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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1687, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was to report the experiences on the clinical value of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the screening of fetal chromosomal deletions/duplications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 20,439 pregnancies undergoing NIPT from March 2017 to September 2020 at a single center. Patients with positive NIPT results for fetal chromosomal deletions or duplications had options of invasive diagnostic testing or no further testing. The data were complied from all cases with positive NIPT results for chromosomal deletions/duplications. The positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated from tabulated data. RESULTS: In this cohort, positive NIPT results for fetal chromosomal deletions/duplications were found in 60 pregnant women. Of the positive samples, further invasive testing was performed in 39 cases, in which 9 cases were found to be true positive. The overall PPV for chromosomal deletions/duplications was 23.1%. In addition, fetal structural anomaly was found by ultrasound examination in three cases, in which the chromosomal deletions/duplications of three cases were not verified. Moreover, an unexpected pathogenic 8p23.3 deletion was identified by invasive testing in 1 fetus with a false positive NIPT screen for 3q27.3q29 duplication. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, positive NIPT results of chromosomal deletions/duplications were not uncommon in clinical practice, whereas the PPV for the testing was low. Hence, potential risks and high percentage of false positives for these abnormal NIPT results might be informed to pregnant women before the choice made of invasive testing.

2.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(5): 446, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953164

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug to treat cancer with side effects that trigger bladder injury and hemorrhagic cystitis. Although previous studies have demonstrated that certain cell subsets and communications are activated to drive the repair and regeneration of bladder, it is not well understood how distinct bladder cell subsets function synergistically in this process. Here, we used droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to profile the cell types within the murine bladder mucous layer under normal and injured conditions. Our analysis showed that superficial cells are directly repaired by cycling intermediate cells. We further identified two resident mesenchymal lineages (Acta2+ myofibroblasts and Cd34+ fibroblasts). The delineation of cell-cell communications revealed that Acta2+ myofibroblasts upregulated Fgf7 expression during acute injury, which activated Fgfr signaling in progenitor cells within the basal/intermediate layers to promote urothelial cell growth and repair. Overall, our study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the cellular dynamics during cyclophosphamide-induced bladder injury and may help identify important niche factors contributing to the regeneration of injured bladders.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0247100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857139

RESUMO

Bilingual language experience, such as switching between languages, has been shown to shape both cognitive and neural mechanisms of non-linguistic cognitive control. However, the neural adaptations induced by language switching remain unclear. Using fMRI, the current study examined the impact of short-term language switching training on the neural network of domain-general cognitive control for unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals. Effective connectivity maps were constructed by using the extended unified structural equation models (euSEM) within 10 common brain regions involved in both language control and domain-general cognitive control. Results showed that, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area (dACC/pre-SMA) lost connection from the right thalamus after training, suggesting that less neural connectivity was required to complete the same domain-general cognitive control task. These findings not only provide direct evidence for the modulation of language switching training on the neural interaction of domain-general cognitive control, but also have important implications for revealing the potential neurocognitive adaptation effects of specific bilingual language experiences.

5.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 422-427, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of tumor necrosis factor death receptor (DR) 4 demethylation to the proliferation and apoptosis of myeloid leukemia K562 cells. METHODS: The logarithmic phase of K562 cells were treated by desitabine (DCA) at 0, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 µmol/L, and the cells were divided into control group, DCA low dose group, DCA medium dose group and DCA high dose group respectively. The cells in control group were treated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) 0.5 µg/ml for 24 h, and the cells were divided into TRAIL group. The cells in DCA high dose group were treated by TRAIL 0.5 µg/ml for 24 h, and were divided into DCA high dose + TRAIL group. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) was used to measure the methylation status of the DR4 gene promoter in the control group and DCA low, medium and high dose groups. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to determine the relative expression of DR4 mRNA and protein in the control group and DCA low, medium and high dose groups. Dime- thylthiazole (MTT) method was used to determine the inhibition rate of cell proliferation of the cells in control group, DCA high dose group, TRAIL group, DCA high dose + TRAIL group. Flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptotic rate of the cells in control group, DCA high dose group, TRAIL group, DCA high dose + TRAIL group. RESULTS: The cells in the control group were methylation-positive, the brightness of the methylation bands of the cells in the DCA low, medium, and high dose groups was gradually decreased to disappear, and the DCA high dose group showed negative for methylation. The relative expression of DR4 mRNA and protein in the control group, DCA low, medium and high dose groups was increased sequentially (r=0.624, 0.704). The inhibition rate of cell proliferation of the cells in the control group, DCA high dose group, TRAIL group, DCA high dose + TRAIL group was increased sequentially (r=0.653, 0.754, 0.709, 0.725) at 24, 48 and 72 h. CONCLUSION: DCA can reverse the methylation level of DR4 gene promoter in ML K562 cells and up-regulate the expression of DR4, which may enhance the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis promotion effects of TRAIL on K562 cells.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Desmetilação , Humanos , Células K562 , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo
6.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3516-3526, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900329

