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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121149, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550667

RESUMO

Water pollution and energy crisis are two important research subjects awaited to solution. Herein, we propose a strategy of "turning scrap into wealth" to obtain the highly-efficient photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution by recycling of heavy metal ions in wastewater. The novel mesoporous zeolite Beta (mBeta) can be used as adsorbent to remove the heavy metal ions (i.e., Cd2+ and/or Zn2+) from wastewater due to its excellent adsorptive performance from the electrostatic affinity, ion-exchange ability and structural channels in zeolite. Subsequently, in-situ sulfuring of the Cd2+ or/and Zn2+ adsorbed mBeta was carried out to obtain highly-efficient photocatalysts. As expected, the sample CdS/ZnS-mBeta exhibited super photocatalytic activity and high stability under visible light irradiation. It is believed that the synergetic effect between CdS and ZnS nanoparticles are responsible for its good visible light absorption performance and the effective separation of photoelectrons and holes. Besides, the mBeta with high specific surface area can improve the dispersibility of sulfides, which would contribute to its high stability.

2.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124803, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520973

RESUMO

Nitrogen biogeochemistry occupies a central role in nitrogen cycles and exerts a significant influence on primary productivity and global carbon cycles. In order to better understand the nitrogen biogeochemistry in coastal regions, spatiotemporal nitrogen fixation, denitrification and anammox were investigated in the coastal regions of northern Beibu Gulf (NBG), South China Sea (SCS). Nitrogen fixation was mainly detected in the water column of outer bays, attributed to the low nitrate concentration and low N/P (N/P < 16). Comparisons of the nitrogen fixation rates between unicellular (<10 mm) and the filamentous diazotrophs (>10 mm) indicated that the contribution of unicellular diazotrophs was more important than filamentous diazotrophs. Besides, field investigation revealed that Richelia was the dominant species in filamentous diazotrophs. On the other hand, both denitrification and anammox were found in the surface sediment and denitrification dominated the nitrogen loss process. Denitrification was mainly related to the nitrate concentration in pore water and organic matter in the sediment, while anammox was mainly regulated by the concentration of nitrate and nitrite in pore water. Additionally, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and salinity also had an impact on denitrification and anammox. The net areal yield of nitrogen biogeochemical processes was estimated to be -1079t/a, as an important pathway of nitrogen removal. This study adds to the knowledge of nitrogen biogeochemistry in the nutrient-replete coastal region and highlights its significance in such an environment.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(48): 24174-24183, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712408

RESUMO

Color pattern mimicry in Heliconius butterflies is a classic case study of complex trait adaptation via selection on a few large effect genes. Association studies have linked color pattern variation to a handful of noncoding regions, yet the presumptive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that control color patterning remain unknown. Here we combine chromatin assays, DNA sequence associations, and genome editing to functionally characterize 5 cis-regulatory elements of the color pattern gene optix We were surprised to find that the cis-regulatory architecture of optix is characterized by pleiotropy and regulatory fragility, where deletion of individual cis-regulatory elements has broad effects on both color pattern and wing vein development. Remarkably, we found orthologous cis-regulatory elements associate with wing pattern convergence of distantly related comimics, suggesting that parallel coevolution of ancestral elements facilitated pattern mimicry. Our results support a model of color pattern evolution in Heliconius where changes to ancient, multifunctional cis-regulatory elements underlie adaptive radiation.

4.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(11): 1120-1122, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of maternally derived 45,X mosaicism detected by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). METHODS: Fetal sex chromosomal abnormality was detected by NIPT. Maternally derived 45,X mosaicism was confirmed by chromosome karyotype analysis. Fetal sex chromosome aneuploidy was detected by amniotic fluid chromosome microarray analysis. RESULTS: A maternal 45,X mosaicism was diagnosed. The fetus was confirmed to be normal. CONCLUSION: Maternal 45,X masaicism can be diagnosed by NIPT.


