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1.
Food Chem ; 339: 128085, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152876

RESUMO

Due to the excessive use of fungicides, pesticide residues have become a growing concern in recent years. Herein, we demonstrated an easy-prepared and low-cost surface enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) chip composed of 3D silver microspheres (AgMSs) pattern for the quantitative testing of carbendazim in Chinese tea. Compared with the common monolayer SERS substrate, the 3D patterns formed by self-assembly AgMSs with fine nanostructure can offer much more aggregation-induced hotspots and generate strong 3D synergetic effects. Furthermore, when the thickness of the 3D pattern exceeded 6 µm, we replaced the conductive supporting coatings using the glass slides to reduce the cost without any impact on SERS properties. The prepared 3D chips achieved the determination of carbendazim within the linear range of 0.1-10 mg/L and the detection limit of 0.01 mg/L. It is simple and sensitive enough for the detection of most pesticide residues or other harmful organic molecules in our food or environment.

2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 72-79, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183718

RESUMO

This study encompassed the regular observation of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in particulate matter (PM) in Shanghai in summer and winter from 2010 to 2018. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Æ©PAHs in summer decreased by 24.7% in 2013 and 18.1% in 2017 but increased by 10.2% in 2015 compared to the data in 2010. However, the mean concentrations of Æ©PAHs in winter decreased by 39.7% from 2010 (12.8 ± 4.55 ng/m3) to 2018 (7.72 ± 3.33 ng/m3), and the mean concentrations of 1-nitropyrene in winter decreased by 79.0% from 2010 (42.3 ± 16.1 pg/m3) to 2018 (8.90 ± 2.09 pg/m3). Correlation analysis with meteorological conditions revealed that the PAH and NPAH concentrations were both influenced by ambient temperature. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs and factor analysis showed that they were mainly affected by traffic emissions with some coal and/or biomass combustion. The ratio of 2-nitrofluoranthene to 2-nitropyrene was near 10, which indicated that the OH radical-initiated reaction was the main pathway leading to their secondary formation. Moreover, backward trajectories revealed different air mass routes in each sampling period, indicating a high possibility of source effects from the northern area in winter in addition to local and surrounding influences. Meanwhile, the mean total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentrations in Shanghai in winter decreased by 50.8% from 2010 (1860 ± 645 pg/m3) to 2018 (916 ± 363 pg/m3). These results indicated the positive effects of the various policies and regulations issued by Chinese authorities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(9): 1899-1907, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164465

RESUMO

The main purpose of this research is to synthesize and evaluate a new glycoconjugate vaccine against Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp). First, the gene (waaL) responsible for the expression of O antigen ligase was deleted to block the synthesis of bacterial LPS. Then the vector that encodes a glycosyltransferase (PglL) was transferred into the mutant. The enzyme PglL could catalyze the transfer of OPS units to recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) to form glycoproteins in vivo. The protective effects of the glycoproteins were studied by the mice models with acute bacteremia that were induced by intraperitoneal injection of wildtype Kp bacteria. The results were as followings: A Kp waaL mutant was obtained and the rCTB protein could be successfully glycosylated in the mutant. The vaccine can stimulate a high antibody titer in the mice sera with or without adjuvant. It can also protect mice from the lethal dose injection of Kp. The survival rate of vaccine candidate groups could reach 75%. The glycoconjugate vaccine candidate prepared by this biosynthetic method is expected to become a novel effective vaccine against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

4.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 4625-4637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154629

RESUMO

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary bone tumor associated with locally aggressive growth and early metastatic potential that typically occurs in children and adolescents. Chinese traditional medicine Cinnamomum cassia Presl has been shown to have significant tumor-killing effect, in which cinnamaldehyde (CA) is the main active ingredient. Purpose: To explore the anticancer effect of CA on the osteosarcoma cells and the possible molecular mechanism. Methods: Crystal violet assay, MTT assay and colony-forming assay were used to confirm the inhibitory role of CA in the proliferation of 143B and MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry were used to observe apoptosis. The migration and invasion role of OS cells were evaluated using transwell assays and wound healing assays. Western blotting was used to analyse the protein expression levels. Nude mice were inoculated with 143B cells to establish an orthotopic OS tumor animal model and to investigate the effects of CA on OS tumors. Results: According to crystal violet assay, MTT assay and colony-forming assay, CA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry analysis showed that CA-induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, transwell assays and wound healing assays showed that CA inhibited the migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. In vivo mouse models, CA inhibited the growth of osteosarcoma. The potential mechanisms could be that CA inhibited the transcriptional activity of Wnt/ß-catenin and PI3K/Akt of the osteosarcoma. Conclusion: CA may inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion and promote apoptosis of OS cells by inhibiting Wnt/ß-catenin and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. CA may be a potentially effective anti-tumor drug.

