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1.
Head Neck ; 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A single institutional experience of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to medically unfit patients with unresectable head and neck cancers (HNCs). METHODS: A retrospective review of HNC patients undergoing SBRT was undertaken from 2011 to 2016 for fractionation ranges between 35 and 50 Gy in 4 to 6 fractions. RESULTS: One hundred and fourteen patients with 117 SBRT courses were included with mean follow-up of 10.5 months. The cohort consisted of previously untreated primary HNC (n = 48), recurrent never irradiated HNC (n = 19), oligometastatic (n = 17) non-HNC primaries and previously irradiated HNC (n = 33). Local control (LC) at 12 months and median progression free survival was 85.8%, 78.2%, 85%, 78.9% (P = .86) and 23.7, 14.8, 10.5 and 7.8 months (P = .04) respectively. Only one patient had an acute grade 4 toxicity, two patients had grade 4 late toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: HNC SBRT is an effective treatment for frail patients where longer LC is relevant but are unable to tolerate protracted radiation schedules.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4406, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157171

RESUMO

With the development of data mining, machine learning offers opportunities to improve discrimination by analyzing complex interactions among massive variables. To test the ability of machine learning algorithms for predicting risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a rural Chinese population, we focus on a total of 36,652 eligible participants from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Risk assessment models for T2DM were developed using six machine learning algorithms, including logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART), artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF) and gradient boosting machine (GBM). The model performance was measured in an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under precision recall curve. The importance of variables was identified based on each classifier and the shapley additive explanations approach. Using all available variables, all models for predicting risk of T2DM demonstrated strong predictive performance, with AUCs ranging between 0.811 and 0.872 using laboratory data and from 0.767 to 0.817 without laboratory data. Among them, the GBM model performed best (AUC: 0.872 with laboratory data and 0.817 without laboratory data). Performance of models plateaued when introduced 30 variables to each model except CART model. Among the top-10 variables across all methods were sweet flavor, urine glucose, age, heart rate, creatinine, waist circumference, uric acid, pulse pressure, insulin, and hypertension. New important risk factors (urinary indicators, sweet flavor) were not found in previous risk prediction methods, but determined by machine learning in our study. Through the results, machine learning methods showed competence in predicting risk of T2DM, leading to greater insights on disease risk factors with no priori assumption of causality.

3.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206970

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients are commonly enrolled into clinical trials. It has been reported that these patients may have better outcomes than those not enrolled into the study. The reasoning from these improvements could be attributable to closer follow-up, better patient adherence, more health aware patients have, or reaction to observation such as the Hawthorne effect. METHODS: Three hundred forty-six patients were approached for a prospective skin toxicity study in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) but declined participation between January 2018 and July 2019 (non-trial group). They were retrospectively reviewed and patient, treatment and RT-related characteristics, as well as the occurrence of skin reactions, and the usage of topical treatments were collected. This was compared with a comparison cohort of 349 patients who were enrolled into a previously conducted prospective study (trial group). RESULTS: More patients in the trial group had conventional RT (CFRT) versus hypofractionated RT (HFRT). Data was further stratified and there was no significant difference in moist desquamation, topical antibiotic usage, dressing application, home care use, topical corticoid steroid use, and oral analgesic use. There was a significantly lower pain score in the group compared with the non-trial group in both HFRT and CFRT (OR = 0.091 and OR = 0.348, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated no differences other than pain between the trial group and non-trial group. Therefore, in this cohort, patients enrolled into an observational trial while undergoing adjuvant breast RT demonstrated similar experiences of skin reactions. There are challenges to assessing differences between these groups, as confounding is likely. Therefore, it is recommended for future studies to additionally assess the impact of study participation on outcomes such as quality of life, quality of care received, and/or anxiety levels.