Assuntos
Mosaicismo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Aneuploidia , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Gravidez
5.
Autoimmunity ; 52(7-8): 289-293, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707854

RESUMO

Recent large-scale genetic association studies have identified that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on X chromosome are correlated with risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Chinese population. The aim of this study was to estimate association between these loci and clinical features in female patients with SLE. Six SNPs identified in previous studies were genotyped. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated with adjusting for potential confounding factors. A total of 772 SLE patients were included in the final analysis. The data showed that 3 SNPs (rs5914778, rs3853839 and rs1059702) were marginally associated with several clinical subphenotypes. Furthermore, consistent associations were also found in two independent cohorts. However, the cumulative genetic risk score (GRS) was not associated with clinical manifestations as well as the disease activity index at disease diagnosis. In summary, genetic variants in X-linked genes may be potentially associated with presence of specific clinical feature. Further studies in distinct ethnical populations are required to clarify the association between these loci and presence of SLE clinical features.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 14B (PBD14B) is an autosomal recessive peroxisome biogenesis disorder characterized clinically by mild intellectual disability, congenital cataracts, progressive hearing loss, and polyneuropathy peroxisome biogenesis disorders are genetically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by biallelic mutations in peroxin (PEX) genes. METHODOLOGY/LABORATORY EXAMINATION: DNA of the family was extracted and sequenced by whole exome sequencing. The results were validated with Sanger sequencing analyzed with Bioinformatics software. RESULTS: Sequencing result showed that the patient has carried a homozygous variant of c.277C>T of the PEX11B gene. The patient's brother has carried a homozygous variant of c.277C>T of the PEX11B gene and their variants of c.277C>T of the PEX11B gene were inherited, respectively, from his mother and father. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The homozygous variant of c.277C>T of the PEX11B gene probably underlie the disease in this child and her brother.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721383

RESUMO

Sustained tumor oxygenation is of critical importance during a variety of malignant tumor therapeutics especially type-II photodynamic therapy (PDT), which depends heavily on the intratumoral oxygen level for reactive oxygen species generation. This work demonstrates a facile approach to conquer the obstacle in tumor type-II PDT by the hybridization of photosynthetic cyanobacterial cells and chlorine6 (ce6) photosensitizer, which result in ce6-integrated photosensitive cells designated as ceCyan. Upon single source laser irradiation (660 nm), sustained photosynthetic O2 evolution by the cyanobacteria and the immediate generation of abundant reactive singlet oxygen species (1O2) by the integrated photosensitizer could be almost simultaneously achieved in the hybridized cells for malignant carcinoma destruction. Based on the cascade oxygenation and photo-sensitization effects, dominant cytotoxicities and photodynamic therapeutics has been successfully demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. This work contributes a conceptual while practical paradigm for the biocompatible and effective PDT on the basis of hybridized microorganisms, displaying a bright future in clinical PDT by microbiotic nanomedicine.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Air pollution ranks high among risk factors for the global burden of disease. The associations of air pollution and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are controversial. This systematic review and meta-analyses has analyzed the association between outdoor air pollution and the development of RA. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Web of science (last search, May 21, 2019) were searched. A meta-analysis was performed with a random-effects model, and summarized syntheses effects were expressed as relative risks (RRs). RESULTS: Eight studies were identified from among 1296 articles. The pooled RR for the association between ozone (O3) exposure and RA was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.18). The pooled RR for the association of RA risk with proximity to traffic road was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.62) for residence ≤ 50 m from a traffic road compared with residence more far away. In contrast, there was an inverse effect between PM2.5 exposure and incident RA, and similar result of PM10 was found by subgroup analysis in seropositive RA. In addition, there was no clear evidence between exposing to PM10, CO, NO2 and NO2 (tenth year prior) and RA risk. CONCLUSION: Existing evidence indicated significant associations between some markers (ozone, proximity to traffic road and PM2.5) of air pollution and RA. For generalizability of evidence, that research should be extended to developing countries where air pollution (including indoor) is high may provide more complete insight into risk factors for RA.

