic children. Fifteen studies showed that the maintenance systemic corticosteroids could cause a dose-dependent growth suppression in children with severe asthma, but other controllers (cromones, montelukast, salmeterol, and theophylline) had no significant adverse effects no growth. Conclusions: Severe and/or uncontrolled asthma can transitorily impair child's growth. Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids may cause a small reduction in linear growth in children with asthma, but the well-established benefits of inhaled corticosteroids in controlling asthma outweigh the potential adverse effects on growth. Use of the minimally effective dose of inhaled corticosteroids and regular monitoring of child's height during inhaled corticosteroids therapy are recommended.


Resumo Objetivos: Avaliar o impacto da asma e seu tratamento (corticosteroides inalados e outros medicamentos de controle) no crescimento. Fontes de dados: Uma busca foi feita no PubMed (até 24 de agosto de 2018) e foram triadas as listas de referência dos artigos recuperados. Revisões sistemáticas e metanálises foram selecionadas. Se não houvesse tal artigo, ensaios clínicos randomizados ou estudos observacionais eram selecionados. Síntese dos dados: Trinta e sete artigos foram incluídos nesta revisão. Os achados de 21 estudos sugerem que a asma por si só, especialmente os casos mais graves e/ou descontrolados, podem prejudicar o crescimento da criança. Duas revisões Cochrane de ensaios clínicos randomizados mostraram uma pequena redução média no crescimento linear (−0,91 cm/ano para beclometasona, −0,59 cm/ano para budesonida e −0,39 cm/ano para fluticasona) no primeiro ano de tratamento com corticosteroides inalados em crianças pré-púberes com asma persistente. Os efeitos pareciam ter efeito dose- e molécula-dependente. Uma revisão recente mostrou que a maioria dos estudos observacionais da "vida real" não encontrou efeitos significativos dos corticosteroides inalados no crescimento de crianças asmáticas. Quinze estudos mostraram que a manutenção de corticosteroides sistêmicos poderia causar uma supressão do crescimento dose-dependente em crianças com asma grave, mas outros controladores (cromonas, montelucaste, salmeterol e teofilina) não tiveram efeitos adversos significativos no crescimento. Conclusões: A asma grave e/ou descontrolada pode prejudicar o crescimento da criança. O uso regular de corticosteroides inalados pode causar uma pequena redução no crescimento linear em crianças com asma, mas os benefícios bem estabelecidos dos corticosteroides inalados no controle da asma superam os potenciais efeitos adversos no crescimento. Recomenda-se o uso de doses minimamente eficazes de corticosteroides inalados e o monitoramento regular da altura da criança durante a terapia com corticosteroides inalados.

8.
Opt Express ; 26(23): 29931-29944, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469875

RESUMO

We perform Zeeman spectroscopy on a Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system in a room-temperature Cs vapor cell, in magnetic fields up to 50 Gauss. The magnetic interactions of the |6S1/2 Fg = 4> ground, |6P3/2 Fe = 5> intermediate, and |33S1/2> Rydberg states that form the ladder-type EIT system are in the linear Zeeman, quadratic Zeeman, and the Paschen-Back regimes, respectively. We explain the dependence of Rydberg EIT spectra on the magnetic field and polarization. The asymmetry of the EIT spectra, which is caused by the quadratic Zeeman effect of the intermediate state, becomes paramount in magnetic fields ≥40 Gauss. We investigate the interplay between Rydberg EIT, which reduces photon scattering, and optical pumping, which relies on photon scattering. We employ a quantum Monte Carlo wave-function approach to quantitatively model the spectra and their asymmetry behavior. Simulated spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data.

