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1.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608506

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Many studies have shown that epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in preeclampsia. Moreover, our previous study indicated that the differentially methylated genes in preeclampsia were enriched in the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. This study aimed to identify differentially methylated Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway genes in the preeclamptic placenta and to study the roles of these genes in trophoblast cells in vitro. Using an Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 850 K BeadChip, we found that the Wnt signaling pathway was globally hypermethylated in the preeclamptic group compared with the term birth group, but hypomethylated in the preeclamptic group compared with the preterm birth group. Among all Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway factors, WNT3 was the most significantly differentially expressed gene and was hypomethylated in the preeclamptic group compared to the nonhypertensive groups, namely, the preterm birth group and term birth group. This result was confirmed by pyrosequencing. Through quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis, the WNT3 gene was found to be highly expressed in preeclamptic placental tissues, in contrast to other WNT factors, which were previously reported to be expressed at low levels in placental tissues. Additionally, in the HTR8/SVneo cell line, knockdown of WNT3 suppressed the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, consistent with the findings for other WNT factors. These results prompted us to speculate that the WNT3 gene counteracts the low activation state of the Wnt signaling pathway in the preeclamptic placenta through methylation modification.

2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3349-3356, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658222

RESUMO

We investigated population structure, resource density changes of Larimichthys polyactis and its relationship with environmental factors in spring, based on the survey data of bottom trawl in adjacent sea areas of Zhoushan fishery spawning ground protection area from 2014 to 2019. The results showed that the relationship between body length and body weight of Larimichthys polyactis was W=0.44×10-4×L2.78, and parameter b was less than 3, which indicated that L. polyactis had negative allometric growth in recent years. There was a negative correlation between fullness and body length, with body becoming slender. From 2014 to 2019, body length and weight of L. polyactis were the highest in 2014 and the lowest in 2019. Since 2014, population size of L. polyactis in Zhoushan fishery spawning ground protection area and adjacent sea area had gradually decreased, indicating that the miniaturization of L. polyactis had not altered in recent years. From the perspective of the annual change of resource density, resource density of L. polyactis was higher than that before the establishment of the reserve, indicating that the management and protection of the reserve area played a protective role in the recovery of L. polyactis resources. The fitting results of GAM model showed that water depth and bottom water temperature were the environmental factors closely related to the density distribution of L. polyactis resources. With increasing water depth, the resources showed a fluctuating upward trend and were the highest near the water depth of 60 m. In the range of 12-16 ℃ water temperature, the resources increased with the increases of bottom water temperature. When water temperature was above 16 ℃, resources decreased with the increases of bottom water temperature.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Perciformes , Animais , China , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
3.
Environ Pollut ; : 118383, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666099

RESUMO

Industrial parks emit large amounts of anthropogenic heat and aggravate the urban heat island effect, which has become a severe environmental problem worldwide. Few studies explored if the warming effect generated by concentrated industrial facilities (i.e., steel plants in this study) produces an intra-heat island effect in urban built-up areas. Sufficient evidence of an industrial heat island (IHI) effect is lacking, and new quantitative methods are urgently needed to address these issues. Therefore, we proposed a new scheme to quantify the warming effect of large, heat-emitting urban objects versus complex surroundings, and the IHI effect was accordingly defined at a finer scale. This study separated the industrial park from other artificial lands and comprehensively estimated the IHI effects' spatiotemporal variation. The IHI intensities were measured based on varied natural and urbanized references, which provided new evidence for the existence of the IHI effect over space and seasons. The land surface temperature (LST) profiles delineated the downward trend in LST variation from inside to surroundings in the IHI cases on both spatial and temporal scales. The time-series analysis revealed that the IHI effects demonstrated more significant disparities regarding the LSTs between the industrial parks and their surrounding backgrounds during warm seasons than in cold seasons. And a more severe IHI effect was observed in spring and summer, and the weakest IHI intensity occurred in winter. Moreover, the IHI intensity is positively associated to the anthropogenic heat, indicating that the industrial activities contribute to the increased LSTs of the industrial park to a great extent. The rationale of the IHI effect can broaden insight for understanding how urban industrial heat sources influence the regional thermal environment, especially at a finer scale.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579276

