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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 14, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is an anaerobic unicellular protist frequently detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals worldwide. However, the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in the coypu (Myocastor coypus) population have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, genetic characteristics, and zoonotic potential of Blastocystis isolates detected in coypus in China. RESULTS: A total of 308 fecal samples were collected from coypus in seven regions across China and subsequently examined. Blastocystis was detected in 44 (14.3%) specimens by nested PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Further DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses resulted in the identification of two zoonotic known subtypes, ST4 and ST5, and an unknown subtype. ST4 was the most predominant subtype observed in the samples. ST5 infections were only observed in three coypus. Factors that were associated with prevalence of Blastocystis included age, geographical region and subtype. Interestingly, this is the first report about a potentially novel subtype infecting coypus. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive report of Blastocystis in M. coypus across a wide geographic range of China. A moderate degree of genetic divergence was observed. The presence of zoonotic subtypes in farmed M. coypus suggests that these animals have the potential to transmit blastocystosis to both humans and domestic animals. These findings provide a better understanding of the genetic diversity of Blastocystis in rodents and contribute towards the establishment of efficient blastocystosis control strategies in the investigated areas.

2.
One Health ; 14: 100364, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984218

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is one of the most important genera of intestinal zoonotic pathogens that cause diarrhea in both humans and animals. Rodents are common and important hosts or carriers of pathogens with public health importance, and rodents play an important role in the ecology of zoonotic transmission. The overall worldwide prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in rodents is 19.8% (4589/23142). Twenty-five known Cryptosporidium species and 43 genotypes have been identified, and C. parvum is the dominant species in rodents worldwide. Rodents transfer pathogens to humans by the direct route or by serving as intermediate hosts transmitting the pathogens to other animals. We review the epidemiology, diversity, and transmission routes of Cryptosporidium spp. in rodents. The main purpose of this review is to highlight Cryptosporidium infection in rodents and its transmission, associated risk factors, and prevention; in addition, we assess the public health and ecological significance of Cryptosporidium infections from the One Health perspective.

3.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; : e12878, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877732

RESUMO

To find out whether and how the prevalence and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium in neonatal calves varies with the season, 380 fecal samples from neonatal calves on two large-scale farms in Xinjiang (Alar and Wensu) were studied using molecular biology techniques. Cryptosporidium was detected in 48.7% (185/380) of the samples, and was most frequent in summer (56.8%), followed by spring (50.0%), winter (46.8%), and autumn (41.7%) (P > 0.05). Calves with diarrhea seem to be more likely infected by Cryptosporidium than those without diarrhea (P < 0.01). We also found that C. parvum (n = 173), C. bovis (n = 7) and C. ryanae (n = 3), were the Cryptosporidium species detected in this study, and coinfections of these three species (n = 2) were also identified. Two subtypes (IIdA14G1 and IIdA15G1) of C. parvum were identified and both can infect human. These results also show that neonatal calves commonly suffer diarrhea caused by C. parvum throughout the year.

4.
Trends Parasitol ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865971
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 608, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium andersoni initiates infection by releasing sporozoites from oocysts through excystation. However, the proteins involved in excystation are unknown. Determining the proteins that participate in the excystation of C. andersoni oocysts will increase our understanding of the excystation process. METHODS: Cryptosporidium andersoni oocysts were collected and purified from the feces of naturally infected adult cows. Tandem mass tags (TMT), coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic analysis, were used to investigate the proteomic expression profiles of C. andersoni oocysts before and after excystation. RESULTS: Proteomic analysis identified a total of 1586 proteins, of which 17 were differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) upon excystation. These included 10 upregulated and seven downregulated proteins. The 17 proteins had multiple biological functions associated with control of gene expression at the level of transcription and biosynthetic and metabolic processes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR of eight selected genes validated the proteomic data. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides information on the protein composition of C. andersoni oocysts as well as possible excystation factors. The data may be useful in identifying genes for diagnosis, vaccine development, and immunotherapy for Cryptosporidium.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/classificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Oocistos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Proteômica , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esporozoítos , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 141: 138-144, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740045