5.
Sleep ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159205

RESUMO

Quantifying the complexity of the EEG signal during prolonged wakefulness and during sleep is gaining interest as an additional mean to characterize the mechanisms associated with sleep and wakefulness regulation. Here, we characterized how EEG complexity, as indexed by Multiscale Permutation Entropy (MSPE), changed progressively in the evening prior to light off and during the transition from wakefulness to sleep. We further explored whether MSPE was able to discriminate between wakefulness and sleep around sleep onset and whether MSPE changes were correlated with spectral measures of the EEG related to sleep need during concomitant wakefulness (theta power - Ptheta: 4-8 Hz). To address these questions, we took advantage of large datasets of several hundred of ambulatory EEG recordings of individual of both sexes aged 25 to 101y. Results show that MSPE significantly decreases before light off (i.e. before sleep time) and in the transition from wakefulness to sleep onset. Furthermore, MSPE allows for an excellent discrimination between pre-sleep wakefulness and early sleep. Finally, we show that MSPE is correlated with concomitant Ptheta. Yet, the direction of the latter correlation changed from before light-off to the transition to sleep. Given the association between EEG complexity and consciousness, MSPE may track efficiently putative changes in consciousness preceding sleep onset. MSPE stands as a comprehensive measure that is not limited to a given frequency band and reflects a progressive change brain state associated with sleep and wakefulness regulation. It may be an effective mean to detect when the brain is in a state close to sleep onset.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172174

RESUMO

Daily PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) samples were simultaneously collected at two background sites (Wajima Air Monitoring Station (WAMS) and Fukue-Jima Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (FAMS)) in Japan in the East Asian winter and summer monsoon periods of 2017 and 2019, to compare the characteristics of air pollutants among different regions and to determine the possible variation during the long-range transport process. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were analyzed. Despite the PM2.5 concentrations at FAMS (8.90-78.5 µg/m3) being higher than those at WAMS (2.33-21.2 µg/m3) in the winter monsoon period, the average concentrations of ∑PAHs, ∑NPAHs, and ∑WSIIs were similar between the two sites. Diagnostic ratios indicated PAHs mainly originated from traffic emissions and mostly aged, whereas NPAHs were mostly secondarily formed during long-range transport. WSIIs at WAMS were mainly formed via the combustion process and secondary reactions, whereas those at FAMS mainly originated from sea salt and dust. Backward trajectories revealed the air masses could not only come from Asian continental coastal regions but also distant landlocked areas in the winter monsoon period, whereas most came from the ocean in the summer monsoon period. These findings can provide basic data for the establishment of prediction models of transboundary air pollutants in East Asia.

7.
Ecotoxicology ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196986

RESUMO

In order to investigate the key environmental influencing factors for the change of sediment bacterial community structure (BCS) and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in a long-term Quinolone antibiotics (QNs) and heavy metals (HMs) polluted lake, 16S rRNA MiSeq High-throughput Sequencing and Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis methods were applied. Baiyangdian lake was subdivided into three habitats: (1) Habitat 1: greatly influenced by municipal wastewater; (2) Habitat 2: mainly impacted by aquaculture sewage and domestic wastewater; and (3) Habitat 3: with the least human activities. Through One-way ANOVA analysis, the results showed that most of QNs and HMs showed significant difference among three habitats. Both the highest richness and diversity indices of bacterial community appeared in Habitat 3. The abundance of Multidrug, Phenicol, Aminoglycoside, Teracycline, and Quinolone ARGs exhibited the highest values in Habitat 1, while the abundance of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS), Rifamycinm, and Sulfonamide ARGs appeared the highest values in Habitat 2. The result of redundancy analysis exhibited that 68.8% and 93.8% of the change in BCS and ARGs can be explained by environmental factors, respectively. Pb (explained 37.5% (p = 0.002)) and Fleroxacin (FLE) (explained 51.3% (p = 0.026)) were the most important factors for the variation of BCS and ARGs, respectively. Therefore, the effects of antibiotics and HMs on BCS and ARGs should be simultaneously paid more attention. Furthermore, the ARGs results by PICRUSt were similar to the results by metagenomic shotgun sequencing analysis, thus the PICRUSt analysis method can be used in the future research.