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen associated with substantial economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. Currently, there are no effective vaccines against BVDV. Melatonin (MT) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties, and the use of MF59 in vaccines significantly enhances vaccine efficiency. Here, MT and MF59 were added into the Erns-LTB vaccine. Subsequently, their inhibitory activity on the NF-κB signaling pathway in Mardin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells and the hippocampus was assessed using western blot and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The findings revealed that MT in the Erns-LTB vaccine decreases the phosphorylation of p65 proteins caused by BVDV infection. In addition, MT decreased the mRNA levels of IL-1ß and IL-6 in vitro, but increased the production of IFN-α, IFN-ß, Mx1 in vitro, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cyclic amp response element-binding protein, and the stem cell factor in vivo. Furthermore, treatment with Erns-LTB + MF59 + MT stimulated the production of T lymphocytes, alleviated pathological damage, decreased expressions of BVDV antigen, and tight junction proteins in mice. These findings imply that MT has potential for use in the Erns-LTB vaccine to inhibit BVDV infection and regulate the immune responses of T-cells by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

5.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 4(3): 261-267, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557652

RESUMO

Background: A new rat tail intervertebral disc degeneration model was established to observe the morphologic and biologic changes of static bending and compression applied to the discs. Methods: In total, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats with similar weight were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as a control group for a baseline assessment of normal discs. Group 2 underwent a sham surgery, using an external device to bend the vertebrae of coccygeal 8-10. Groups 3 and 4 were the loaded groups, and external devices were instrumented to bend the spine with a compression level of 1.8 N and 4.5 N, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis were performed on all animals on day 14 of the experiment. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging and histological results showed that the changes of intervertebral disc degeneration increased with the size of compression load. Some architecture disorganizations in nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus were found on both of the convex and concave side in the groups of 1.8 N and 4.5 N. An upregulation of MM-3, MM-13, and collagen 1-α1 mRNA expression and a downregulation of collagen 2-α1 and aggrecan mRNA expression were observed in the sham and loading groups. Significant changes were found between the loading groups, whereas the sham group showed similar results to the control group. Conclusions: Static bending and compression could induce progressive disc degeneration, which could be used for biologic study on disc degeneration promoted by static complex loading.

6.
Nanoscale ; 13(35): 15021-15030, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533142

RESUMO

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), as one of the most aggressive human malignancies, cannot be cured by 131iodine (131I) internal radiotherapy (RT) because the tumor cells cannot effectively take up 131I and are resistant to radiotherapy. In this study, a facile and simple method was proposed to synthesize mesoporous polydopamine nanoparticles (MPDA) and tailor their morphologies by component-adjusting Pluronic micelle-guided polymerization. Then, MPDA were used not only as nanocarriers to radiolabel 131I, but also as photothermal conversion agents for photothermal therapy (PTT) to promote RT. The iodine-labeling capacity and photothermal conversion efficiency of MPDA can be enhanced by optimizing their morphologies. It was found that MPDA NPs with a cerebroid pore channel structure (CPDA) showed the highest iodine-carrying capacity and a higher photothermal conversion efficiency as a result of their maximum specific surface area and unique morphology. In subsequent experiments in vitro and in vivo, our ATC animal models showed impressive therapeutic responses to CPDA-131I NPs because of the synergistic effect of PTT and RT. Additionally, CPDA-125I NPs can be utilized to obtain high-quality SPETC/CT images of tumors, which can guide clinical therapy for ATC. Considering their great biosafety, these radioiodine-labeled CPDA NPs may serve as a promising tool in combined therapy and diagnosis in ATC.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Animais , Humanos , Indóis , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Fototerapia , Polímeros , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/terapia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia
7.
J Sep Sci ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510721

RESUMO

Wine-processed Angelica Sinensis is a widely used Chinese medicinal decoction piece in China. However, there are hardly any robust markers indicating the processing procedure of wine-processed Angelica Sinensis, including the amount of rice wine and processing degree. A strategy integrating untargeted metabolomics and chemometric analysis for deducing robust markers was provided and applied to the discrimination of processing procedure. First, 86 compounds were tentatively identified in wine-processed Angelica Sinensis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. Second, 93 potential chemical markers were selected using multivariate analysis, among which nine robust chemical markers were selected by verification with commercial samples. Finally, the effects of processing temperature, time, and amount of rice wine on the three selected chemical markers were investigated through a rapid analytical method. It was demonstrated that both m/z 258.1097 and 238.1189 were positively correlated with the amount of rice wine and processing degree. In summary, this study introduced two candidate processing markers as robust markers for discriminating the processing procedures of wine-processed Angelica sinensis. It also proposed a strategy to provide the reference for the research of other decoction pieces.