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common gastrointestinal parasite that has a broad range of hosts, including birds, mammals, and even humans. The changes of gut bacterial communities have been demonstrated during the course of E. bieneusi. This study aimed to examine the infection status, and assess the zoonotic potential and influence of E. bieneusi on gut bacterial communities of captive foxes in Xinxiang, central China. Fecal samples were collected from 216 captive foxes, and amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of each sample was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. E. bieneusi was detected in 48 (22.2%) samples, and five previously reported genotypes CHN-F1 (n = 25), D (n = 18), BEB6 (n = 3), NCF2 (n = 1), and CHN-DC1 (n = 1) were identified, with CHN-F1 being the dominant genotype (25/48, 52.1%). Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that CHN-F1, D, NCF2, and CHN-DC1 genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group 1 of E. bieneusi, whereas BEB6 belonged to group 2. Moreover, sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene in five E. bieneusi-positive and five negative samples showed that gut microbial diversity was higher in the infected animals. In both groups, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the two most abundant phyla, but the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was lower in E. bieneusi-positive foxes (7.9:1) as compared with E. bieneusi-negative foxes (5:1). More importantly, at the phylum level, "beneficial bacteria" such as Firmicutes (1.6%) and Bacteroides (5.8%) increased, whereas "opportunistic pathogens" such as Fusobacteria (8.2%) decreased. Similarly, at the genus level, the pathogenic Clostridiaceae_Clostridium (10.0%) decreased, whereas the "beneficial bacteria" Lactococcus (6.6%) increased. These interesting phenomena warrant further investigation.

7.
One Health ; 13: 100347, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820500

RESUMO

Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites in humans and domestic animals. For Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goats, the traditional grazing methods still occupy a dominant position, and the close contact between humans and domestic animals increases the risk of infection by Blastocystis between herdsmen and livestock. However, less pertinent information is available for Tibetan sheep or Tibetan goats. In this study, 880 fecal specimens from Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goats were collected from 6 sampling sites in Tibet to test for Blastocystis using the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis of the partial SSU rRNA gene. The infection rate of Blastocystis was 8.55% for Tibetan sheep (53/620) and 8.46% for Tibetan goats (22/260). The genetic analysis of 53 positive samples from Tibetan sheep identified 4 known subtypes (ST4, ST5, ST10, and ST14). Four known subtypes (ST1, ST5, ST6, and ST10) were identified in Tibetan goats. ST10 was the dominant subtype in Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goats, accounting for 65.33% (49/75) of total subtypes. ST1, ST4, ST5, and ST6 were recognized as belonging to zoonotic subtypes. This report provides a detailed data on the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goats in Tibet, which enriches the epidemiological data of Blastocystis infection in Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goats in China. Our results indicated that Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goats can be infected with multiple Blastocystis subtypes, including zoonotic subtypes. More research is needed among humans, livestock and wild animals in Tibet to better understand their role in the spread of Blastocystis. And, One Health measures need to be taken to control and prevent its zoonotic transmission.

8.
J Parasitol ; 107(5): 790-793, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614510

RESUMO

This study is the first description of Blastocystis infection in peafowls in China. In total, 143 fecal specimens collected from a peafowl breeding farm in Henan Province were tested for Blastocystis infection by PCR assay targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, and a total of 50 specimens (35.0%) were positive. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis, 2 genetically distinct subtypes (STs) were determined: ST9 and ST7. ST9 was the predominant subtype, accounting for 82% (41/50). The rare zoonotic subtype ST7 was also identified in peafowls, with the infection rate of 18% (9/50). Altogether, the present study is the first report of the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Blastocystis in peafowls in central China. The presence of zoonotic subtypes in peafowls suggests the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis to workers at peafowl farms.