8.
Future Microbiol ; 15: 1265-1276, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026882

RESUMO

MRSA is a super drug-resistant bacterium. Developing new drug or therapeutic strategies against MRSA is urgently needed. Increasing evidence has shown that herbal extracts and antibiotics can have synergistic effects against MRSA. This review focuses on commonly used antibiotics combined with herbal extracts against MRSA and the corresponding mechanisms. Through systematic analysis, we found that herbal extracts combined with antibiotics, such as ß-lactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines and glycopeptides, could greatly enhance the antibacterial effects of the antibiotics, reduce the dosage and toxic side effects, and reverse MRSA resistance. Therefore, we conclude that herbal extracts combined with antibiotics may be a promising strategy to combat MRSA. This review provides a novel idea for overcoming antibiotic resistance.

9.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128021, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metals play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to explore the association of T2DM risk with single metal exposure and multi-metal co-exposure. METHODS: A case-control study with 223 T2DM patients and 302 controls was conducted. Serum concentrations of 19 metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Those metals with greater effects were screened out and co-exposure effects of metals were assessed by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. RESULTS: Serum calcium (Ca), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were found with greater effects. Higher levels of Ca and Se were associated with increased T2DM risk (OR = 2.23, 95%CI: 1.38-3.62, Ptrend = 0.002; OR = 3.16, 95%CI: 1.82-5.50, Ptrend < 0.001), but higher V level was associated with decreased T2DM risk (OR = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.34-0.97, Ptrend < 0.001). Serum Ca and V concentrations were nonlinearly associated with T2DM risk (Poverall < 0.001, Pnonliearity < 0.001); however, Se concentration was linearly associated with T2DM risk (Poverall < 0.001, Pnonliearity = 0.389). High co-exposure score of serum Ca, Se and V was associated with increased T2DM risk (OR = 3.50, 95%CI: 2.08-5.89, Ptrend < 0.001) as a non-linear relationship (Poverall < 0.001, Pnonliearity = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggest that higher levels of serum Ca and Se were associated with increased T2DM risk, but higher serum V level was associated with decreased T2DM risk. Moreover, co-exposure of serum Ca, Se and V was nonlinearly associated with T2DM risk, and high co-exposure score was positively associated with T2DM risk.

10.
FASEB J ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058296

RESUMO

Intestinal inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, are major contributors to mortality and morbidity in humans and animals worldwide. While some native peptides have great potential as therapeutic agents against intestinal inflammation, potential cytotoxicity, anti-inciting action, and suppression of anti-inflammatory activity may limit their development as anti-inflammatory agents. Peptide hybridization is an effective approach for the design and engineering of novel functional peptides because hybrid peptides combine the advantages and benefits of various native peptides. In the present study, a novel hybrid anti-inflammatory peptide that combines the active center of Cecropin A (C) and the core functional region of LL-37 (L) was designed [C-L peptide; C (1-8)-L (17-30)] through in silico analysis to reduce cytotoxicity and improve the anti-inflammatory activity of the parental peptides. The resulting C-L peptide exhibited lower cytotoxicity than either C or L peptides alone. C-L also exerted a protective effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages and in the intestines of a mouse model. The hybrid peptide exhibited increased anti-inflammatory activity compared to the parental peptides. C-L plays a role in protecting intestinal tissue from damage, LPS-induced weight loss, and leukocyte infiltration. In addition, C-L reduces the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), as well as reduces cell apoptosis. It also reduced mucosal barrier damage caused by LPS. The anti-inflammatory effects of the hybrid peptide were mainly attributed to its LPS-neutralizing activity and antagonizing the activation of LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4-myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2). The peptide also affected the TLR4-(nuclear factor κB) signaling pathway, modulating the inflammatory response upon LPS stimulation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the newly designed peptide, C-L, could be developed into a novel anti-inflammatory agent for animals or humans.