8.
ISA Trans ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556349

RESUMO

By leveraging Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems (ICPSs), deep learning-based methods are applied to address various industrial issues. Due to privacy policy reasons, conventional centralized learning (CL) may be improper for some industrial scenarios with sensitive data, such as smart medicine. Recently, federated learning (FL) as a novel collaboration learning approach has received extensive attention, which can break data barriers between different institutions to improve the model performance. However, the privacy information of the industrial agents may be inferred from their shared parameters. In this paper, we propose a Privacy-Enhanced Momentum Federated Learning framework, named PEMFL, that amalgamates differential privacy (DP), Momentum FL (MFL) and chaos-based encryption method. During the training, differentially privacy is used to disturb the industrial agents' gradient parameters in order to preserve their privacy information. Meanwhile, each industrial agent uses the chaos system-based encryption method to encrypt the weight parameters of their local models, which has two advantages: (1) the encryption method can enhance privacy protection; (2) the cloud server cannot access the truth value of the global model parameters which is a vital asset to the industrial agents. In addition, Momentum Gradient Descent (MGD) and an adjusting learning rate schedule are adopted to improve training efficiency for the PEMFL. The performance of the PEMFL is evaluated based on two non-i.i.d datasets. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the excellent performance of the PEMFL in terms of accuracy and privacy security.

10.
Chemistry ; 27(58): 14444-14450, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347317

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted great attention due to their high theoretical energy density. The rapid redox conversion of lithium polysulfides (LiPS) is effective for solving the serious shuttle effect and improving the utilization of active materials. The functional design of the separator interface with fast charge transfer and active catalytic sites is desirable for accelerating the conversion of intermediates. Herein, a graphene-wrapped MnCO3 nanowire (G@MC) was prepared and utilized to engineer the separator interface. G@MC with active Mn2+ sites can effectively anchor the LiPS by forming the Mn-S chemical bond according to our theoretical calculation results. In addition, the catalytic Mn2+ sites and conductive graphene layer of G@MC could accelerate the reversible conversion of LiPS via the spontaneous "self-redox" reaction and the rapid electron transfer in electrochemical process. As a result, the G@MC-based battery exhibits only 0.038 % capacity decay (per cycle) after 1000 cycles at 2.0 C. This work affords new insights for designing the integrated functional interface for stable Li-S batteries.

11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112648, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450425

RESUMO

Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius can survive for long periods of time in iron toxicity-stressed environments, which cause rusty roots and reduced productivity. To reveal the proteomic changes in these two Panax species in response to iron toxicity stress, plants of these two species were divided into a control group and an iron toxicity-stress group. An isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics approach was used to explore the changes in protein accumulation and the potential mechanisms underlying the response to iron toxicity stress in the two Panax species. Proteomic analyses revealed approximately 725 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the iron toxicity-stress and control groups, including 233 and 492 proteins whose expression was upregulated and downregulated, respectively. The expression of DEPs related to photosynthesis was significantly downregulated, and DEPs whose expression was significantly upregulated were associated with redox reactions. Many upregulated DEPs were also involved in pathways such as those involving phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, isoflavone and ginsenoside synthesis. The abundance of some ginsenoside monomers (Rg1 and Rb3) also significantly increased in P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Moreover, P. quinquefolius contained 455 DEPs whose expression was higher than that in P. ginseng, including many proteins related to the regulation of ion homeostasis, indicating that P. quinquefolius is more resistant to iron toxicity stress than P. ginseng is.

12.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(8): 1238-1249, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453106

RESUMO

P62 is a protein adaptor for various metabolic processes. Mice that lack p62 develop adult-onset obesity. However, investigations on p62 in reproductive dysfunction are rare. In the present study, we explored the effect of p62 on the reproductive system. P62 deficiency-induced reproductive dysfunction occurred at a young age (8 week old). Young systemic p62 knockout (p62-/-) and pituitary-specific p62 knockout (p62flox/flox αGSUcre) mice both presented a normal metabolic state, whereas they displayed infertility phenotypes (attenuated breeding success rates, impaired folliculogenesis and ovulation, etc.) with decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) expression and production. Consistently, in an infertility model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pituitary p62 mRNA was positively correlated with LH levels. Mechanistically, p62-/- pituitary RNA sequencing showed a significant downregulation of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway. In vitro experiments using the pituitary gonadotroph cell line LßT2 and siRNA/shRNA/plasmid confirmed that p62 modulated LH synthesis and secretion via mitochondrial OXPHOS function, especially Ndufa2, a component molecule of mitochondrial complex I, as verified by Seahorse and rescue tests. After screening OXPHOS markers, Ndufa2 was found to positively regulate LH production in LßT2 cells. Furthermore, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulating test in p62flox/flox αGSUcre mice and LßT2 cells illustrated that p62 is a modulator of the GnRH-LH axis, which is dependent on intracellular calcium and ATP. These findings demonstrated that p62 deficiency in the pituitary impaired LH production via mitochondrial OXPHOS signaling and led to female infertility, thus providing the GnRH-p62-OXPHOS(Ndufa2)-Ca2+/ATP-LH pathway in gonadotropic cells as a new theoretical basis for investigating female reproductive dysfunction.