9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 332, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Captive wild animals in zoos infected with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. can be sources of zoonotic infections and diseases. Therefore, to investigate the distribution of these pathogens in captive wild animals of zoos in Henan, China, a total of 429 fresh fecal samples were collected from six zoos in Henan, China. The infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. were determined by PCR analysis of corresponding loci. Positive results for Cryptosporidium (C. parvum and C. hominis) were subtyped based on the (gp60) gene. RESULTS: The overall prevalence was 43.1% (185/429), and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis sp. were 2.8% (12/429), 0.5% (2/429), 20.8% (89/429), and 19.1% (82/429), respectively. Five Cryptosporidium species, namely, C. hominis, C. parvum, C. muris, C. andersoni, and C. macropodum, were identified in this study. Cryptosporidium parvum was further subtyped as IIdA19G1. Two Giardia duodenalis assemblages (A and E) were also identified. A total of 20 Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes were detected, including 18 known (BEB6, D, HND-1, CD7, SDD1, Henan-IV, KIN-1, CHK1, Peru8, Henan-V, CHG11, CHG-1, CHS9, CHG21, Type-IV, CHC9, CM5, and CHB1) and 2 novel genotypes (CHWD1 and CHPM1). A total of nine subtypes of Blastocystis sp. (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, ST6, ST7, ST10, ST13, and ST14) were identified in captive wild animals in zoos in the present study. Cryptosporidium andersoni, nine Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and five Blastocystis subtypes were here first identified in new hosts. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has expanded the host ranges of these four pathogens. The data indicate that animals in zoos can commonly be infected with these four zoonotic pathogens, and animals in zoos are potential sources of zoonotic infections in humans.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Prevalência
10.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 42(6): 408-416, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored that the possible effects and mechanism of ATG16L1 in pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and intratracheally (I.T.) inoculated with 5 × 106 CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14. RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated with 0.1 mg/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated with 0.1 mg/ml LPS. Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E), Immunofluorescence, sample acquisition, qPCR validation, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence analysis were used this experiment. RESULTS: ATG16L1 mRNA and protein expressions in mice with pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection were also suppressed. ATG16L1 gene reduced inflammation and INF-γ levels in vitro model. On the other hand, ATG16L1 protein presented lung injury and inflammation levels in mice of pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. ATG16L1 regulated cGAS/IL-22 signal passage in model of pseudomonas aeruginosa lung onfection. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that ATG16L1 reduced IL-22 induced IFN level in pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection via cGAS signal passage, which may provide a new therapeutic scheme for viral diseases or inflammatory diseases and its associated complications.

11.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(2-4): 319-330, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591210

RESUMO

Coinfections with the tick-borne pathogens Theileria luwenshuni and Anaplasma phagocytophilum can cause significant economic losses in sheep and goat farming. The difficulty in detecting these two pathogens by microscopic examination warrants the development of a rapid detection test to discriminate them. In this study, a duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to simultaneously detect T. luwenshuni and A. phagocytophilum. Alignment of the sequences from related pathogens allowed us to design a primer pair targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene in T. luwenshuni and generate a target product of 962 bp, whereas a previously reported species-specific primer (SSAP2f/SSAP2r) for A. phagocytophilum was used in the same reaction to generate a product of 641 bp. Genomic DNA from T. luwenshuni and A. phagocytophilum was 10-fold serially diluted for testing PCR sensitivity. Under the optimal PCR conditions we established, the lower limit of detection of the assay was 29.13 fg/µL for T. luwenshuni and 1.53 fg/µL for A. phagocytophilum, and PCR primers used in this study were confirmed to be 100% species-specific using other hemoparasites previously identified by other methods. No significant difference was found between conventional and duplex PCR protocols used to detect the two species. Our study provides an effective, sensitive, specific, and accurate tool for the diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of mixed infections of the two pathogens in sheep and goats.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Theileria , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Theileria/genética
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3035-3044, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401942