11.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128427, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002800

RESUMO

Eleven years (2005-2015) of data from long-term monitoring at a Japanese remote background site in Wajima, were analyzed to investigate temporal trends and sources. Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were analyzed for aerosol chemical composition. The total WSIIs concentration was 7.93 ± 3.93 µg/m3, accounting for 42.3% of TSP mass, ranged from 11.4 to 93.9%. SO42- is the most abundant ion, contributing a total WSII mass from 18.0 to 79.8%, and non-sea-salt (nss-) SO42- contributed from 63.6% to 99.6% of total SO42-, which was related to human activities on the Asian continent and the effects of marine precursors in spring and summer, respectively. NO3- and NH4+ contribute 6.3 and 7.4% of the total WSIIs and were affected by long-range transport and local sources as well. The increasing trend of Na+ and Cl- indicates the increased influence of sea salt, which is caused by more frequent strong winds. K+ is mainly produced from biomass burning with a stable seasonal variation, Ca2+ as the characteristic ion of dust has the highest concentration in spring. Mg2+ comes from minerals and marine sources during spring and summer, respectively. This work describes in detail the annual change trend of the WSIIs of atmospheric particles in the Wajima area, seasonal characteristics, and source contributions, provide a comprehensive understanding of long-term variation in atmospheric particulate.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064853

RESUMO

The voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contain mainly TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ currents. Magnolol (Mag), a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been well documented to exhibit analgesic effects, but its mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the antinociceptive effects of Mag is through inhibition of Na+ currents. Na+ currents in freshly isolated mouse DRG neurons were recorded with the whole cell patch clamp technique. Results showed that Mag inhibited TTX-S and TTX-R Na+ currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values for block of TTX-S and TTX-R Na+ currents were 9.4 and 7.0 µmol/L, respectively. Therefore, TTX-R Na+ current was more susceptible to Mag than TTX-S Na+ current. For TTX-S Na+ channel, 10 µmol/L Mag shifted the steady state inactivation curve toward more negative by 9.8 mV, without affecting the activation curve. For TTX-R Na+ channel, 7 µmol/L Mag shifted the steady state activation and inactivation curves toward more positive and negative potentials by 6.5 and 11.7 mV, respectively. In addition, Mag significantly postponed recovery of TTX-S and TTX-R Na+ currents from inactivation, and produced frequency dependent blocks of both subtypes of Na+ currents. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of Mag on Na+ channels may contribute to its analgesic effect.

13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 98: 103-108, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097140

RESUMO

Trace metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) exposures, distribution and bioaccumulation were investigated in marine organisms from Guangdong coastal regions, South China. The results showed that all of the selected metals were observed in marine organisms with a predomination of Cu and Zn. The metal exposure levels exhibited obvious variations between species with the decreasing order of crab>shellfish>shrimp>fish. The higher metals enrichment seen in shellfish and crab species primarily attributed to their living habits and the higher sediment background values of trace metals. Endpoint bioaccumulation factor (BAFfd) was used to characterize the bioaccumulation potentials of marine organisms to trace metals, of which Cu and Zn were the most accumulated elements. The exposure of trace metals in the cultured organisms was far lower than those in wild marine organisms, which is probably due to the effect of growth dilution. Comparisons with previous studies demonstrated that the concentration profiles of most trace metals declined over the last one to two decades, except Cu, that increased indistinctively.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Bioacumulação , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107201