13.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459884

RESUMO

The apical hook is indispensable for protecting the delicate shoot apical meristem while dicot seedlings emerging from soil after germination in darkness. The development of apical hook is coordinately regulated by multiple phytohormones and environmental factors. Yet, a holistic understanding of the spatial-temporal interactions between different phytohormones and environmental factors remains to be achieved. By a chemical genetics method, we identified kinetin riboside, as a proxy of kinetin, that promotes apical hook development of Arabidopsis thaliana in a partially ethylene-signaling independent pathway. Further genetic and biochemical analysis revealed that cytokinin is able to regulate apical hook development via post-transcriptional regulation of the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs), together with its canonical roles in inducing ethylene biosynthesis. Dynamic observations of apical hook development processes showed that ETHYLENE INSENSITVE3 (EIN3) and EIN3-LIKE1 (EIL1) are necessary for the exaggeration of hook curvature in response to cytokinin, while PIFs are crucial for the cytokinin-induced maintenance of hook curvature in darkness. Furthermore, these two families of transcription factors display divergent roles in light-triggered hook opening. Our findings unveil that cytokinin integrates ethylene signaling and light signaling via EIN3/EIL1 and PIFs, respectively, to dynamically regulate apical hook development during early seedling development.

14.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(4): 1231-1235, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of peripheral blood cell parameters for early recognition of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data of 86 patients with MDS and 72 patients with non-malignant clonal anemia treated in first diagnosed in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017 was retrospectively analyzed. The peripheral blood cell parameters of the patients in two groups were analyzed, generated the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) from the statistically significant parameters, the binary logistic model was build to calculate and compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) combined with multiple indicators and individual indicators, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic accuracy, the diagnostic efficacy of the patients was analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with patients in the non-malignant clonal anemia group ,white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil percentage (NE%), eosinophil percentage (E%), eosinophil absolute value (E#), platelet count (PLT), platelet specific volume (PCT%) in the MDS patients were significantly reduced; while percentage of lymphocytes (LY%), basophilic percentage (B%), and the width of platelet distribution (PDW) significantly increased. The several ROC curves with the above indicators were established, which showed that AUCLY%%=0.718 (P=0.040); AUCPDW=0.674 (P=0.044); AUCB%=0.650 (P=0.044) were >0.5. After established a binary logistic regression model, the AUCPRE-4 obtained by combining the three indicators of LY%, PDW and B% was 0.777 (P=0.037), which was significantly higher than the AUC of any indicator alone. When the sensitivity was 77.91% and the specificity was 61.11%, the corresponding threshold value was 0.47, the positive likelihood ratio was 2.00, the negative likelihood ratio was 0.36, and the case ratio of correct classification was 54.40%. CONCLUSION: PDW, B% and LY% in peripheral blood cell parameters have certain diagnostic value for early recognition of MDS.


Assuntos
Linfócitos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Mol Syndromol ; 12(4): 244-249, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421503

RESUMO

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation involving the hair, skin and iris. WS is classified into 4 subtypes (WS1-WS4) based on additional symptoms. WS2 is characterized by the absence of additional symptoms and is mainly attributed to variants in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. We detected a novel frameshift variant c.1025_1032delGGAACAAG (NM_198159) of MITF in 5 patients with WS2 from the same Chinese family by using targeted next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of the family members suggested that this novel variants was pathogenic. Our finding expands the spectrum of MITF variants.

16.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 15: 608656, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421539

RESUMO

Depression is a major psychological disease of human beings. With the severity of depression, it elevates the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially acute coronary syndrome (ACS), resulting in serious harm to human health. The number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is closely related to the development of depression. It has been reported that the number of peripheral blood EPCs in patients with depression was reduced. However, effects on the function of EPCs in depression are still unclear. This paper aims to analyze and summarize the research of EPCs in depression, and we envision that EPCs might act as a new target for evaluating the severity of depression and its complications.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444367