4.
ACS Nano ; 14(3): 3159-3169, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119517

RESUMO

Acoustofluidic methods, with advantages including simplicity of device design, biocompatible manipulation, and low power consumption, have been touted as promising tools for point-of-care (POC) testing. Here, we report a cell-phone-based acoustofluidic platform that uses acoustic radiation forces to enrich nanoscale analytes and red and green fluorescence nanoparticles (SiO2@R and G@SiO2) as probes for POC visual testing. Thus, the color signals from the fluorescent probes are enhanced, and colorimetric sensitivity is significantly improved. As a POC demonstration, the acoustofluidic platform is used to detect hemoglobin (Hb) from human blood, resulting in a rapid and straightforward measurement of normal blood Hb levels. Combining an acoustofluidic-based nanoparticle-concentration platform with cell-phone-based colorimetry, our method introduces a potential pathway toward practical POC testing.

5.
Radiother Oncol ; 146: 90-96, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy is a treatment option for localized prostate cancer, but optimal dose and fractionation is unknown. We report efficacy results of a randomized phase II trial of HDR monotherapy delivered as either one or two fractions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had low or intermediate risk prostate cancer, prostate volume <60 cc, and no androgen deprivation use. 170 patients were randomized to receive HDR as either a single fraction of 19 Gy or as two fractions of 13.5 Gy one week apart. Median age was 65 years, median PSA was 6.33 ng/ml, and Grade Group 1, 2 and 3 was present in 28%, 60%, and 12%, respectively. There was no difference in baseline factors between arms and 19%, 51% and 30% had low risk, favourable intermediate and unfavourable intermediate risk disease, respectively. The Phoenix definition was used to define biochemical failure, all local failures were confirmed by biopsy and toxicity was assessed using CTCAE v.4. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 60 months. PSA decreased more quickly in the 2-fraction arm (p = 0.009). Median PSA at 5-years was 0.65 ng/ml in the single fraction and 0.16 ng/ml in the 2-fraction arm. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survival and cumulative incidence of local failure was 73.5% and 29% in the single fraction arm and 95% (p = 0.001) and 3% (p < 0.001) in the 2-fraction arm, respectively. Recurrence was not associated with initial stage, grade group, or risk group. Grade 2 late rectal toxicity occurred in 1% while the incidence of grade 2 and 3 urinary toxicity was 45% and 1%, respectively, with no difference between arms. CONCLUSIONS: HDR monotherapy delivered as two fraction of 13.5 Gy is well tolerated with a high cancer control rate at 5 years. Single fraction monotherapy is inferior and should not be used.

6.
Cancer ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With limited information on germline mutations in biliary tract cancers, this study performed somatic and germline testing for patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center with known biliary tract carcinoma with the aim of determining the frequency and range of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs). METHODS: Patients with biliary tract carcinoma were consented for somatic tumor and matched blood testing of up to 468 genes via the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets next-generation sequencing platform. A germline variant analysis was performed on a panel of up to 88 genes associated with an increased predisposition for cancer. Demographic and diagnostic details were collected. RESULTS: Germline mutations were tested in 131 patients. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was the most common cancer (63.4%), and it was followed by gallbladder adenocarcinoma (16.8%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (16%), and otherwise unspecified biliary tract cancer (3.8%). Known and likely PGAs were present in 21 patients (16.0%), with 9.9% harboring a PGA in a high/moderate-penetrance cancer predisposition gene. Among high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, PGAs were most commonly observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (33.3%), which made up 5.3% of the entire cohort, and they were followed by PALB2, BAP1, and PMS2. Mutations in ATM, MITF, and NBN, moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, were identified in 1 patient each. There was no observed difference in the types of mutations among the subtypes of biliary tract cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of PGAs found was comparable to existing data on the prevalence of germline mutations in other solid tumor types with matched tumor analysis. This provides support for the role of the BRCA1/2, ATM, and BAP1 genes in biliary tract cancer susceptibility.

7.
ACS Sens ; 5(2): 303-307, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039587

RESUMO

The detection of thiocyanate (SCN-) is particularly important in industrial effluents and biological fluids because of the toxic nature of SCN-. Herein, a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) resonator for visual detection of SCN- is presented based on a poly[(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl) trimethylammonium chloride] (PMETAC) brush. The MIM resonator exhibits obvious color change as the concentration of SCN- changes, which can be easily distinguished by the naked eyes. In addition, the as-prepared MIM resonator also shows the advantages of good anti-interference, excellent reusability, and fast response rate. Combining the above advantages, the proposed MIM resonator may provide a broad perspective for a wide variety of visible-light applications.