9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 131(21): 2618-2619, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381600
10.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of asthma and its treatment (inhaled corticosteroids and other control medications) on growth. DATA SOURCES: The authors searched PubMed (up to August 24, 2018) and screened the reference lists of retrieved articles. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis were selected. If there was no such article, the authors selected either randomized clinical trials or observational studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 37 articles were included in this review. The findings from 21 studies suggest that asthma per se, especially more severe and/or uncontrolled cases, can transitorily impair child's growth. Two Cochrane reviews of randomized clinical trials showed a small mean reduction in linear growth (-0.91cm/year for beclomethasone, -0.59cm/year for budesonide, and -0.39cm/year for fluticasone) in the first year of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in prepubertal children with persistent asthma. The effects were likely to be molecule- and dose-dependent. A recent review showed that most of "real-life" observational studies had not found significant effects of inhaled corticosteroids on growth in asthmatic children. Fifteen studies showed that the maintenance systemic corticosteroids could cause a dose-dependent growth suppression in children with severe asthma, but other controllers (cromones, montelukast, salmeterol, and theophylline) had no significant adverse effects no growth. CONCLUSIONS: Severe and/or uncontrolled asthma can transitorily impair child's growth. Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids may cause a small reduction in linear growth in children with asthma, but the well-established benefits of inhaled corticosteroids in controlling asthma outweigh the potential adverse effects on growth. Use of the minimally effective dose of inhaled corticosteroids and regular monitoring of child's height during inhaled corticosteroids therapy are recommended.

11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2018 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315685

RESUMO

Neurovascular coupling reflects the close relationship between neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF), providing a new mechanistic insight into health and disease. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and shows cognitive decline-related brain gray matter abnormalities besides the damage of optic nerve and spinal cord. We aimed to investigate neurovascular coupling alteration and its clinical significance in NMO by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) to measure neuronal activity and CBF to measure vascular response. ReHo was calculated from functional MRI and CBF was computed from arterial spin labeling (ASL) in 56 patients with NMO and 63 healthy controls. Global neurovascular coupling was assessed by across-voxel CBF-ReHo correlations and regional neurovascular coupling was evaluated by CBF/ReHo ratio. Correlations between CBF/ReHo ratio and clinical variables were explored in patients with NMO. Global CBF-ReHo coupling was decreased in patients with NMO relative to healthy controls (p = .009). Patients with NMO showed decreased CBF/ReHo ratio (10.9%-17.3% reduction) in the parietal and occipital regions and increased CBF/ReHo ratio (8.0%-13.3% increase) in the insular, sensorimotor, temporal and prefrontal regions. Some of these abnormalities cannot be identified by a single CBF or ReHo analysis. Both abnormally decreased and increased CBF/ReHo ratios were correlated with more severe clinical impairments and cognitive decline in patients with NMO. These findings suggested that patients with NMO show abnormal neurovascular coupling, which is associated with disease severity and cognitive impairments.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(10)2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297665

RESUMO

As one of the relatively new titanium (Ti) alloys in the engineering field, ß-Ti alloy⁻Ti55531 has attracted a great deal of attention due to its excellent mechanical properties, while a few research papers on weldability and the post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) process of Ti55531 have been reported. Based on an orthogonal experiment design, the parameters of laser beam welding (LBW) of Ti55531 alloy with a thickness of 2 mm were optimized. Moreover, the influences of welding parameters and PWHT on the microstructures and performance of the laser-welded joint of Ti55531 were analyzed. The results showed that, for microstructures in different zones of as-welded joints of Ti55531: three forms of α phases (i.e., equiaxial αp phase, lamellar αS phase, and αGB phase at grain boundaries) were observed in base metal (BM); in the heat affected zone (HAZ), part of lamellar αS phase had dissolved while equiaxial αp phase had grown; the fusion zone (FZ) mainly consisted of ß phase, which presented as coarse columnar crystals. After the PWHT process, the microstructures of the welded joint were changed: in the BM zone, α phase at grain boundary disappeared and lamellar α phase decreased; in the HAZ, the edge of αp phase obviously dissolved; in the FZ, plenty of compact needle-like α phases were observed. The tensile strength of the as-welded joint was about 940 MPa and then increased to 1161 MPa after PWHT, which were 78.4% and 96.8% of that of the original BM respectively. The fracture position transformed from the interface between the FZ and HAZ to the BM during tensile tests after PWHT.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(10)2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274174

