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1.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241809

RESUMO

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a key enzyme in the endocannabinoid system. N-(3,4-Dimethylisoxazol-5-yl)piperazine-4-[4-(2-fluoro-4-[11C]methylphenyl)thiazol-2-yl]-1-carboxamide ([11C]DFMC) was developed as an irreversible-type positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for FAAH. Here, we attempted to noninvasively estimate rate constant k3 as a direct index for FAAH in the rat brain. First, the two-tissue compartment model analysis including three parameters (K1-k3, 2TCMi) in PET study with [11C]DFMC was conducted, which provided 0.21 ± 0.04 mL·cm-3·min-1 of the net uptake value (Ki), an indirect index for FAAH, in the FAAH-richest region (the cingulate cortex). Subsequently, to noninvasively estimate Ki value, the reference model analysis (Patlak Reference, PGAREF) was tried using a time-activity curve of the spinal cord. In that result, the noninvasive Ki value (KREF) was concisely estimated with high correlation (r > 0.95) to Ki values based on 2TCMi. Using estimated KREF value, we tried to obtain calculated-k3 based on previously defined equations. The caluculated-k3 was successfully estimated with high correlation (r = 0.95) to direct k3 in 2TCMi. Finally, the dose relationship study using calculated-k3 demonstrated that in vivo ED50 value of URB597, a major inhibitor of FAAH, was 66.4 µg/kg in rat brain. In conclusion, we proposed the calculated-k3 as an alternative index corresponding to regional FAAH concentrations and suggested that PET with [11C]DFMC enables occupancy study for new pharmaceuticals targeting FAAH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: In present study, we proposed calculated-k3 as an alternative index corresponding with FAAH concentration. By using calculated-k3, in vivo ED50 of URB597 was successfully estimated to be 66.4 µg/kg for rat. Thus, we demonstrated pharmacological utility of PET with [11C]DFMC.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4143, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157106

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis owing to difficulties in the diagnosis of resectable PC at early stages. Several clinical studies have indicated that the detection and surgery of small resectable PC (<1 cm) can significantly improve survival; however, imaging diagnosis and accurate resection of small PC remain challenging. Here, we report the feasibility of "immuno-OpenPET" as a novel approach enabling not only early diagnosis but also image-guided surgery, using a small (<1 cm) resectable PC orthotopic xenograft mouse model. For immuno-OpenPET, we utilized our original OpenPET system, which enables high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with depth-of-interaction detectors, as well as real-time image-guided surgery, by arranging the detectors to create an open space for surgery and accelerating the image reconstruction process by graphics processing units. For immuno-OpenPET, 64Cu-labeled anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab was intraperitoneally administered into mice. It clearly identified PC tumors ≥3 mm. In contrast, neither OpenPET with intravenous-administered 64Cu-cetuximab nor intraperitoneal/intravenous-administered 18F-FDG (a traditional PET probe) could detect PC in this model. Immuno-OpenPET-guided surgery accurately resected small PC in mice and achieved significantly prolonged survival. This technology could provide a novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for small resectable PC to improve patient survival.

3.
J Med Chem ; 63(4): 1717-1723, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026684

RESUMO

Iodide homeostasis and thyroid hormone metabolism in the brain are potentially related to changes in the activity of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). No radiotracers are currently available for imaging brain NIS activity. Here, we synthesized 6-[124I]iodo-9-pentylpurine that can noninvasively measure iodide efflux from the brain and showed that the efflux rate of [124I]I- in NIS knockout mice was 84% lower than that of wild-type mice. Thus, 6-[124I]iodo-9-pentylpurine would be useful for imaging brain NIS activity.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 609, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001710

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages affect tumor progression and resistance to immune checkpoint therapy. Here, we identify the chemokine signal regulator FROUNT as a target to control tumor-associated macrophages. The low level FROUNT expression in patients with cancer correlates with better clinical outcomes. Frount-deficiency markedly reduces tumor progression and decreases macrophage tumor-promoting activity. FROUNT is highly expressed in macrophages, and its myeloid-specific deletion impairs tumor growth. Further, the anti-alcoholism drug disulfiram (DSF) acts as a potent inhibitor of FROUNT. DSF interferes with FROUNT-chemokine receptor interactions via direct binding to a specific site of the chemokine receptor-binding domain of FROUNT, leading to inhibition of macrophage responses. DSF monotherapy reduces tumor progression and decreases macrophage tumor-promoting activity, as seen in the case of Frount-deficiency. Moreover, co-treatment with DSF and an immune checkpoint antibody synergistically inhibits tumor growth. Thus, inhibition of FROUNT by DSF represents a promising strategy for macrophage-targeted cancer therapy.