RESUMO

Nobiletin is abundant in citrus peels and demonstrates good anti-obesity bioactivity. However, its anti-obesity mechanisms still remain unclear. This study aims to explore the bidirectional interaction between nobiletin and gut microbiota in mice fed with a high-fat diet. For the colonic bioconversion, more demethylated metabolites with higher biological activity were found in feces than nobiletin in the 48 h excretion study and 8 week consecutive dosing study. Moreover, long-term oral intake of nobiletin would modify the gut microbiota with improved demethylation ability and enhanced production of short chain fatty acids. The comparison of metabolite profiles in mouse liver and feces indicated that gut microbiota might have a higher biotransformation activity on nobiletin than the host. Two bacteria at the genus level, Allobaculum and Roseburia, remained enriched by nobiletin after the 4- and 8-week feedings. They might correlate with the enhanced nobiletin biotransformation and actively contribute to the health benefits of nobiletin in vivo. These results suggested that the bidirectional interaction of nobiletin and gut microbiota played an important role on the anti-obesity effect of nobiletin.

7.
Brain Struct Funct ; 226(5): 1627-1639, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866405

RESUMO

Writing sequences play an important role in handwriting of Chinese characters. However, little is known regarding the integral brain patterns and network mechanisms of processing Chinese character writing sequences. The present study decoded brain patterns during observing Chinese characters in motion by using multi-voxel pattern analysis, meta-analytic decoding analysis, and extended unified structural equation model. We found that perception of Chinese character writing sequence recruited brain regions not only for general motor schema processing, i.e., the right inferior frontal gyrus, shifting, and inhibition functions, i.e., the right postcentral gyrus and bilateral pre-SMA/dACC, but also for sensorimotor functions specific for writing sequences. More importantly, these brain regions formed a cooperatively top-down brain network where information was transmitted from brain regions for general motor schema processing to those specific for writing sequences. These findings not only shed light on the neural mechanisms of Chinese character writing sequences, but also extend the hierarchical control model on motor schema processing.

8.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(6): 37, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821366

RESUMO

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a disease of unclear pathogenesis. It has a low incidence and is not fatal, but it can cause afflicted patients' depression or suicide. In the past, neurovascular compression was considered to be the main cause of TN, but recent studies have found that neurovascular contact is also common in asymptomatic patients and the asymptomatic side in symptomatic patients. This indicates that the neurovascular contact is not, or is only to a lesser extent, a factor in the development of TN. Thus, the study of the peripheral branches of the trigeminal nerve is necessary to understand the etiology of TN. With the development of imaging technology and the emergence of various imaging modalities, it is possible to study the etiology of TN and the pathological changes of related structures by magnetic resonance neuroimaging. This article reviews the recent advances in magnetic resonance neuroimaging of the trigeminal nerve.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 358-368, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930449

RESUMO

In this study, active and smart packaging films were prepared by individually adding betacyanins-rich plant extracts (red pitaya flesh extract (RPFE), prickly pear fruit extract (PPFE), red beetroot extract (RBRE), globe amaranth flower extract (GAFE) and red amaranth leaf extract (RALE)) into starch/polyvinyl alcohol. The structural, physical and functional properties of the films containing betacyanins from different plant sources were compared for the first time. Results showed betacyanins from RPFE, PPFE and RBRE were betanin-type betacyanins. Betacyanins from GAFE and RALE were gomphrenin-type and amaranthin-type betacyanins, respectively. The films containing RPFE and PPFE presented more uniform cross-sections and had the highest water vapor barrier (9.37 and 9.26 × 10-11 g m-1 s-1 Pa-1) and mechanical strength (8.26 and 7.87 MPa). However, the film containing GAFE presented the lowest light transmittance but the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.47 mg/mL). All the films containing betacyanins are sensitive to pH 8-12 buffer solutions and volatile ammonia. Notably, the film containing RPFE exhibited distinct color changes (from purple-red to pink) when shrimp spoiled. Our results suggest the structural, physical and functional properties of betacyanins-rich films are closely related to the source and type of betacyanins.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4870, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649482