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasitic protozoa that can be transmitted through food and water contamination. With the increasing report of Cryptosporidium infections in wild birds, especially in herbivorous waterfowl, concerns have been raised for oocyst contamination of water and food supplies, which in turn can cause human and domestic animal infections in areas neighboring wild birds' habitats. This review discusses the epidemiology, species, and genotypes distribution of Cryptosporidium in wild birds around the world. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in wild birds was calculated as 3.96% (1945/49129), with 6 Cryptosporidium species (C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. meleagridis, C. avium, C. baileyi, and C. galli) and 5 genotypes (Goose genotype I, Goose genotype II, Avian genotype I, Avian genotype III, and Avian genotype VI) reported. As wild birds mainly live in the wild, control method for the Cryptosporidium infection in wild birds is still lacking, which increases the probability of disease transmission from wild birds to humans. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the Cryptosporidium infection in wild birds and its transmission, associated risk factors, and their prevention, illustrating the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches toward screening and control of Cryptosporidium infections.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Saúde Única
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14155, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238975

RESUMO

Anaplasma species, which are distributed worldwide, are gram-negative obligate intracellular tick-borne bacteria that pose a threat to human and animal health. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks play a vital role as vectors in the transmission of Anaplasma pathogens. However, the Anaplasma species carried by H. longicornis in China are yet to be characterized. In this study, 1074 H. longicornis specimens were collected from goats in four provinces of China from 2018 to 2019 and divided into 371 sample pools. All tick sample pools were examined for the presence of Anaplasma species via nested PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA, major surface protein 4 (msp4), or citric acid synthase (gltA) genes, which were sequenced to determine the molecular and phylogenetic characteristics of the isolates. The overall Anaplasma spp-positive rate of H. longicornis was determined to be 26.68% (99/371). The percentage prevalence of A. phagocytophilum-like1, A. bovis, A. ovis, A. marginale, and A. capra were 1.08% (4/371), 13.21% (49/371), 13.21% (49/371), 1.35% (5/371), and 10.24% (38/371), respectively, and the co-infection rate of two or more types of Anaplasma was 6.47% (24/371). Phylogenetic analyses led to the classification of A. phagocytophilum into an A. phagocytophilum-like1 (Anaplasma sp. Japan) group. Anaplasma bovis sequences obtained in this study were 99.8-100% identical to those of an earlier strain isolated from a Chinese tick (GenBank accession no. KP314251). Anaplasma ovis sequences showed 99.3-99.6% identity to an A. ovis human strain identified from a Cypriot patient (GenBank accession no. FJ460443). Only one msp4 sequence of A. marginale was detected and was grouped with those of other A. marginale isolates, and these A. capra isolates obtained in this present study may be zoonotic. The detection and characterization of four Anaplasma species in H. longicornis in this study have added to the current knowledge of the parasite and provided data on multiple Anaplasma species with veterinary and medical significance from four provinces of China.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/classificação , Anaplasma/genética , Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 365, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic pathogen that infects a wide variety of vertebrates. The aim of the present study was to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. isolates from Bactrian camels and to foster further understanding of the biological characteristics of the pathogen. METHODS: Fecal specimens were collected from two 4-year-old Bactrian camels resident at the Kaifeng City Zoo in China and examined for Cryptosporidium. Fecal specimens were screened using the floatation method, and then genomic DNA was extracted from the oocysts and identified by nested-PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, the actin gene and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall-protein (COWP) gene. Subtype analysis was performed based on four minisatellite (MS) loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16) that were aligned and phylogenetically analyzed to determine the species and subtype of Cryptosporidium. We then established a BALB/c mice infection model and further verified the results through clinical status, pattern of oocyst excretion and histological examination. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium oocyst isolates from the two Bactrian camels had an average (± standard deviation) size of 7.49 ± 0.13 × 5.70 ± 0.10 µm (n = 50). The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the species as C. muris. Multilocus sequence typing analysis indicated that the subtypes were M13, M4, M1 and M5. Following the inoculation of BALB/c mice, we found that the prepatent period and number of oocysts per gram increased with increasing infective dose. Oocysts were first detected in the feces of BALB/c mice at 7-8 days post-infection (dpi), with levels peaking twice thereafter, at 15-16 dpi and 19-20 dpi. Histology and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the stomach contained gastric pits filled with Cryptosporidium that adhered to the surface of gastric mucosa gland epithelial cells, causing the latter to deform, swell and become disordered. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicated that oocysts isolated from Bactrian camels were from C. muris. This is the first report of C. muris isolated from camels in China. More epidemiological data are needed to understand the prevalence and transmission of C. muris in camels in different geographic areas.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Animais , Camelus/parasitologia , China , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Parasite ; 28: 55, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213413