5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(6): 126998, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014383

RESUMO

[Thiocarbonyl-11C]disulfiram ([11C]DSF) was synthesized via iodine oxidation of [11C]diethylcarbamodithioic acid ([11C]DETC), which was prepared from [11C]carbon disulfide and diethylamine. The decay-corrected isolated radiochemical yield (RCY) of [11C]DSF was greatly affected by the addition of unlabeled carbon disulfide. In the presence of carbon disulfide, the RCY was increased up to 22% with low molar activity (Am, 0.27 GBq/µmol). On the other hand, [11C]DSF was obtained in 0.4% RCY with a high Am value (95 GBq/µmol) in the absence of carbon disulfide. The radiochemical purity of [11C]DSF was always >98%. The first PET study on [11C]DSF was performed in mice. A high uptake of radioactivity was observed in the liver, kidneys, and gallbladder. The uptake level and distribution pattern in mice were not significantly affected by the Am value of the [11C]DSF sample used. In vivo metabolite analysis showed the rapid decomposition of [11C]DSF in mouse plasma.

6.
Small ; 16(7): e1904758, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909565

RESUMO

Conductive, stretchable, environmentally-friendly, and strain-sensitive elastomers are attracting immense research interest because of their potential applications in various areas, such as human-machine interfaces, healthcare monitoring, and soft robots. Herein, a binary networked elastomer is reported based on a composite hydrogel of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), which is demonstrated to be ultrastretchable, mechanically robust, biosafe, and antibacterial. The mechanical stretchability and toughness of the hydrogels are optimized by tuning the constituent ratio and water content. The optimal hydrogel (PVA2 PEI1 -75) displays an impressive tensile strain as high as 500% with a corresponding tensile stress of 0.6 MPa. Furthermore, the hydrogel elastomer is utilized to fabricate piezoresistive sensors. The as-made strain sensor displays seductive capability to monitor and distinguish multifarious human motions with high accuracy and sensitivity, like facial expressions and vocal signals. Therefore, the elastomer reported in this study holds great potential for sensing applications in the era of the Internet of Things (IoTs).

7.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 9(4): 465-477, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904914

RESUMO

Transplantation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs) is a promising treatment for a variety of neuropathological conditions. Although previous reports have indicated the effectiveness of hiPSC-NS/PCs transplantation into the injured spinal cord of rodents and nonhuman primates, long-term observation of hiPSC-NS/PCs post-transplantation suggested some "unsafe" differentiation-resistant properties, resulting in disordered overgrowth. These findings suggest that, even if "safe" NS/PCs are transplanted into the human central nervous system (CNS), the dynamics of cellular differentiation of stem cells should be noninvasively tracked to ensure safety. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides molecular-functional information and helps to detect specific disease conditions. The current study was conducted to visualize Nestin (an NS/PC marker)-positive undifferentiated neural cells in the CNS of immune-deficient (nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune-deficient) mice after hiPSC-NS/PCs transplantation with PET, using 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands as labels. TSPO was recently found to be expressed in rodent NS/PCs, and its expression decreased with the progression of neuronal differentiation. We hypothesized that TSPO would also be present in hiPSC-NS/PCs and expressed strongly in residual immature neural cells after transplantation. The results showed high levels of TSPO expression in immature hiPSC-NS/PCs-derived cells, and decreased TSPO expression as neural differentiation progressed in vitro. Furthermore, PET with [18 F] FEDAC (a TSPO radioligand) was able to visualize the remnant undifferentiated hiPSC-NS/PCs-derived cells consisting of TSPO and Nestin+ cells in vivo. These findings suggest that PET with [18 F] FEDAC could play a key role in the safe clinical application of CNS repair in regenerative medicine.