RESUMO

Dissimilar joining of molybdenum (Mo) to titanium (Ti) is of great significance to the design and fabrication of high-temperature facilities. However, few reports were found about fusion joining of these two metals. The objective of this paper is to assess the feasibility of laser beam welding (LBW) of 2 mm-thick molybdenum and titanium. The effects of laser beam offset on the laser dissimilar joint of pure molybdenum to pure titanium were analyzed in terms of microstructure, chemical composition, microhardness, and tensile behavior. The results showed that the weld appearance improved with the increase of the offset. The fusion zone was strengthened because of the solid solution of these two elements. The mechanical properties of samples increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing of offset. When the laser beam irradiated on the titanium plate and the center of the laser spot was 0.5 mm away from the Mo/Ti interface, the joint performed the highest tensile strength, which was about 70% that of titanium base metal. LBW was demonstrated to be a promising method to join dissimilar Mo/Ti joint.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(10)2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248986

RESUMO

Highly excited Rydberg atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell are promising for developing a radio-frequency (RF) electric field (E-field) sensor and relevant measurement standards with high accuracy and sensitivity. The all-optical sensing approach is based on electromagnetically-induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting induced by the RF E-field. Systematic investigation of measurement uncertainty is of great importance for developing a national measurement standard. The presence of a dielectric vapor cell containing alkali atoms changes the magnitude, polarization, and spatial distribution of the incident RF field. In this paper, the field distortion of rubidium vapor cells is investigated, in terms of both field strength distortion and depolarization. Full-wave numerical simulation and analysis are employed to determine general optimization solutions for minimizing such distortion and validated by measuring the E-field vector distribution inside different vapor cells. This work can improve the accuracy of atom-based RF E-field measurements and contributes to the development of related RF quantum sensors.

15.
R Soc Open Sci ; 5(6): 180281, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110470

RESUMO

A novel polyamine-type starch/glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) copolymer with a high capacity for the adsorption of heavy metal ions was prepared via graft copolymerization of GMA and corn starch and a subsequent amination reaction between amino group of diethylenetriamine and epoxy group in GMA. The copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and adsorption properties on modified starch of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) were studied. By analysing the relationship between adsorption capacity and pH, adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics, it is proved that the adsorption of the four metal ions is mainly based on the chemical adsorption of coordination. The maximum adsorption capacities of the copolymer were up to 2.33, 1.25, 0.83 and 0.56 mmol g-1 for Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III), respectively. The adsorption of the four concerned metal ions was hardly affected by common coexisting ions such as Na(I), K(I), Ca(II) and Mg(II), whereas it was slightly decreased when Fe(II) and Zn(II) coexisted in the solution, which illustrates the selective adsorption of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) from wastewater. After 10 cycles of adsorption-desorption experiments, there was no significant change in the adsorption capacity, indicating that the polyamine-type starch/GMA copolymer has high adsorption capacity and good reusability.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 57(16): 10323-10330, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094991

RESUMO

Two unprecedented examples of cluster organic frameworks (TBA)3Cu[V6O13(L)2]2·4DEF (2) (TBA)Ag[V6O13(L)2] solvent (3) (TBA = tetrabutylammonium, H3L = tris(hydroxymethyl)-4-picoline, DEF = N, N'-diethylformamide) based on Lindqvist-type polyoxometalate (POM) secondary building units (SBUs) have been constructed successfully. Compounds 2 and 3 are the second cases of cluster organic frameworks based on Lindqvist-type POM cluster SBUs. Furthermore, the cluster organic framework of 2 exhibits efficient electrocatalytic activity and strong durability in oxygen reduction reaction.

17.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(7)2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941791

RESUMO

The study investigated the laser lap welding of fuel cladding and end plug made of molybdenum (Mo) alloy. The research results showed that the tensile strength of the welded joint when a weld was located at the Mo tube was significantly larger than that at the fit-up gap between the fuel cladding and end plug. Moreover, preheating can also greatly increase the tensile strength of the lap joint. The weld zone was filled with bulky coarse columnar crystal structures while there were numerous coarse recrystallized structures in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The weld zone and HAZ were both subjected to a significant softening. The tensile strength and elongation rate of fuel cladding made of Mo alloy were about 750 MPa and 36.7%, respectively. The welded joint did not undergo any plastic deformation during the tensile process and presented a brittle fracture. Under the optimum processing conditions, the tensile strength of the welded joint reached 617 MPa, taking up 82.3% that of the base metal. The results of composition analysis indicated that there was only Mo inside the columnar crystals in weld zone while significant oxygen segregation was observed at the grain boundary. This was the main reason causing that the strength of welded joint was lower than that of the base metal. Additionally, under the optimum processing conditions, there were numerous slender columnar crystals on the cross section of the joint entering the weld zone in fuel cladding side from that in end plug side where the crystals were nucleated and grew upwards. The analysis results suggested that the presence of these slender columnar crystals crossing the interface between fuel cladding and end plug was favorable for improving the capacity of the joint for bearing the shear loads.