9.
Neurosci Lett ; : 134616, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705923

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Synaptosomal associated proteins of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), as a member of stable soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex, is critical for membrane fusion and required for the release of neurotransmitters. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor is implicated in pathologic pain. This study aimed to investigate whether and how SNAP-25 regulated AMPA receptors in neuropathic pain. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent L4 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) or the sham procedure. After assessing mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity, the ipsilateral portion of the L4-5 spinal cord was harvested. The expression level of SNAP-25 was analyzed by Western blot analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. SNAP-25 phosphorylation and AMPA receptor membrane trafficking levels were evaluated with Western blot analysis. An association between SNAP-25 and AMPA membrane trafficking was confirmed by SNAP-25 expression or phosphorylation inhibition. RESULTS: The SNL procedure induced and maintained mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. SNL increased the expression and phosphorylation of SNAP-25 and the membrane trafficking of AMPA receptors in the spinal cord. SNAP-25 expression or phosphorylation inhibition alleviated neuropathic pain and downregulated membrane trafficking of AMPA receptors after SNL. GluA1-containing AMPA receptor inhibition relieved mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia after SNL. CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of SNAP-25-dependent membrane trafficking of AMPA receptors via SNAP-25 phosphorylation at Ser187 contributed to SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, the inhibition of SNAP-25 expression or phosphorylation might serve as a treatment for neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism of GluA1-containing AMPA receptor membrane trafficking mediated by SNAP-25 phosphorylation in neuropathic pain deserves further exploration.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736295

RESUMO

Developing versatile nanomaterials have offered a myriad of opportunities to surmount cancer. Especially, the combining of immunomodulatory effect, enhancing the immune response, into one platform provides a new idea for effective tumor treatment. Herein, for the first time, an in situ growth strategy is developed to construct high dispersed noncrystalline selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) with thiolated cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Lys-(mpa)) (RGD) peptide modification (R-Se@DMSND) for targeted cancer treatment. Se NPs could be homogeneously grown into the pore channels of dendritic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DMSNs) since the DMSNs could stabilize the Se NPs to prevent their aggregations. Moreover, Se NPs could not only act as a therapeutic agent, inducing ROS overproduction, to effectively suppress primary tumor but also as an immunomodulatory agent to simultaneously inhibit the growth of secondary tumors by enhancement of the immune response, as confirmed by the in vivo results. Such the therapeutic-immunomodulatory strategy of tumorous therapy combining with immunomodulation using one simple nanoplatform may pave a new avenue in the biomedical field.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(94): 14111-14114, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626250

RESUMO

Effective catalysts with sufficient activity and selectivity are essential for the nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR). Many fruitful NRR electrocatalysts have been investigated with regard to NH3 production under ambient conditions in recent years. However, well-defined and modifiable molecular catalysts have rarely been reported for the NRR to date. Here, molecular FePc was grafted on an O-MWCNT surface as a NRR electrocatalyst to improve its recyclability. This catalyst displayed high electrocatalytic ability and selectivity, giving a large NH3 yield of 36 µg h-1 mg-1 cat., a FE of 9.73% and a turnover number (TON) of 12.56 after 2 h of electrocatalytic reaction in an acidic electrolyte, superior to most of the reported materials. DFT calculations indicated that the NRR preferentially proceeded along the alternate pathway, the activation of N2 to produce N2H* is the rate-limiting step with a ΔG value of 1.79 eV. Conclusively, we report FePc/O-MWCNT as a low-cost, high-efficiency NRR catalyst that also offers a valuable reference for molecular electrocatalyst research in electrochemical nitrogen reduction.

12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(12): 8139-8150, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565858

RESUMO

Sodium butyrate (NaBu) is reported to play important roles in a number of chronic diseases. The present work is aimed to investigate the effect of NaBu on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism in in vivo and in vitro models. Sprague Dawley rats were infused with vehicle or Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) and orally administrated with or without NaBu (1 g/kg/d) for two weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy parameters and COX2/PGE2 pathway were analysed by real-time PCR, ELISA, immunostaining and Western blot. The cardiomyocytes H9C2 cells were used as in vitro model to investigate the role of NaBu (2 mmol/L) in inhibition of Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. NaBu significantly attenuated Ang II-induced increase in the mean arterial pressure. Ang II treatment remarkably increased cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased ratio of heart weight/body weight and enlarged cardiomyocyte size, extensive fibrosis and inflammation, as well as enhanced expression of hypertrophic markers, whereas hearts from NaBu-treated rats exhibited a significant reduction in these hypertrophic responses. Mechanistically, NaBu inhibited the expression of COX2/PGE2 along with production of ANP and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) stimulated by Ang II in in vivo and in vitro, which was accompanied by the suppression of HDAC5 and HDAC6 activities. Additionally, knocking down the expression of HDAC5 and HDAC6 via gene-editing strategy dramatically blocked Ang II-induced hypertrophic responses through COX2/PGE2 pathway. These results provide solid evidence that NaBu attenuates Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting the activation of COX2/PGE2 pathway in a HDAC5/HDAC6-dependent manner.