8.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 281-288, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959988

RESUMO

Although aberrations in the number and function of glutamate AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors are thought to underlie neuropsychiatric disorders, no methods are currently available for visualizing AMPA receptors in the living human brain. Here we developed a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for AMPA receptors. A derivative of 4-[2-(phenylsulfonylamino)ethylthio]-2,6-difluoro-phenoxyacetamide radiolabeled with 11C ([11C]K-2) showed specific binding to AMPA receptors. Our clinical trial with healthy human participants confirmed reversible binding of [11C]K-2 in the brain according to Logan graphical analysis (UMIN000020975; study design: non-randomized, single arm; primary outcome: dynamics and distribution volumes of [11C]K-2 in the brain; secondary outcome: adverse events of [11C]K-2 during the 4-10 d following dosing; this trial met prespecified endpoints). In an exploratory clinical study including patients with epilepsy, we detected increased [11C]K-2 uptake in the epileptogenic focus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, which was closely correlated with the local AMPA receptor protein distribution in surgical specimens from the same individuals (UMIN000025090; study design: non-randomized, single arm; primary outcome: correlation between [11C]K-2 uptake measured with PET before surgery and AMPA receptor protein density examined by biochemical study after surgery; secondary outcome: adverse events during the 7 d following PET scan; this trial met prespecified endpoints). Thus, [11C]K-2 is a potent PET tracer for AMPA receptors, potentially providing a tool to examine the involvement of AMPA receptors in neuropsychiatric disorders.

9.
J Nucl Med ; 61(2): 242-248, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451486

RESUMO

Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) targeting oncoproteins facilitates the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor tissues with high precision. Herein, we developed 2 new radiopharmaceuticals, 4-131I-iodo- and 4-211At-astato-N-[4-(6-(isopropylamino)pyridine-4-yl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methylbenzamide (131I-IITM and 211At-AITM), targeting the ectopic metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) in melanomas for TRT studies. Methods: 131I-IITM and 211At-AITM were synthesized by reacting a stannyl precursor with 131I-NaI and 211At in the presence of an oxidizing agent. The therapeutic efficacy and safety of the 2 radiopharmaceuticals were investigated using mGluR1-expressing B16F10 melanoma cells and melanoma-bearing mice. Results: 131I-IITM and 211At-AITM were obtained with a radiochemical purity of greater than 99% and radiochemical yields of 42.7% ± 10.4% and 45.7% ± 6.5%, respectively, based on the total radioactivity of used radionuclides. 131I-IITM and 211At-AITM exhibited a maximum uptake of 4.66% ± 0.70 and 7.68% ± 0.71 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) in the targeted melanomas, respectively, and were rapidly cleared from nontarget organs after intravenous injection. Both agents markedly inhibited melanoma growth compared with the controls (61.00% and 95.68%, respectively). In the melanoma model, considerably greater therapeutic efficacy with negligible toxicity was observed using 211At-AITM. Conclusion: The nontoxic radiopharmaceuticals 131I-IITM and 211At-AITM are useful high-precision TRT agents that can be used to target the oncoprotein mGluR1 for melanoma therapy.

10.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 40(1): 116-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346895

RESUMO

Accumulation of detrimental glutathione-conjugated metabolites in the brain potentially causes neurological disorders, and must therefore be exported from the brain. However, in vivo mechanisms of glutathione-conjugates efflux from the brain remain unknown. We investigated the involvement of transporters in glutathione-conjugates efflux using 6-bromo-7-[11C]methylpurine ([11C]1), which enters the brain and is converted into its glutathione conjugate, S-(7-[11C]methylpurin-6-yl)glutathione ([11C]2). In mice of control and knockout of P-glycoprotein/breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 ([Mrp2]-/-), [11C]2 formed in the brain was rapidly cleared, with no significant difference in efflux rate. In contrast, [11C]2 formed in the brain of Mrp1-/- mice was slowly cleared, whereas [11C]2 microinjected into the brain of control and Mrp1-/- mice was 75% cleared within 60 min, with no significant difference in efflux rate. These suggest that Mrp1 contributes to [11C]2 efflux across cell membranes, but not BBB. Efflux rate of [11C]2 formed in the brain was significantly lower in Mrp4-/- and organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3)-/- mice compared with control mice. In conclusion, Mrp1, Oat3, and Mrp4 mediate [11C]2 efflux from the brain. Mrp1 may contribute to [11C]2 efflux from brain parenchymal cells, while extracellular [11C]2 is likely cleared across the BBB, partly by Oat3 and Mrp4.