8.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102062

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although exercise is a safe, cost-effective, and therapeutic post-stroke therapy, the proper time-window and dosage of exercise are still unknown. We aim to determine the optimal combination of time-window and intensity of exercise by assessing infarct volume, neurological recovery, and underlying mechanisms in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. METHODS: The study contains two parts: the time-window and the dosage experiments. The time-window experiment assessed the effects of moderate intensity exercise that was initiated at 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 96 hrs and the control. In the dosage experiment, moderate and another two intensity exercise groups (Low, High) were assessed. Forced wheel running was the exercise technique used. Infarct volume and neurological function (modified Neurological Severity Scores, mNSS) were measured. Inflammatory cytokines, cell death and proliferation were further detected in the ischemic penumbra. RESULTS: The time-window part revealed that neither infarct volume nor mNSS was reduced in the exercise group initiated at 24 hrs. The other three groups with exercise initiated after 24 hrs had reduced infarct volume and reduced mNSS but those outcomes do not differ from each other. In the dosage part, the Low and Moderate intensity groups with exercise initiated at 48 hrs were both better than the High intensity group in terms of infarct volume and mNSS at 14 days; however, there was no statistical difference between these low and moderate groups. Exercise initiated at 24 hrs or High intensity promoted pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death. Conclusions - Exercise at 24 hrs is harmful. Low and Moderate intensity exercise initiated at 48 hrs post-stroke appears to be the optimal combination for maximal functional recovery.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 31(16): 165504, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899903

RESUMO

Cu3(PO4)2 flowers are reported for the first time as a solid precursor for the preparation of hierarchical CuO particles with sea urchin-like morphology in the absence of self-assembled templates or matrixes. In the alkaline condition, Cu3(PO4)2 transforms into Cu(OH)2 firstly, and then into CuO through dehydration at room temperature. Different from soluble Cu salt as precursor, the basic building blocks for CuO are continuously supplied in a controlled manner form Cu3(PO4)2 precursor, which ensures a nearly sustained supersaturated concentration that favors heterogeneous nucleation and progressive growth of sea urchin-like CuO particles. The gas sensing property of as-prepared sea urchin-like CuO particles to ethanol is investigated. The sea urchin-like CuO particles exhibit a good sensing performance in terms of high response, short response/recovery time, good selectivity, good reproducibility, and long-term stability. The facile strategy demonstrated here opens up a new strategy to fabricate hierarchical CuO particles with enormous potential from the perspective of practical application.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999094

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are susceptible to intrinsic structural instability associated with the presence of inorganic halide anions and organic cation vacancies, thus leading to the deterioration or even premature failure of devices. Herein, we develop an efficient strategy using super-halogen BH4- substitution to simultaneously immobilize methylammonium and substitute iodide vacancy for high-performance PSCs based on the dihydrogen bonding interactions. The introduced super-halogen BH4- groups not only significantly reduce the vacancy density but also effectively inhibit the decomposition of the CH3NH3+ group by forming perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-x(BH4-)x. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the assembled mesoporous devices is remarkably promoted from 18.43 to 21.10%, accompanied by significant increase of both Jsc and Voc without obvious hysteresis. The superior PSCs can retain 90 and 80% of their initial PCE even after being stored for 1200 h under environmental conditions (50 ± 10% RH) and 240 h at 85 °C in the dark, respectively. Moreover, it delivers excellent optical stability under ultraviolet illumination. This work provides an avenue to improve both the long-term stability and photovoltaic performance of PSCs.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227470, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923921