13.
Cancer Lett ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655086

RESUMO

Disordered lipid metabolisms have been evidenced in lung cancer as well as its subtypes. Lipidomics with in-depth mining is considered as a critical member of the multiple omics family and a lipid-specific tool to understand disease-associated lipid metabolism and disease-specific dysfunctions of lipid species, discover biomarkers and targets for monitoring therapeutic strategies, and provide insights into lipid profiling and pathophysiological mechanisms in lung cancer. The present review describes the characters and patterns of lipidomic profiles in patients with different lung cancer subtypes, important values of comprehensive lipidomic profiles in understanding of lung cancer heterogeneity, urgent needs of standardized methodologies, potential mechanisms by lipid-associated enzymes and proteins, and the importance of integration between clinical phenomes and lipidomic profiles. The characteristics of lipidomic profiles in different lung cancer subtypes are extremely varied among study designs, objects, methods, and analyses. Preliminary data from recent studies demonstrate the specificity of lipidomic profiles specific for lung cancer stage, severity, subtype, and response to drugs. The heterogeneity of lipidomic profiles and lipid metabolism may be part of systems heterogeneity in lung cancer and be responsible for the development of drug resistance, although there are needs for direct evidence to show the existence of intra- or inter-lung cancer heterogeneity of lipidomic profiles. With an increasing understanding of expression profiles of genes and proteins, lipidomic profiles should be associated with activities of enzymes and proteins involved in the processes of lipid metabolism, which can be profiled with genomics and proteomics, and to provide the opportunity for the integration of lipidomic profiles with gene and protein expression profiles. The concept of clinical trans-omics should be emphasized to integrate data of lipidomics with clinical phenomics to identify disease-specific and phenome-specific biomarkers and targets, although there are still a large number of challenges to be overcome in the integration between clinical phenomes and lipidomic profiles.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(21): 6598-6603, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603688

RESUMO

The forward emission spectra were experimentally measured for ionized nitrogen molecules by an 800 nm pump laser and a delayed seed laser. It was found that emission lines around both 428 and 391 nm are greatly enhanced upon use of a 391 or 428 nm seed laser. The emission lines around 391 and 428 nm can be assigned to the rotational transitions of N2+ [B2Σu+(v' = 0) → X2Σg+(v = 0)] and N2+ [B2Σu+(v' = 0) → X2Σg+(v = 1)], respectively. They originate from seed-induced superfluorescence and resonant stimulated Raman scattering. The genetic algorithm was utilized to simulate the experimental observations and determine the relative population of B2Σu+(v' = 0), X2Σg+(v = 1), and X2Σg+(v = 0). The result verifies that vibrational population inversion is achieved between B2Σu+(v' = 0) and X2Σg+(v = 0) by the 800 nm pump laser. Our finding provides new insights into controlling the coherent emission of ionized nitrogen molecules, which has promising application in filamentation-based remote atmospheric sensing.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(44): 41415-41423, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613581