11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(4): 126879, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879207

RESUMO

Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) are a recently discovered family of proteins that modulate AMPA receptors activity. Based on a potent and selective TARP subtype γ-8 antagonist, 6-(methyl(4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-yl)amino)benzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one (compound 9), we perform the radiosynthesis of its 11C-isotopologue 1 and conduct preliminary PET evaluation to test the feasibility of imaging TARP γ-8 dependent receptors in vivo.

12.
EJNMMI Radiopharm Chem ; 4(1): 4, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in a wide variety of physiological processes, including feeding, learning, memory, emotion, cardiovascular homeostasis, hormone secretion, and circadian rhythms. NPY Yl receptor (NPY Y1-R) is the most widely studied NPY receptor, and is involved in many of these processes. BMS-193885 (1) was previously developed as a potent and selective NPY Y1-R antagonist, which has good systemic bioavailability and brain penetration. To evaluate the characteristics of 1 in vivo, we developed 11C-labeled BMS-193885 ([11C]1) and its desmethyl analog ([11C]2) for potential use as two new positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. RESULTS: [11C]1 was synthesized from [11C]methyl iodide using 2. [11C]2 was synthesized from [11C]phosgene using its aniline and amine derivatives. The mean ± S.D. decay-corrected radiochemical yields of [11C]1 and [11C]2 from 11CO2 at the end of radionuclide production were 23 ± 3.2% (n = 6) and 24 ± 1.5% (n = 4), respectively. In biodistribution on mice, radioactivity levels for both tracers were relatively high in the kidney, small intestine, and liver at 60 min post-injection. The radioactivity levels in the kidney, lung, and spleen of mice at 30 min post-injection with [11C]1 were significantly reduced by pretreatment with 1 (10 mg/kg), and levels of [11C]1 in the brain of mice were significantly increased by pretreatment with the P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor elacridar (10 mg/kg). In metabolite analysis using mouse plasma, [11C]1 and [11C]2 were rapidly metabolized within 30 min post-injection, and [11C]1 was mainly metabolized into unlabeled 2 and radiolabeled components. CONCLUSION: [11C]1 and [11C]2 were successfully synthesized with sufficient amount of radioactivity and high quality for use in vivo. Our study of [11C]1 and its desmethyl analog [11C]2 was useful in that it helped to elucidate the in vivo characteristics of 1.

13.
J Med Chem ; 62(19): 8866-8872, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518130

RESUMO

Dysfunction of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is associated with several psychopathological disorders, including drug addiction and neurodegenerative diseases. Herein we design, synthesize, and evaluate several irreversible fluorine-containing MAGL inhibitors for positron emission tomography (PET) ligand development. Compound 6 (identified from a therapeutic agent) was advanced for 18F-labeling via a novel spirocyclic iodonium ylide (SCIDY) strategy, which demonstrated high brain permeability and excellent specific binding. This work supports further development of novel 18F-labeled MAGL PET probes.

14.
Magn Reson Med Sci ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548478

RESUMO

We investigated the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detecting changes in the structure of hypoxic cells by evaluating the correlation between 18F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside (FAZA) positron emission tomography activity and DWI parameters in head and neck carcinoma. The diffusion coefficient corresponding to the slow compartment of a two-compartment model had a significant positive correlation with FAZA activity (ρ = 0.58, P = 0.016), whereas the diffusional kurtosis from diffusion kurtosis imaging had a significant negative correlation (ρ = -0.62, P = 0.008), which suggests that those DWI parameters might be useful as indicators for changes in cell structure.