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of radiation interruptions at different times on the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Totally, 4510 patients were identified from a well-established big-data intelligence platform. Optimal interruption thresholds were identified using Recursive partitioning analyses. Actuarial rates were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared using the log-rank test. Patients with preceding interruptions ≥1 d (5-year OS, 89.6% vs. 85.7%, p < 0.001; 5-year DFS, 81.4% vs. 76.4%, p < 0.001), or latter interruptions ≥4 d (88.4% vs. 82.3%, p < 0.001; 79.2% vs. 75.1%, p = 0.006) showed significant detrimental effects on OS and DFS than patients without those interruptions. However, no significant lower survival was identified in latter interruptions ≥1 d (5-year OS: 89.0% vs. 86.7%, p = 0.053; 5-year DFS, 80.2% vs. 77.8%, p = 0.080). Latter interruptions ≥4 d was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for OS (HR, 1.404; 95% CI, 1.143-1.723, p = 0.001) and DFS (HR, 1.351; 95% CI, 1.105-1.652, p = 0.003) in multivariate analysis. Radiation interruptions longer than 3 days that occurred in the latter period of treatment with IMRT were independent factors in poorer survival. Efforts are needed to minimize radiation interruptions and improve the timely provision of treatment.

15.
Food Funct ; 11(10): 9103-9113, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026021

RESUMO

The effect of short-term intake of high- and low-concentrations of sucrose solution on the neurochemistry of male and female mice was studied. The body weight, feed intake, sucrose solution consumption and brain monoamine neurotransmitters were determined after 34 days' intake of 1% and 8% sucrose solutions. The gene expression and protein levels related to dopamine and opioids were also determined. The results showed that the intake of 1% and 8% sucrose solution for 34 days did not cause significant changes in the weight development of both male and female mice. The preference for sucrose varies with sex. Both males and females had greater preference for the high concentration sucrose solution than the low concentration sucrose solution. The continuous intake of sucrose stimulated the release of monoamine neurotransmitters (DA, 5-HT, NE) in the brains of mice, and the reward effect of 8% sucrose solution is significantly higher than that of 1% sucrose solution. The sex of mice did not affect the release of neurotransmitters. The gene expressions of D1 and D2 were up-regulated in the 1% sucrose group of male mice, while the OPRM1 gene expression was down-regulated. The expression of these three genes in the 8% sucrose group of male mice was all down-regulated, while the gene expressions of D1 and D2 in the 1% and 8% sucrose group (p < 0.05) of female mice were both up-regulated.

16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(23): 10059-10074, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043389

RESUMO

Several quorum sensing systems occurring in Bacillus subtilis, e.g. Rap-Phr systems, were reported to interact with major regulatory proteins, such as ComA, DegU, and Spo0A, in order to regulate competence, sporulation, and synthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study, we characterized a novel Rap-Phr system, RapA4-PhrA4, in Bacillus velezensis NAU-B3. We found that the rapA4 and phrA4 genes were co-transcribed in NAU-B3. When rapA4 was expressed in the heterologous host Bacillus subtilis OKB105, surfactin production and sporulation were severely inhibited. However, when the phrA4 was co-expressed, the RapA4 activity was inhibited. The transcription of the surfactin synthetase srfA gene and sporulation-related genes were also regulated by the RapA4-PhrA4 system. In vitro results obtained from electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) proved that RapA4 inhibits ComA binding to the promoter of the srfA operon, and the PhrA4 pentapeptide acts as anti-activator of RapA4. We also found that the F24 residue plays a key role in RapA4 function. This study indicated that the novel RapA4-PhrA4 system regulates the surfactin synthesis and sporulation via interaction with ComA, thereby supporting the bacterium to compete and to survive in a hostile environment. KEY POINTS: •Bacillus velezensis NAU-B3 has a novel Rap-Phr quorum sensing system, which does not occur in model strains Bacillus subtilis 168 and B. velezensis FZB42. •RapA4-PhrA4 regulates surfactin production and sporulation. •RapA4-PhrA4 interacts with the ComA protein from ComP/ComA two-component system.

17.
Nanoscale ; 12(42): 21519-21533, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095224

RESUMO

Hypoxia, as a typical factor in a tumor microenvironment, plays a vital role in tumor treatment resistance, tumor invasion and migration. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), as the vital response element of hypoxia, mediates these untoward effects through a series of downstream reactions. Cancer treatments such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy are severely hindered by hypoxia and HIF, back, however, could be intelligently manipulated through nanocomposite materials for their great potentiality to combine different functions. Herein, we reviewed the smart strategies in emerging research studies to overcome hypoxia toward the enhancement of tumor therapy.

