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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) in Europeans using three approaches, FUSION, MetaXcan and SMulTiXcan. We integrated GWAS summary statistics from 9,040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12,496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics, LTG (n = 95) and Genotype-Tissue Expression, GTEx v7 (n = 174) datasets), and data from 48 different tissues (GTEx v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (FDR < 0.05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12:, PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at 6 known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci, and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1 and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

2.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 15: 2301-2311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616146

RESUMO

Purpose: Nursing survivors are often not only the victims but also the rescuers in a disaster. Severe natural disasters can cause them long-term psychological impact. This study aimed to investigate the psychological status of nursing survivors and its associated factors 6 years after the severe earthquake that occurred in Wenchuan, Sichuan, on May 12, 2008. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional design. A total of 597 nurses who survived the earthquake and took care of victims were recruited about 6 years after the disaster. They completed a self-report questionnaire assessing information about demographics, earthquake-related characteristics, psychological status, posttraumatic stress disorder, and posttraumatic growth and resilience. Results: The mean score on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was (123.56±41.26). Of symptoms indicated by the SCL-90-R, obsessive-compulsive dimension had the highest score (1.62±0.62). The psychological status of nursing survivors differed with the title, monthly per capita household income, financial loss, health status, residential satisfaction, and satisfaction with leaders and colleagues. Severe financial loss and poor health status were significant factors of psychological distress. In addition, psychological status was negatively related to posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth, and positively related to resilience. Conclusion: Nursing survivors had a relatively normal level of psychological status 6 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. However, psychological symptoms such as obsessive-compulsive patterns still remained. Interventions focusing on the improvement of financial subsidies and physical health may be particularly useful in reducing psychological problems after the disaster.

3.
Science ; 366(6464): 505-508, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649201

RESUMO

Cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) mediate the coupled, electroneutral symport of cations with chloride across the plasma membrane and are vital for cell volume regulation, salt reabsorption in the kidney, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated modulation in neurons. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of human potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC1 in potassium chloride or sodium chloride at 2.9- to 3.5-angstrom resolution. KCC1 exists as a dimer, with both extracellular and transmembrane domains involved in dimerization. The structural and functional analyses, along with computational studies, reveal one potassium site and two chloride sites in KCC1, which are all required for the ion transport activity. KCC1 adopts an inward-facing conformation, with the extracellular gate occluded. The KCC1 structures allow us to model a potential ion transport mechanism in KCCs and provide a blueprint for drug design.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1868-1875, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length has been associated with risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer. Few prospective studies have evaluated the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with pancreatic cancer survival. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with overall survival (OS) time among 423 participants diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 1984 and 2008 within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Nurses' Health Study, Physicians' Health Study, and Women's Health Initiative. We measured prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length in banked blood samples using quantitative PCR. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs for OS with adjustment for potential confounders. We also evaluated 10 SNPs at the telomerase reverse transcriptase locus. RESULTS: Shorter prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with reduced OS among patients with pancreatic cancer (P trend = 0.04). The multivariable-adjusted HR for OS comparing the lowest with highest quintiles of leukocyte telomere length was 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.93), corresponding to a 3-month difference in median OS time. In an analysis excluding cases with blood collected within 2 years of cancer diagnosis, the association was moderately stronger (HR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.21; comparing the lowest with highest quintiles; P trend = 0.01). No prognostic association or effect modification for the prognostic association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was noted in relation to the studied SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with pancreatic cancer survival. IMPACT: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length can be a prognostic biomarker in pancreatic cancer.

5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 514(4): 1133-1139, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101341

RESUMO

Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation increases the risk of various skin disorders, resulting in apoptosis, autophagy and oxidative stress and thereby promoting the risk of skin photoaging and carcinogenesis. The use of photochemoprotectors including natural products with antioxidant properties represents an effective strategy for preventing UVB-induced skin injury. Isoorientin (Iso), as a flavonoid compound, could be extracted from several plant species and possesses multiple biological activities. However, its role in regulating UVB-induced skin damage is little to be reported. In the study, we found that Iso treatment could protect human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against the effects of UVB irradiation by improving cell viability, suppressing MMP1 and MMP3 expression, inhibiting oxidative stress and inducing autophagy. In addition, Iso reduced UVB-triggered apoptosis, as evidenced by the decreased Caspase-3 activity in vitro. Furthermore, Iso was functioned as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger that markedly hindered c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling activation in UVB-treated HFDs. Importantly, promoting JNK activity restored matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1/3 expression in Iso-incubated cells with UVB stimulation. Meanwhile, UVB exposure to the skin of mice and subsequent topical application of Iso delayed the progression of skin damage, resulting in autophagy and blocking the JNK activation and ROS production. In conclusion, these results indicated the photoprotective role of Iso and demonstrated that Iso could also be potentially used as an agent against UVB-stimulated skin damage.