15.
Brain ; 142(10): 3265-3279, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504227

RESUMO

Tau deposits is a core feature of neurodegenerative disorder following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite ample evidence from post-mortem studies demonstrating exposure to both mild-repetitive and severe TBIs are linked to tau depositions, associations of topology of tau lesions with late-onset psychiatric symptoms due to TBI have not been explored. To address this issue, we assessed tau deposits in long-term survivors of TBI by PET with 11C-PBB3, and evaluated those associations with late-life neuropsychiatric outcomes. PET data were acquired from 27 subjects in the chronic stage following mild-repetitive or severe TBI and 15 healthy control subjects. Among the TBI patients, 14 were diagnosed as having late-onset symptoms based on the criteria of traumatic encephalopathy syndrome. For quantification of tau burden in TBI brains, we calculated 11C-PBB3 binding capacity (cm3), which is a summed voxel value of binding potentials (BP*ND) multiplied by voxel volume. Main outcomes of the present study were differences in 11C-PBB3 binding capacity between groups, and the association of regional 11C-PBB3 binding capacity with neuropsychiatric symptoms. To confirm 11C-PBB3 binding to tau deposits in TBI brains, we conducted in vitro PBB3 fluorescence and phospho-tau antibody immunofluorescence labelling of brain sections of chronic traumatic encephalopathy obtained from the Brain Bank. Our results showed that patients with TBI had higher 11C-PBB3 binding capacities in the neocortical grey and white matter segments than healthy control subjects. Furthermore, TBI patients with traumatic encephalopathy syndrome showed higher 11C-PBB3 binding capacity in the white matter segment than those without traumatic encephalopathy syndrome, and regional assessments revealed that subgroup difference was also significant in the frontal white matter. 11C-PBB3 binding capacity in the white matter segment correlated with the severity of psychosis. In vitro assays demonstrated PBB3-positive tau inclusions at the depth of neocortical sulci, confirming 11C-PBB3 binding to tau lesions. In conclusion, increased 11C-PBB3 binding capacity is associated with late-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms following TBI, and a close correlation was found between psychosis and 11C-PBB3 binding capacity in the white matter.

16.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(16): 3568-3573, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278005

RESUMO

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a major serine hydrolase that hydrolyses 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) into arachidonic acid (AA) and glycerol in the brain. Because 2-AG and AA are endogenous biologically active ligands in the brain, the inhibition of MAGL is an attractive therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, to visualize MAGL via positron emission tomography (PET), we report a new carbon-11-labeled radiotracer, namely 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-yl-3-(1-benzyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)azetidine-1-[11C]carboxylate ([11C]6). Compound 6 exhibited high in vitro binding affinity (IC50 = 0.41 nM) to MAGL in the brain with a suitable lipophilicity (cLogD = 3.29). [11C]6 was synthesized by reacting 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropanol (7) with [11C]phosgene ([11C]COCl2), followed by a reaction with 3-(1-benzyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)azetidine hydrochloride (8), which resulted in a 15.0 ±â€¯6.8% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected, n = 7) based on [11C]CO2 and a 45 min synthesis time from the end of bombardment. A biodistribution study in mice showed high uptake of radioactivity in MAGL-rich organs, including the lungs, heart, and kidneys. More than 90% of the total radioactivity was irreversibly bound in the brain homogenate of rats 5 min and 30 min after the radiotracer injection. PET summation images of rat brains showed high radioactivity in all brain regions. Pretreatment with 6 or MAGL-selective inhibitor JW642 significantly reduced the uptake of radioactivity in the brain. [11C]6 is a promising PET tracer which offers in vivo specific binding and selectivity for MAGL in rodent brains.