RESUMO

Within the mountain altitudinal vegetation belts, the shift of forest tree lines and subalpine steppe belts to high altitudes constitutes an obvious response to global climate change. However, whether or not similar changes occur in steppe belts (low altitude) and nival belts in different areas within mountain systems remain undetermined. It is also unknown if these, responses to climate change are consistent. Here, using Landsat remote sensing images from 1989 to 2015, we obtained the spatial distribution of altitudinal vegetation belts in different periods of the Tianshan Mountains in Northwestern China. We suggest that the responses from different altitudinal vegetation belts to global climate change are different. The changes in the vegetation belts at low altitudes are spatially different. In high-altitude regions (higher than the forest belts), however, the trend of different altitudinal belts is consistent. Specifically, we focused on analyses of the impact of changes in temperature and precipitation on the nival belts, desert steppe belts, and montane steppe belts. The results demonstrated that the temperature in the study area exhibited an increasing trend, and is the main factor of altitudinal vegetation belts change in the Tianshan Mountains. In the context of a significant increase in temperature, the upper limit of the montane steppe in the eastern and central parts will shift to lower altitudes, which may limit the development of local animal husbandry. The montane steppe in the west, however, exhibits the opposite trend, which may augment the carrying capacity of pastures and promote the development of local animal husbandry. The lower limit of the nival belt will further increase in all studied areas, which may lead to an increase in surface runoff in the central and western regions.

11.
Nature ; 591(7849): 322-326, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658714

RESUMO

The RNA modification N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has critical roles in many biological processes1,2. However, the function of m6A in the early phase of mammalian development remains poorly understood. Here we show that the m6A reader YT521-B homology-domain-containing protein 1 (YTHDC1) is required for the maintenance of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in an m6A-dependent manner, and that its deletion initiates cellular reprogramming to a 2C-like state. Mechanistically, YTHDC1 binds to the transcripts of retrotransposons (such as intracisternal A particles, ERVK and LINE1) in mouse ES cells and its depletion results in the reactivation of these silenced retrotransposons, accompanied by a global decrease in SETDB1-mediated trimethylation at lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3). We further demonstrate that YTHDC1 and its target m6A RNAs act upstream of SETDB1 to repress retrotransposons and Dux, the master inducer of the two-cell stage (2C)-like program. This study reveals an essential role for m6A RNA and YTHDC1 in chromatin modification and retrotransposon repression.

12.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000869, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783973

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Degraded porphyran is a bioactive polysaccharide extracted from Porphyra haitanensis (P. haitanensis). According to the previous studies, it produced anti-inflammatory activity, but little is known about its effects on depression. METHODS AND RESULTS: As inflammation is one of the critical factors involved in the development of depression, this study aims to elucidate the potential antidepressant-like effects of degraded porphyran. The results show that acute porphyran treatment decreased the immobility time in despair tests. In addition, subchronic porphyran administration reverses depressive-like behaviors in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. Meanwhile, porphyran inhibits NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling, proinflammatory cytokine release, and microglial activation in the hippocampus. Moreover, chronic porphyran treatment activates hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB/ERK/CREB signaling pathway in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice. As a result, neurogenesis and spinogenesis are maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study indicate that degraded porphyran intake provides a potential strategy for depression treatment, which is mediated by the inhibition of neuroinflammation and the enhancement of neurogenesis and spinogenesis in the central nervous systems.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685119

RESUMO

Ferroelectric domain walls (DWs) are important nanoscale interfaces between two domains. It is widely accepted that ferroelectric domain walls work idly at terahertz (THz) frequencies, consequently discouraging efforts to engineer the domain walls to create new applications that utilize THz radiation. However, the present work clearly demonstrates the activity of domain walls at THz frequencies in a lead-free Aurivillius phase ferroelectric ceramic, Ca0.99Rb0.005Ce0.005Bi2Nb2O9, examined using THz-time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The dynamics of domain walls are different at kHz and THz frequencies. At low frequencies, domain walls work as a group to increase dielectric permittivity. At THz frequencies, the defective nature of domain walls serves to lower the overall dielectric permittivity. This is evidenced by higher dielectric permittivity in the THz band after poling, reflecting decreased domain wall density. An elastic vibrational model has also been used to verify that a single frustrated dipole in a domain wall represents a weaker contribution to the permittivity than its counterpart within a domain. The work represents a fundamental breakthrough in understanding the dielectric contributions of domain walls at THz frequencies. It also demonstrates that THz probing can be used to read domain wall dielectric switching.