18.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067266

RESUMO

Frontier evidence suggests that dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) is ubiquitous in all human tumors, indicating that lncRNAs might have essential roles in tumorigenesis. Therefore, an in-depth study of the roles of lncRNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) carcinogenesis might be helpful to provide novel therapeutic targets. Here we report that lncRNA TINCR was significantly upregulated in NPC and was associated positively with poor survival. Silencing TINCR inhibited NPC progression and cisplatin resistance. Mechanistically, TINCR bound ACLY and protected it from ubiquitin degradation to maintain total cellular acetyl-CoA levels. Accumulation of cellular acetyl-CoA promoted de novo lipid biosynthesis and histone H3K27 acetylation, which ultimately regulated the peptidyl arginine deiminase 1 (PADI1)-MAPK-MMP2/9 pathway. In addition, insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 interacted with TINCR and slowed its decay, which partially accounted for TINCR upregulation in NPC. These findings demonstrate that TINCR acts as a crucial driver of NPC progression and chemoresistance and highlights the newly identified TINCR-ACLY-PADI1-MAPK-MMP2/9 axis as a potential therapeutic target in NPC. SIGNIFICANCE: TINCR-mediated regulation of a PADI1-MAPK-MMP2/9 signaling pathway plays a critical role in NPC progression and chemoresistance, marking TINCR as a viable therapeutic target in this disease.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the Safety Ensuring Lives Future Deployment and Research in Vehicle Evolution (SELF DRIVE) Act in the United States, there is a growing interest in autonomous vehicles (AVs). One avenue of innovation would be to use them to mobilize and coordinate response efforts during natural disasters. This study uses an earthquake response in an urban, developed setting as a hypothetical example case study. In this hypothetical scenario, private AVs would be mobilized to help rescue victims from collapsed structures. METHODS: A Markov model compared an intervention arm with AVs to a status quo arm using a hypothetical cohort of American earthquake victims. The three possible health states were trapped but alive, rescued and alive, and dead. The cycle length of the Markov model was 6 h. RESULTS: The cost of deploying AVs was $90,139 relative to $87,869 in status quo arm. Using AVs produced an incremental cost of $2269 (95% credible interval (CI) = $-12,985-$8959). Victims have 7.33 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in the intervention arm compared to 7.20 QALYs in the status quo arm, resulting in an incremental gain of 0.13 (95% CI = -0.73-2.19) QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $16,960/QALY gained (95% CI = cost-saving-$69,065/QALY). DISCUSSION: The mobilization of private AVs in the setting of an earthquake has the potential to save money and reduce the loss of life. AVs may advance emergency management competencies.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1629, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of spicy food intake with hyperuricemia remains unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the association between spicy food intake and hyperuricemia, and whether this association was mediated by body mass index (BMI) in Chinese rural population. METHODS: 38, 027 adults aged 18-79 years were recruited from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Information on spicy food intake was obtained using a validated questionnaire survey. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between spicy food intake and hyperuricemia, multiple linear regression model was performed to estimate the relationships between spicy food intake, BMI and serum urate level. BMI was used as a mediator to evaluate the mediation effect. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with no spicy food flavor, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of mild, middle, and heavy flavor for hyperuricemia were 1.09 (1.00-1.19), 1.10 (0.97-1.24), and 1.21 (1.10-1.46), respectively (Ptrend = 0.017). Similarly, compared with those without intake in spicy food, the multivariable adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1-2 days/week, 3-5 days/week, and 6-7 days/week were 1.15 (1.01-1.31), 1.14 (1.01-1.30) and 1.15 (1.05-1.26), respectively (Ptrend = 0.007). However, when we further controlling for BMI, the associations were substantially attenuated. Furthermore, mediation analysis showed that BMI play a full mediating role in the relationship of spicy food intake with hyperuricemia. CONCLUSION: Spicy food flavor and intake frequency are positively related with hyperuricemia in Chinese rural population. BMI may play a full mediating role in the relationship. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Henan Rural Cohort Study registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699 ). Date of registration: 2015-07-06.

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