17.
Transl Oncol ; 12(9): 1206-1212, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252311

RESUMO

Hypoxia plays important roles in the prognosis of malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma because it causes drug delivery deficiencies and the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in tumor cells. Extensive hypoxic areas are associated with poor prognosis of these fatal diseases. We previously reported that multiple administrations of the hypoxia-targeted internal radiotherapy agent 64Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-ATSM), four times at intervals of 1 or 2 weeks, show antitumor effects in glioblastoma without treatment-related adverse events. Before initiating clinical trials, preclinical safety studies using Cu-ATSM composed of stable isotopes and its precursor ATSM were required to understand the potential risks of systemic and repeated chemical exposure of our investigational drug. In this study, the concentrations of Cu-ATSM and ATSM in mouse plasma after intravenous administration were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the half-lives were estimated to be 21.5 and 22.4 minutes for Cu-ATSM and ATSM, respectively. Based on this result, approach 2 of the current ICH M3 [R2] guideline was adopted, and a 7-day intravenous toxicity study was conducted in mice. Cu-ATSM and ATSM in a ratio of 2:25 mimicking our current investigational drug was used, and no adverse effects were observed when Cu-ATSM and ATSM were administered at 81 µg/kg. These results and those of previous studies suggest that our current investigational drug formulation containing Cu-ATSM and ATSM at a dose of 15 µg can be safely administered to patients once per week for 4 weeks for treatment with 64Cu-ATSM.

18.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 149: 31-37, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005643

RESUMO

We have developed a new method for producing 191Pt from an iridium target. Alkali fusion of iridium was successfully performed using a vertical beam irradiation method and a mixed target of Ir and Na2O2, which resulted in easy dissolution of the irradiated iridium target. A trace amount of PtⅣCl62- was isolated from bulk IrⅣCl62- by solvent extraction and anion exchange chromatography. The production yield of 191Pt was 7.1 ±â€¯0.4 (MBq/µA h, EOB) by proton irradiation at 30 MeV. The radioplatinum product (n.c.a.) was prepared at a radiochemical purity of 97% for PtⅣCl62-, and 95% for PtⅡCl42-, respectively.

19.
Mov Disord ; 34(5): 744-754, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: [11 C]pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazole 3 is a PET imaging agent designed for capturing pathological tau aggregates in diverse neurodegenerative disorders, and would be of clinical utility for neuropathological investigations of PSP. OBJECTIVES: To explore the usefulness of [11 C]pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazole 3/PET in assessing characteristic distributions of tau pathologies and their association with clinical symptoms in the brains of living PSP patients. METHODS: We assessed 13 PSP patients and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Individuals negative for amyloid ß PET with [11 C]Pittsburgh compound B underwent clinical scoring, MR scans, and [11 C]pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazole 3/PET. RESULTS: There were significant differences in binding potential for [11 C]pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazole 3 between PSP patients and healthy control subjects (P = 0.02). PSP patients exhibited greater radioligand retention than healthy control subjects in multiple brain regions, including frontoparietal white matter, parietal gray matter, globus pallidus, STN, red nucleus, and cerebellar dentate nucleus. [11 C]pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazole 3 deposition in frontoparietal white matter, but not gray matter, was correlated with general severity of parkinsonian and PSP symptoms, whereas both gray matter and white matter [11 C]pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazole 3 accumulations in the frontoparietal cortices were associated with nonverbal cognitive impairments. Autoradiographic and fluorescence labeling with pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazole 3 was observed in gray matter and white matter of PSP motor cortex tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the in vivo detectability of tau fibrils characteristic of PSP by [11 C]pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazole 3/PET, and imply distinct and synergistic contributions of gray matter and white matte tau pathologies to clinical symptoms. [11 C]pyridinyl-butadienyl-benzothiazole 3/PET potentially provides a neuroimaging-based index for the evolution of PSP tau pathologies promoting the deterioration of motor and cognitive functions. © 2019 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

20.
J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3336-3353, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829483

RESUMO

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a serine hydrolase that degrades 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the endocannabinoid system (eCB). Selective inhibition of MAGL has emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of diverse pathological conditions, including chronic pain, inflammation, cancer, and neurodegeneration. Herein, we disclose a novel array of reversible and irreversible MAGL inhibitors by means of "tail switching" on a piperazinyl azetidine scaffold. We developed a lead irreversible-binding MAGL inhibitor 8 and reversible-binding compounds 17 and 37, which are amenable for radiolabeling with 11C or 18F. [11C]8 ([11C]MAGL-2-11) exhibited high brain uptake and excellent binding specificity in the brain toward MAGL. Reversible radioligands [11C]17 ([11C]PAD) and [18F]37 ([18F]MAGL-4-11) also demonstrated excellent in vivo binding specificity toward MAGL in peripheral organs. This work may pave the way for the development of MAGL-targeted positron emission tomography tracers with tunability in reversible and irreversible binding mechanisms.

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