RESUMO

Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most serious diseases. Although previous research using two-dimensional gel-based proteomics to assess the proteins related to the rice blast resistance had been done, few proteins were identified. Here, we used the iTRAQ method to detect the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the durable resistant rice variety Gangyuan8 (GY8) and the susceptible rice variety Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH) in response to M. oryzae invasion, and then transcriptome sequencing was used to assist analysis A total of 193 and 672 DEPs were specifically identified in GY8 and LTH, respectively, with only 46 similarly expressed DEPs being shared by GY8 and LTH.39 DEPs involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, fatty acid metabolism and peroxisome biosynthesis were significantly different between compatible interaction (LTH) and incompatible interaction (GY8). Some proteins participated in peroxide signal transduction and biosynthesis was down-regulated in GY8 but up-regulated in LTH. A lot of genes encoding pathogenesis-related gene (PR), such as chitinase and glucanase, were significantly up-regulated at both the transcriptome and proteome levels at 24 hours post-inoculation in GY8, but up-regulated at the transcriptome level and down-regulated at the proteome level in LTH. Our study reveals that the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity defense system may be activated at the transcriptome level but was inhibited at the protein level in susceptible rice varieties after inoculation. The results may facilitate future studies of the molecular mechanisms of rice blast resistance.

12.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113440, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706754

RESUMO

More attention was paid to the attachment between microplastics and environmental pollutants. The adsorption performance of Polyethylene (PE) beads (a typical type of microplastics) and Cr(VI) ions with the existence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was investigated in this paper. The adsorption experiments of Cr(VI) ions by PE microplastics were conducted at different conditions, i.e. PE doses, pH and SDBS concentrations, respectively. The adsorption capability of Cr(VI) ions was increased from 0.39 to 1.36 mg⋅g-1 when the dosage of PE microplastics was increased from 2 to 14 g ⋅L-1 at pH of 5 with addition of SDBS, compared with increasing adsorption capability from 0.03 to 0.32 mg⋅g-1 without addition of SDBS. The pH would influence the adsorption capability with and without the addition of SDBS. When the pH was less than 6, the adsorption capability of Cr(VI) would be promoted by the addition of SDBS; however, there was a contrast tendency when the pH was more than 6, which was attributed to that SDBS would compete with CrO42- for occupying the adsorption sites of PE microplastic. The SDBS concentration would affect the adsorption performance of Cr(VI) ions onto PE microplastics. The peak of the adsorption capacity was at SDBS concentration between 1 and 1.5 mM. This research would provide a basis for investigating the influence of SDBS on adsorption performance of heavy metal by PE microplastics to simulate the surface attachment model of those three kinds of pollutants.

13.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 226: 117555, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634710

RESUMO

With the growing interest in alternative medicine, handy identification and differentiation of herbal medicines are becoming increasingly important. Here we report a chemometric modeling-free near infrared (NIR) barcode strategy for the smart identification and geographical origin discrimination of Chinese ginseng. The novel strategy demands the transformation of Chinese ginseng (standard and sample) NIR spectra into a barcode representation through assigning zero intensity to every NIR peak except the peaks having intensities greater than average peak intensity. Meanwhile, for Chinese ginseng standard NIR barcode, barcoding condition such as padding size was carefully optimized. It has been demonstrated that the padding size for each bar in the barcode is 8 cm-1. By comparing the percentage of nonzero overlap between Chinese ginseng standard barcode and sample barcodes, eight batches of samples (including Chinese ginseng, American ginseng and counterfeit) were successfully identified with 100% accuracy, respectively. Interestingly, the discrimination of the origin of ginsengs from three provinces (Jilin, Liaoning and Heilongjiang) of Northeastern China was achieved utilizing NIR barcode method. Two characteristic bars at 7750 and 8250 cm-1 were inspected in the ginseng sample from Jilin province, two specific bars at 6780 and 7015 cm-1 were displayed in the ginseng sample from Liaoning province and three distinct bars at 6560, 6910 and 7995 cm-1 were monitored in the ginseng sample from Heilongjiang province. The results indicate that the proposed method will be greatly expanded and applied as an inspecting platform for the on-site analysis and valid identification of Chinese ginseng in herbal markets by a handheld spectrometer or barcode scanner.