RESUMO

Interface modification is an important means for improving the performance of almost all optoelectronic devices. In quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), effective surface modification of photoanode also has a critical impact on photovoltaic performance. At present, ZnS and ZnSe wide band gap semiconductors are the mainstream materials used for photoanode/electrolyte interface passivation in QDSCs. However, the problem with these two materials is that the passivation effect and the lattice match with TiO2/QD are difficult to be balanced. Although ZnS can form a larger energetic barrier due to the higher conduction band edge, its lattice mismatch with TiO2 and QD (such as CdSe and CuInSe2) is large, leading to the formation of additional defect states. On the contrary, ZnSe has a small lattice mismatch with TiO2 and QD but a relatively lower conduction band edge. Herein, we propose a strategy to employ ZnSxSe1-x alloy materials as a passivation layer for the first time to solve the drawbacks of single-component passivation layers. The ZnSxSe1-x alloy passivation layer was deposited on the Zn-Cu-In-Se (ZCISe) QD-sensitized TiO2 film electrode via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. A stable polyselenosulfide/sulfide mixed anions were served as anion precursor for the formation of ZnSxSe1-x alloy passivation layer. Experimental results revealed that the alloy passivation layer is more favorable for the suppression of charge recombination at the photoanode/electrolyte interface. In addition, the ZnSxSe1-x alloy passivation layer can significantly improve the photogenerated electron extraction efficiency compared to the current classical ZnS passivation layer as confirmed by the transient absorption (TA) measurement. Consequently, the average efficiency of QDSCs was improved from 12.17 to 13.08% with the replacement of traditional ZnS passivation layer by ZnSSe-10 under AM 1.5G one full sun illumination.

16.
Invest New Drugs ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637668

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting tumor angiogenesis, as second-line treatment in recurrent or advanced cervical cancer patients. Twenty patients who failed cisplatin/paclitaxel ± bevacizumab treatment received a 4-week cycle of apatinib, with a daily dosage of 500 mg or 250 mg. The follow-up period ranged from 5.9 to 21.3 months (median, 14.0 months). None of the patients achieved a complete response (CR). Nevertheless, a partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD) were observed in three, four and thirteen patients, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) was 15.0% (95% CI, 2.1%-32.1%), and the disease control rate (DCR) was 35.0% (95% CI, 12.1%-57.9%). Among the 12 patients who were treated with bevacizumab in first-line treatment, two achieved PR and two achieved SD. The ORR and DCR were 16.7% (95% CI, 8.1%-41.4%) and 33.3% (95% CI, 2.0%-64.6%), respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.13 months (95% CI, 2.94-7.32 months), and the median overall survival (OS) was 12.3 months (95% CI, 10.13-14.47 months). The one-year PFS rate was 28.1%, and the one-year OS rate was 44.6%. The most common adverse events were hand-foot syndrome, hypertension, proteinuria, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anaemia, and neutropenia. Most of the adverse events were of grades 1 and 2. The most frequent grade 3 and 4 adverse events were fatigue, hypertension, and hand-foot syndrome. In summary, apatinib is an effective and well-tolerated second-line treatment for patients with recurrent or advanced cervical cancer.

17.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 348, 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder and one of the most common inherent causes of cholestatic jaundice in Asian infants. Mutations in the SLC25A13 gene, which encodes citrin protein expressed in the liver, have been identified as the genetic cause for NICCD. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a 4-month-old female with clinical features including jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperlactacidemia, and abnormal liver function. The patient was diagnosed with NICCD by differential diagnosis using genetic analysis. Mutations in 60 jaundice-related genes were tested by using amplicon sequencing, which was performed on an Ion S5XL genetic analyzer. A compound heterozygous mutation in the SLC25A13 gene was identified, consisting of a known deletion SLC25A13:c.852_855delTATG and a novel splicing mutation SLC25A13:c.1841 + 3_1841 + 4delAA. Sanger sequencing for the proband and her parents was performed to validate the result and reveal the source of mutations. CONCLUSION: A compound heterozygous mutation in the SLC25A13 gene was identified in a 4-month-old female patient with NICCD. Our data suggest that amplicon sequencing is a helpful tool for the differential diagnosis of inherited diseases with similar symptoms. Further studies of the mutation spectrum of neonatal jaundice in China are warranted.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17562, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a growing chronic health problem worldwide. Studies about acupuncture for obesity treatment are many. But there are some doubts about the effectiveness of acupuncture vs sham acupuncture in treating obesity due to its lack of an evidence-based medical proof. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of acupuncture for obesity treatment and provide clinic evidence. METHODS: This protocol was based on the previous reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis agreements. Four English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and 4 Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese BioMedical Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Wan-Fang Data) will be searched from their receptions to August 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture compared sham acupuncture (or no treatment) to treat simple obesity will be included. The primary outcome of body mass index (BMI) and body weight (BW) will be used to measure the effect of acupuncture on obesity. According to the trial data extraction form based on the Cochrane Handbook, 2 reviewers will separately extract the data. Risk of bias of the RCTs will be assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Publication bias will be assessed with funnel plots. RESULTS: This study will be to evaluate whether acupuncture is an effective intervention for simple obesity when compared with sham acupuncture. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of this study will help clinicians provide effective treatment options for obese patients. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for systematic review and meta- analysis. The results of this review will be disseminated in a peer-review journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019129825.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480670