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is widespread worldwide and can infect swine. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in swine from central China after an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF). A total of 2683 swine serum samples were collected from farms in four provinces. Of the serum samples, 1.42% (38/2683) (95% CI, 1.03-1.94) tested positive for T. gondii IgG antibody by a modified agglutination test (MAT) (cut-off: 1:25). Comparing with the results of previous studies, specifically our survey from before the outbreak, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in swine from central China was significantly decreased after the occurrence of ASF (OR = 7.679, 2015-2017 vs. 2019-2020). In general, the proportion of seropositive animals increased with the age of the swine, indicating post-natal transmission of T. gondii. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in seroprevalence between suckling pigs and weaned pigs (p < 0.05). This is the first large-scale investigation of T. gondii infection in swine after an ASF outbreak in China. The lower seroprevalence of T. gondii in swine after ASF may be due to stricter biosecurity measures on the farms, but results indicated swine exposure to zoonotic parasites despite these measures. This highlights that pigs must be considered a potential source of human T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , China , Surtos de Doenças , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
16.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069112

RESUMO

Anaplasma capra, a species of the family Anaplasmataceae, is zoonotic tick-borne obligate intracellular bacteria. There have been no reports of human infection with this pathogen since 2015. Therefore, the zoonotic characteristics of A. capra need to be further studied. To verify the ability of A. capra to infect human cells, A. capra were inoculated in human erythrocytes, HL-60, and TF-1 cell lines in vitro. Cell smears were taken after inoculation, using Giemsa staining, transmission electron microscope (TEM), chromogenic in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry for detection. In the Giemsa staining, many dark colored corpuscles or purple granules were seen in the inoculated erythrocytes, HL-60, and TF-1 cells. The results of chromogenic in situ hybridization show that there were brown precipitates on the surface of most erythrocytes. Immunocytochemistry results show many dark brown vacuolar structures or corpuscles in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes, HL-60, and TF-1 cell lines. The A. capra morulae were seen in the cytoplasm of both HL-60 and TF-1 in TEM, and their diameter was about 295-518 nm. Both dense-cored (DC) and reticulate cell (RC) form morulae could be seen. This study confirmed the ability of A. capra to infect human erythrocytes, HL-60, and TF-1. This study is of profound significance in further verifying the zoonotic characteristics of the pathogen and for establishing an in vitro cultivation model.

17.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 336, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium baileyi is an economically important zoonotic pathogen that causes serious respiratory symptoms in chickens for which no effective control measures are currently available. An accumulating body of evidence indicates the potential and usefulness of metabolomics to further our understanding of the interaction between pathogens and hosts, and to search for new diagnostic or pharmacological biomarkers of complex microorganisms. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of C. baileyi infection on the serum metabolism of chickens and to assess several metabolites as potential diagnostic biomarkers for C. baileyi infection. METHODS: Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and subsequent multivariate statistical analysis were applied to investigate metabolomics profiles in the serum samples of chickens infected with C. baileyi, and to identify potential metabolites that can be used to distinguish chickens infected with C. baileyi from non-infected birds. RESULTS: Multivariate statistical analysis identified 138 differential serum metabolites between mock- and C. baileyi-infected chickens at 5 days post-infection (dpi), including 115 upregulated and 23 downregulated compounds. These metabolites were significantly enriched into six pathways, of which two pathways associated with energy and lipid metabolism, namely glycerophospholipid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism, respectively, were the most enriched. Interestingly, some important immune-related pathways were also significantly enriched, including the intestinal immune network for IgA production, autophagy and cellular senescence. Nine potential C. baileyi-responsive metabolites were identified, including choline, sirolimus, all-trans retinoic acid, PC(14:0/22:1(13Z)), PC(15:0/22:6(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)), PE(16:1(9Z)/24:1(15Z)), phosphocholine, SM(d18:0/16:1(9Z)(OH)) and sphinganine. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on serum metabolic profiling of chickens with early-stage C. baileyi infection. The results provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of C. baileyi in chickens.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/sangue , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Soro/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/química , Galinhas/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Metabolômica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109760