14.
Stroke ; 51(1): 193-201, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795899

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- 1/2ABC has been used widely for assessing the volume of intracerebral hematoma. However, it is only suitable for calculating regular and small volume hematomas. Therefore, we re-explored the formula of hematoma volume to find a method that can calculate hematoma volumes accurately, reliably, and quickly. Methods- Computed tomography imaging data of 257 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were collected. Hematoma volumes were estimated using 3-dimensional Slicer and 7 formulas (π/6ABC, 1/2ABC, 1/3ABC, 2/3SH, 1/2SH, π/6SH, and 2.5/6ABC). Taking the hematoma volumes measured by 3-dimensional Slicer as the reference standard, the accuracy and reliability of the 7 formulas were evaluated. Furthermore, the time needed to calculate hematoma volumes by the 1/2SH method was noted for further analysis. Results- (1) The accuracy of the 7 formulas based on the error analysis from the highest to the lowest was: π/6SH, 1/2SH, 2.5/6ABC, 1/3ABC, 1/2ABC, and π/6ABC or 2/3SH. According to concordance analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the results from the highest to lowest were as follows: 1/2SH, π/6SH, 2.5/6ABC, 1/3ABC, 1/2ABC, 2/3SH, and π/6ABC. After categorizing cases according to size, shape, and location of hematoma, the results were almost the same as the results for overall accuracy evaluation in any subgroup. (2) Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 1/2SH in intra and inter-researcher were 0.998 and 0.989, respectively. For the formula π/6SH, intraclass correlation coefficient was the same as that of 1/2ABC. Kappa values of 1/2SH for intra- and inter-observer were 0.992 and 0.913, respectively. For π/6SH, kappa values of within- and between-reader were 0.984 and 0.904, respectively. (3) The average time taken to calculate hematoma volumes by 1/2SH was 74 seconds. Conclusions- The 1/2SH and π/6SH are accurate, reliable, and rapid methods for calculating hematoma volumes. The accuracy and reliability of 1/2SH were slightly higher than those of π/6SH.

15.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 406-414, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urothelial cancers (UCs) have a substantial hereditary component, but, other than their association with Lynch syndrome, the contribution of genetic risk factors to UC pathogenesis has not been systematically defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) germline variants in patients with UC and identify associated clinical factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 586 patients with UC underwent prospective, matched tumor-normal DNA sequencing. Seventy-seven genes associated with cancer predisposition were analyzed; allele frequencies were compared with publicly available database. RESULTS: P/LP germline variants were identified in 80 (14%) of 586 individuals with UC. The most common P/LP variants in high- or moderate-penetrance genes were BRCA2 (n = 9; 1.5%), MSH2 (n = 8; 1.4%), BRCA1 (n = 8; 1.4%), CHEK2 (n = 6; 1.0%), ERCC3 (n = 4; 0.7%), and NBN and RAD50 (n = 3; 0.5% each). Sixty-six patients (83%) had germline P/LP variants in DNA-damage repair (DDR) genes, of which 28 (42%) had biallelic inactivation. Patients with P/LP variants were more commonly diagnosed at an early age (22% v 6% in those without variants; P = .01). BRCA2 and MSH2 were significantly associated with an increased risk for UC (odds ratio, 3.7 [P = .004] and 4.6 [P = .001], respectively). Current clinical guidelines for referral for genetic testing failed to identify 6 (26%) patients with high-penetrance variants. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant P/LP germline variants in DDR genes frequently are present in patients with advanced UC. The presence of DDR germline variants could guide cancer screening for patients and their families and serve as predictive biomarkers of response to targeted or immunotherapies. Family history-based criteria to identify patients with hereditary UC susceptibility are insensitive. Broader germline testing in UC, particularly in those of young ages, should be considered.

16.
Radiother Oncol ; 142: 236-245, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To review the clinical outcomes following the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) from a large academic institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with mCRC treated with extracranial SBRT between 2008 and 2016 were identified from an institutional database. Treatment indications were oligometastases, oligoprogression, and local control of dominant tumors. Endpoints included local progression (LP), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and cumulative incidence of starting or changing systemic therapy (SCST). Univariate and multivariable analyses (MVA) were performed to identify predictive factors. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-five patients (262 lesions treated) were included. The 2-year cumulative incidence of LP was 23.8%. Lower SBRT doses and tumor location in the liver were significant predictors of LP on MVA. Median OS was 49.3 months, 19.3 months, and 9.0 months for oligometastases, oligoprogression, and local control of dominant tumors, respectively. Primary tumor not in situ, smaller tumors, fewer lines of previous systemic therapy, lower CEA, and oligometastases treatment indications were significant predictors of higher OS on MVA. For the entire cohort, median PFS was 9.9 months, while oligometastatic patients had a median PFS of 12.4 months. 2-year cumulative incidence of SCST was 41.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Survival outcomes are favorable after SBRT for mCRC patients. A significant proportion of patients did not have a change in systemic therapy after SBRT. Higher doses are required to obtain the best local control. Efforts should be made to better optimize SBRT delivery for liver metastases given their higher local failure rate.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 103-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444830