18.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 53(8): 1089-1095, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893029

RESUMO

AIM: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) on the rate of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in the Emergency Department (ED) setting. METHOD: We searched PubMed, Virtual Health Library-BVS and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception until January 31, 2018. We selected randomized trials that compared nebulized HS with normal saline (NS) or standard care in children up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis in the ED setting. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: A total of 293 records were screened and 8 trials involving 1708 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed a 16% reduction in the risk of hospitalization among patients treated with HS compared to NS (risk ratio [RR]: 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.98, P = 0.03). A significant effect of HS in reducing the risk of hospitalization was found only in the subgroup analyses of trials in which HS was mixed with bronchodilators, multiple doses (≥3) were given, and risk of bias was low. CONCLUSIONS: Nebulized hypertonic saline may potentially reduce the risk of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in the ED setting. Quality of evidence is moderate due to substantial clinical heterogeneity between studies and large multicenter trials are still warranted.

19.
Front Neurol ; 9: 305, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780351

RESUMO

Distinguishing relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is clinically important because they differ in prognosis and treatment. This study aimed to identify perfusion abnormalities in RRMS and NMO and their correlations with gray matter volume (GMV) atrophy and clinical parameters. Structural and arterial spin labeling MRI scans were performed in 39 RRMS patients, 62 NMO patients, and 73 healthy controls. The gray matter cerebral blood flow (CBF) values were voxel-wisely compared among the three groups with and without GMV correction. The regional CBF changes were correlated with the Expanded Disability Status Scale scores in the corresponding patient groups. Although multiple brain regions showed CBF differences among the three groups without GMV correction, only three of these regions remained significant after GMV correction. Specifically, both the RRMS and NMO groups showed reduced CBF in the occipital cortex and increased CBF in the right putamen compared to the control group. The RRMS group had increased CBF only in the medial prefrontal cortex compared to the other two groups. The occipital CBF was negatively correlated with clinical disability in the NMO group; however, the CBF in the right putamen was positively correlated with clinical disability in both patient groups. These findings suggest that there are perfusion alterations independent of GMV atrophy in RRMS and NMO patients. The regional CBF in the occipital cortex and putamen could be used as imaging features to objectively assess clinical disability in these patients.

20.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 251, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii, a single-celled parasite commonly found in mammals, has been shown to induce trophoblast cell apoptosis and subsequently cause fetal damage and abortion. Although dense granule protein 15 (GRA15) has been identified as a key component in innate immunity to T. gondii infection and its pathogenesis, its role in host cell apoptosis remains unclarified. METHODS: Type II GRA15 (GRA15II) cDNA was inserted into a plasmid encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP). Choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells were transfected with either pEGFP or pEGFP-GRA15II and cultured for 24 h. Cell apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) responses were assessed. Inhibitors targeting inositol-requiring kinase 1α (IRE1α; 4µ8C, 100 nM) or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK; SP6000125, 20 µM) were added 12 h after plasmid transfection, followed by testing the effect of GRA15II on ERS. RESULTS: When compared to pEGFP, pEGFP-GRA15II transfection facilitated cell apoptosis (P < 0.05), increased mRNA expression of caspase-3, caspase-4, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) (all P < 0.05), and promoted protein expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax, CHOP, GRP78, phospho-JNK, and phospho-IRE1α (all P < 0.05). The 4µ8C and SP6000125 decreased apoptosis and protein expression of XBP1s, CHOP, TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), cleaved caspase-3, phospho-JNK, and Bax (all P < 0.05) in pEGFP-GRA15II transfected cells. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasma GRA15II induced ERS and subsequently caused apoptosis of choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Trofoblastos/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Plasmídeos , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/genética , Transfecção
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