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a widespread opportunistic pathogen found in humans and domestic animals, including cattle that poses a public health risk. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence, genotypic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi among children and calves in Bangladesh. A total of 998 fecal samples were collected from children (n = 299) and calves (n = 699) and screened by nested PCR and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi infection was 6.4% in children and 7.9% in calves. ITS sequence analysis of 74 isolates revealed 10 genotypes, including eight known genotypes (A, D, Type IV, PigEBITS7, I, J, BEB4, and BEB6) and two new genotypes (BANEB1 and BANEB3). Specifically, genotypes A, D, Type IV, PigEBITS7, BANEB1, and BANEB3, and genotypes D, PigEBITS7, I, J, BEB4, and BEB6 were detected in children and calves, respectively. Among them, genotypes D and I were dominant genotypes in children and calves, respectively. The genotypes D and PigEBITS7 were found in both children and calves, with PigEBITS7 being observed for the first time in calves. In phylogenetic analysis, six genotypes (A, D, Type IV, PigEBITS7, BANEB1, and BANEB3), detected in 39.2% of the isolates, belonged to zoonotic Group 1. The remaining four genotypes I, J, BEB4, and BEB6 were clustered in Group 2 and are common members of the group with zoonotic potential. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of E. bieneusi infection in calves in Bangladesh and also the first molecular characterization of the parasite in children and calves in this country. Two new genotypes in children have been found, which is noteworthy. Furthermore, the presence of zoonotic genotypes indicates that cattle may serve as reservoirs for E. bieneusi, which can be a source of human microsporidiosis.

19.
Parasitol Int ; 84: 102414, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182122

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. The purpose of this research was to determine the occurrence, genetic characteristics, and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in captive mammals at the Bangladesh National Zoo. A total of 200 fresh fecal samples from 32 mammalian species were collected and examined for Cryptosporidium spp. using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and G. duodenalis targeting the ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. The overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis among captive mammals in the zoo were 3.5% (7/200) and 5.5% (11/200), respectively. Five species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium (C. hominis, C. andersoni, C. muris, C. felis, and Cryptosporidium deer genotype) were identified. C. hominis was subtyped as IbA12G3 by sequence analysis of the glycoprotein 60 (gp60) gene. Multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis revealed assemblages A, B, and D. Mixed infections of assemblages B and D and A and B were found in an Asiatic jackal and a Nilgiri langur, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence and genetic identity of the two parasites among zoo animals in Bangladesh. The results suggest that zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are maintained in and transmitted between captive mammals. Therefore, washing, cleaning, and disinfection measures should be implemented to reduce the spread of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Mamíferos , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
20.
Vet Res Commun ; 45(4): 441-445, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987777

RESUMO

Blastocystis, an intestinal anaerobic protist with high genetic diversity, inhabits a variety of hosts worldwide, including rodents. However, there have been few studies on squirrel Blastocystis infections in China to date. Herein, 171 fecal samples from Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) sold as pets were collected to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Blastocystis. A total of 10 Blastocystis-positive samples (10/171, 5.9%) were obtained by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the barcode region of the SSU rRNA gene. Blastocystis subtype analysis revealed four known subtypes, namely, ST1, ST3, ST5 and ST6, with ST5 and ST6 being predominant. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify each subtype. To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore Blastocystis infection in Pallas's squirrels, expanding the host range of this parasite. Moreover, multiple zoonotic subtypes were found in Pallas's squirrels, suggesting that these animals may serve as reservoirs for pathogens of human Blastocystis infections.

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