RESUMO

Residential sprawl constitutes a main part of urban sprawl which poses a threat to the inhabitant environment and public health. The purpose of this article is to measure the residential sprawl at a micro-scale using a case study of Hangzhou city. An integrated sprawl index on each 1 km × 1 km residential land cell was calculated based on multi-dimensional indices of morphology, population density, land-use composition, and accessibility, followed by a dynamic assessment of residential sprawl. Furthermore, the method of GeoDetector modeling was applied to investigate the potential effects of location, urbanization, land market, and planning policy on the spatial variation of residential sprawl. The results revealed a positive correlation between CO2 emissions and residential sprawl in Hangzhou. There has been a remarkable increase of sprawl index on residential land cells across the inner suburb and outer suburb, and more than three-fifths of the residential growth during 2000-2010 were evaluated as dynamic sprawl. The rapid development of the land market and urbanization were noted to impact the spatiotemporal distribution of residential sprawl, as q-statistic values of population growth and land price ranked highest. Most notably, the increasing q-statistic values of urban planning and its significant interactions with other factors highlighted the effects of incremental planning policies. The study derived the policy implication that it is necessary to transform the traditional theory and methods of incremental planning.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Urbanização , Cidades , Densidade Demográfica , Crescimento Demográfico
18.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(8): e529, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459143

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the imbalance of cellular homeostasis and the development of diseases, which is regulated by mitochondria-associated factors. The present review aims to explore the process of the mitochondrial quality control system as a new source of the potential diagnostic biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for diseases, including mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, interactions between mitochondria and other organelles (lipid droplets, endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes, and lysosomes), as well as the regulation and posttranscriptional modifications of mitochondrial DNA/RNA (mtDNA/mtRNA). The direct and indirect influencing factors were especially illustrated in understanding the interactions among regulators of mitochondrial dynamics. In addition, mtDNA/mtRNAs and proteomic profiles of mitochondria in various lung diseases were also discussed as an example. Thus, alternations of mitochondria-associated regulators can be a new category of biomarkers and targets for disease diagnosis and therapy.

19.
Trends Plant Sci ; 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404586

RESUMO

Plants coordinate their growth and developmental programs with changes in temperature. This process is termed thermomorphogenesis. The underlying molecular mechanisms have begun to emerge in these nonstressful responses to adjustments in prevailing temperature. The circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that ensures growth, development, and fitness across a wide range of environmental conditions and it responds to thermal changes. Here, we highlight how the circadian clock gates thermoresponsive hypocotyl growth in plants, with an emphasis on different action mode of evening complex (EC) in thermomorphogenesis. We also discuss the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of EC in transducing temperature signals to the key integrator PIF4. This provides future perspectives on unanswered questions on EC-associated thermomorphogenesis.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336768

RESUMO

Background: Over 250 million children in low- and middle-income countries are at risk of not achieving their fullest developmental potential due to co-occurring risks such as poor nutrition and inadequate learning opportunities. Early intervention programs integrating the aspects of nurturing care, that is, good health, adequate nutrition, safety and security, responsive caregiving, and learning opportunities, may ameliorate against the negative impact of these adverse conditions. Methods: This meta-analytic review updates the evidence base of parenting interventions comprising stimulation and responsive caregiving components on developmental outcomes for children under age 2 years in low- and middle-income countries. It also describes and assesses the moderation effects of population characteristics and implementation features on the intervention effectiveness. Studies were identified based on previous systematic reviews and an updated literature search in eight databases and the gray literature up to December 2020. A random-effect model was used to explore the pooled effect sizes accounted for by the intervention for developmental outcome of cognition, language, motor, and social-emotional capacities. Exploratory moderation analyses were also conducted. Results: Twenty-one randomized controlled trials representing over 10,400 children from 12 low- and middle-income countries and regions across three continents (Africa, Latin America, and Asia) were identified. The interventions showed overall small-to-moderate effects on children's cognitive development (ES = 0.44; 95% CI = [0.30, 0.57]); language development (ES = 0.33; 95% CI = [0.18, 0.49]); and motor skills (ES = 0.21; 95% CI = [0.10, 0.32]). The overall effect on social-emotional development was non-significant (ES = 0.17; 95% CI = [-0.01, 0.34]). Effect sizes (ES) varied significantly across the studies. Parenting programs that targeted vulnerable groups, including rural communities and caregivers with lower education levels, had more significant effects on children's development. Group sessions (vs. individual visits) and high program dose (≥12 sessions) were also associated with stronger effects on child development. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the workforce and training on programmatic outcomes. Conclusion: The findings indicate that parenting interventions that encourage nurturing care are effective in improving the early development of children, especially among vulnerable populations. We discuss opportunities to strengthen the implementation of research-based parenting interventions in such contexts.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Poder Familiar , África , Ásia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos
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