RESUMO

Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutations underpin the autosomal recessive syndrome. FH deficiency and the autosomal dominant syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) genomic alteration has been conclusively shown to contribute to FH deficiency when occurring with another FH germline alteration. However, a sufficiently large dataset has been lacking to conclusively determine its clinical significance to cancer predisposition in the heterozygous state. We reviewed a series of 7,571 patients with cancer who received germline results through MSK-IMPACT testing at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) variant was detected in 24 individuals, none of whom was affected with renal cancer. Eleven of the 372 patients with renal cancer were identified to carried pathogenic FH variants associated with HLRCC. None of these 372 patients with renal cancer carried the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA variant. Our data indicate the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA is not associated with cancer including renal cell carcinoma.

18.
ChemSusChem ; 13(1): 252-259, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475779

RESUMO

Two-dimensional perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with high moisture resistance are a key topic in the photovoltaic field. However, their lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in comparison to 3 D PSCs is still an urgent problem to be solved. It is vital to understand the impact of constituent ratios and ammonium salt sizes on the photovoltaic performance and humidity stability. Based on the formula of (RNH3 )2 (MA)n-1 Pbn I3n+1 (n=1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11), a series of 2 D perovskites is prepared by introducing varisized ammonium salts of ethylammonium iodide (EAI), propylammonium iodide (PAI), and butylammonium iodide (BAI). The effects of the constituent ratios and varisized ammonium salts on the properties of the 2 D perovskites were studied. 2 D perovskite devices based on larger n and smaller ammonium salt size are found to exhibit better performances. However, the moisture resistance of the 2 D perovskite devices is higher when n is smaller and the ammonium salt size is larger. Therefore, the EA2 MA10 Pb11 I34 (n=11) 2 D perovskite device displays the best photovoltaic performance, with the highest PCE of 16.93 %, whereas BA2 MA2 Pb3 I10 (n=3) 2 D perovskite, with the largest contact angle of 79.8°, can retain over 85 % of the initial PCE after 1440 h aging at 50 % relative humidity. This work indicates the PCE and stability of 2 D perovskites can be conveniently and effectively adjusted by controlling the 2 D constituent ratios and ammonium salt sizes, so as to obtain efficient 2 D PSCs with high stability.

20.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(2): 589-598, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taxane acute pain syndrome (TAPS) is a clinically significant side-effect of taxane chemotherapy, often described as arthralgia and myalgia that occurs 2-3 days after infusion. The aim of this study was to assess pain descriptors used by patients during their experience of TAPS. METHODS: A clinical prospective cohort study was conducted on breast cancer patients who had not received prior chemotherapy and were asked to complete diaries on three consecutive docetaxel treatment cycles on days 1-7, 14, and 21 (acute phase). Questionnaires to assess pain severity, descriptors of pain, and the interference in activities due to pain were adapted from the Brief Pain Inventory and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Telephone questionnaire follow-up was done at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months following docetaxel (delayed phase). RESULTS: The most commonly used descriptor for acute and chronic pain was "aching" (90-96%). However, in the delayed phase of the study, "burning" (32-50%), "radiating" (39-48%), and "sharp" (40-69%) were used more often. In both acute and chronic pain phases, most patients experienced moderate/severe pain regardless of the location. Pain in cycle 1 was predictive of pain in subsequent taxane cycles (p < 0.0001). Pain in cycle 3 was predictive of chronic pain (p < 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The descriptors used by patients experiencing chemotherapy-induced pain (ChIP) may be reflective of the underlying mechanisms. It is suspected that TAPS initiates as an acute inflammatory pain, which over time develops into neuropathic pain, known as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). However, the subjective pain experience varies from patient to patient.

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