14.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735117

RESUMO

Vinpocetine is widely used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. However, the effect of vinpocetine to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been investigated. In this study, we revealed that vinpocetine was associated with antiproliferative activity in HCC cells, but induced cytoprotective autophagy, which restricted its antitumor activity. Autophagy inhibitors improved the antiproliferative activity of vinpocetine in HCC cells. Sorafenib is effective to treat advanced HCC, but the effect of autophagy induced by sorafenib is indistinct. We demonstrated vinpocetine plus sorafenib suppressed the cytoprotective autophagy activated by vinpocetine in HCC cells and significantly induced apoptosis and suppressed cell proliferation in HCC cells. In addition, vinpocetine plus sorafenib activates glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK-3ß) and subsequently inhibits cytoprotective autophagy induced by vinpocetine in HCC cells. Meanwhile, overexpression of GSK-3ß was efficient to increase the apoptosis induced by vinpocetine plus sorafenib in HCC cells. Our study revealed that vinpocetine plus sorafenib could suppress the cytoprotective autophagy induced by vinpocetine and subsequently show synergistically anti-HCC activity via activating GSK-3ß and the combination of vinpocetine and sorafenib might reverse sorafenib resistance via the PI3K/protein kinase B/GSK-3ß signaling axis. Thus, vinpocetine may be a potential candidate for sorafenib sensitization and HCC treatment, and our results may help to elucidate more effective therapeutic options for HCC patients with sorafenib resistance.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1361-1371, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742933

RESUMO

To study the spatial-temporal variation of water environment quality in Hengshui Lake and determine the associated pollution sources, we used historical water monitoring data (from 2000 onwards) and data from 17 sites sampled in 2019 to determine the trophic level index (TLI), comprehensive water quality index (WQI), and water environment quality index (EQI). The results showed that the proportion of monitoring points reaching level Ⅲ increased from 2000 to 2019. The permanganate index, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were the main water environmental indicators. Spatially, TLI, WQI, and EQI all generally decreased from the south to the middle and west of the lake, and then further decreased towards the northeast. After the establishment of the Hengshui Lake National Nature Reserve, a series of water body protection policies and measures were implemented. These interventions are reflected in reductions in the TLI, WQI, and EQI between 2000 and 2019 by 20.9%, 53.4%, and 49.2%, respectively. However, side seepage and sewage discharge, agricultural non-point source pollutants transported by water diversion, and the decay of plants in the lake present significant challenges for water quality in Hengshui Lake.

17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1433-1442, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742940

RESUMO

The loss of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from aquaculture has caused eutrophication of freshwater systems. Here, surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) planted with Myriophyllum elatinoides were used to treat swine wastewater from a medium-sized hoggery in subtropical Central China. Inflow concentrations of NH4+-N, TN, TP, and COD ranged from 535.4 to 591.09, 682.09 to 766.96, 57.73 to 82.29, and 918.4 to 1940.43 mg·L-1, respectively. The mean removal efficiencies of NH4+-N, TN, TP, and COD were 97.4%, 97.1%, 91.0%, and 90.2%, respectively, and CW1 had the largest contributions of 37.3%, 38.4%, 43.3%, and 27.4%, respectively. Plant N and P uptake ranged 23.87-79.96 g·m-2 and 5.34-18.98 g·m-2, accounting for 19.1% and 20.2% of removal, respectively. Sediment N and P accumulation ranged 19.17-56.62 g·m-2 and 10.59-26.62 g·m-2, accounting for 19.8% and 61.7% of removal, respectively. Multiple linear regression showed that environmental factors explained 79.9% of the N removal and 70.1% of the P removal; DO was the main factor affecting N removal, and sediment adsorption was the key process in P removal. These results show that M. elatinoides constructed wetland can efficiently treat swine wastewater, thereby reduce the discharge of pollutants downstream.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Suínos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
20.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3307-3323, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735339

RESUMO

Citrus fruits are among the most popularly consumed fruits worldwide, including oranges, grapefruits, pomelos and lemons. Citrus flavonoids such as hesperidin, naringin and nobiletin have shown an array of health benefits in cell, animal and clinical studies, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticancer, and anti-obesity activities. Citrus flavonoids have limited bioavailability after oral administration, leaving the major part unabsorbed and persisted in the colon. Recent studies have highlighted the important role of the gut microbiota and in vivo biotransformation on the bioactivity of citrus flavonoids. This article discusses the biological fate of citrus flavonoids from the viewpoint of their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in vivo. Many delivery systems have been designed to enhance the oral bioavailability of citrus flavonoids, such as emulsions, self-emulsifying systems, nanoparticles and solid dispersions. The ultimate goal of these delivery systems is to enhance the bioefficacy of citrus flavonoids. Several studies have found that the increased bioavailability leads to enhanced bioefficacy of citrus flavonoids in specific animal models. Regarding the complex dynamics of citrus flavonoids and gut microbiota, the bioavailability-bioactivity relationship is an interesting but under-discussed area. Comprehensively understanding the biological fate and bioefficacy of citrus flavonoids would be helpful to develop functional foods with better health benefits.

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