RESUMO

Tannins biodegradation by a microorganism is one of the most efficient ways to produce bioproducts of high value. However, the mechanism of tannins biodegradation by yeast has been little explored. In this study, Aureobasidium melanogenum T9 isolated from red wine starter showed the ability for tannins degradation and had its highest biomass when the initial tannic acid concentration was 20 g/L. Furthermore, the genes involved in the tannin degradation process were analyzed. Genes tan A, tan B and tan C encoding three different tannases respectively were identified in the A. melanogenum T9. Among these genes, tan A and tan B can be induced by tannin acid simultaneously at both gene transcription and protein expression levels. Our assay result showed that the deletion of tanA and tanB resulted in tannase activity decline with 51.3 ± 4.1 and 64.1 ± 1.9 U/mL, respectively, which is much lower than that of A. melanogenum T9 with 91.3 ± 5.8 U/mL. In addition, another gene coding gallic acid decarboxylase (gad) was knocked out to better clarify its function. Mutant Δgad completely lost gallic acid decarboxylase activity and no pyrogallic acid was seen during the entire cultivation process, confirming that there was a sole gene encoding decarboxylase in the A. melanogenum T9. These results demonstrated that tanA, tanB and gad were crucial for tannin degradation and provided new insights for the mechanism of tannins biodegradation by yeast. This finding showed that A. melanogenum has potential in the production of tannase and metabolites, such as gall acid and pyrogallol.

20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417578

RESUMO

IκB kinases (IKKs) play critical roles in innate immunity through signal-induced activation of the key transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factors (IRFs). However, studies of invertebrate IKK functions remain scarce. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis of IKKs and IKK-related kinases encoded in the Pacific oyster genome. We then cloned and characterized the oyster IKKα/ß-2 gene. We found that oyster IKKα/ß-2, a homolog of human IKKα/IKKß, responded to challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]. As a versatile immune molecule, IKKα/ß-2 activated the promoters of NF-κB, TNFα, and IFNß, as well as IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE)-containing promoters, initiating an antibacterial or antiviral immune state in mammalian cells. Importantly, together with the cloned oyster IKKα/ß-1, we investigated the signal transduction pathways mediated by these two IKKα/ß proteins. Our results showed that IKKα/ß-1 and IKKα/ß-2 could interact with the oyster TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and that IKKα/ß-2 could also bind to the oyster myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) protein directly, suggesting that oyster IKKα/ßs participate in both RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling for the reception of upstream immune signals. The fact that IKKα/ß-1 and IKKα/ß-2 formed homodimers by interacting with themselves and heterodimers by interacting with each other, along with the fact that both oyster IKKα/ß proteins interacted with NEMO protein, indicates that oyster IKKα/ßs and the scaffold protein NEMO form an IKK complex, which may be a key step in phosphorylating IκB proteins and activating NF-κB. Moreover, we found that oyster IKKα/ßs could interact with IRF8, and this may be related to the IKK-mediated activation of ISRE promotors and their involvement in the oyster "interferon (IFN)-like" antiviral pathway. Moreover, the expression of oyster IKKα/ß-1 and IKKα/ß-2 may induce the phosphorylation of IκB proteins to activate NF-κB. These results reveal the immune function of oyster IKKα/ß-2 and establish the existence of mollusk TLR and RLR signaling mediated by IKKα/ß proteins for the first time. Our findings should be helpful in deciphering the immune mechanisms of invertebrates and understanding the development of the vertebrate innate immunity network.

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