6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 513(2): 419-425, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967266

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) remains the second most prevailing cancer worldwide and presents high mortality rates. Given that chemoresistance becomes an enormous obstacle to the therapy for CSCC patients, there is a pressing need to discover novel strategies for enhancing the response of CSCC cells to cisplatin. Emerging evidence has unfolded that miRNAs are participated in regulation of drug resistance in multiple cancers. MiR-3619-5p has been proofed to exert tumor inhibitive activities in human malignancies, but the biological function of miR-3619-5p in the progression of CSCC is still unclear. In this study, we observed that miR-3619-5p expression was pronouncedly dropped in cisplatin-resistant CSCC cells. Subsequently, miR-3619-5p was validated to act as a tumor suppressor in CSCC through retarding cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance. Besides, our findings certified that KPNA4 was highly expressed in cisplatin-resistant CSCC cells. Further, KPNA4 was negatively regulated by miR-3619-5p. Rescue experiments unveiled that KPNA4 counteracted the miR-3619-5p-mediated regulation of CSCC tumorigenesis. On the whole, miR-3619-5p inhibited cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance of CSCC by regulating KPNA4 expression, suggesting that miR-3619-5p/KPNA4 pathway may represent a potential promising strategy for the treatment of patients with CSCC.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(6): 557-567, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes. METHODS: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 14 pathways and gene sets associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. After Bonferroni correction (P ≤ 1.3 × 10-5), the strongest associations were detected in five pathways and gene sets, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, regulation of beta-cell development, role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors in cardiac hypertrophy pathways, and the Nikolsky breast cancer chr17q11-q21 amplicon and Pujana ATM Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) network gene sets. We identified and validated rs876493 and three correlating SNPs (PGAP3) and rs3124737 (CASP7) from the Pujana ATM PCC gene set as eQTLs in two normal derived pancreas tissue datasets. CONCLUSION: Our agnostic pathway and gene set analysis integrated with functional annotation and eQTL analysis provides insight into genes and pathways that may be biologically relevant for risk of PDAC, including those not previously identified.

8.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 25(9): 850-858, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190597

RESUMO

Mechanosensitive ion channels convert mechanical stimuli into a flow of ions. These channels are widely distributed from bacteria to higher plants and humans, and are involved in many crucial physiological processes. Here we show that two members of the OSCA protein family in Arabidopsis thaliana, namely AtOSCA1.1 and AtOSCA3.1, belong to a new class of mechanosensitive ion channels. We solve the structure of the AtOSCA1.1 channel at 3.5-Å resolution and AtOSCA3.1 at 4.8-Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy. OSCA channels are symmetric dimers that are mediated by cytosolic inter-subunit interactions. Strikingly, they have structural similarity to the mammalian TMEM16 family proteins. Our structural analysis accompanied with electrophysiological studies identifies the ion permeation pathway within each subunit and suggests a conformational change model for activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Canais Iônicos/química , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Mecanotransdução Celular , Animais , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Citoplasma/química , Dimerização , Humanos
9.
Thorac Cancer ; 9(7): 814-819, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors play an important role in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR mutations in advanced NSCLC occur in approximately 35% of Asian patients and 60% of patients with adenocarcinoma. However, the frequency and type of EGFR mutations in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma remain unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma tested for EGFR mutation. Early stage was defined as pathological stage IA-IIIA after radical lung cancer surgery, and advanced stage was defined as clinical stage IIIB without the opportunity for curative treatment or stage IV according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual, 7th edition. RESULTS: A total of 1699 patients were enrolled in this study from May 2014 to May 2016; 750 were assigned to the early-stage and 949 to the advanced-stage group. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were balanced, except that there were more smokers in the advanced-stage group (P < 0.001). The total EGFR mutation rate in the early-stage group was similar to that in the advanced-stage group (53.6% vs. 51.4%, respectively; P = 0.379). There was no significant difference in EGFR mutation type between the two groups. In subgroup analysis of smoking history, there was no difference in EGFR mutation frequency or type between the early-stage and advanced-stage groups. CONCLUSION: Early-stage and advanced-stage groups exhibited the same EGFR mutation frequencies and types.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
10.
Cell Rep ; 23(1): 23-31, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617663

RESUMO

How we sense touch is fundamental for many physiological processes. However, the underlying mechanism and molecular identity for touch sensation are largely unknown. Here, we report on defective gentle-touch behavioral responses in brv1 loss-of-function Drosophila larvae. RNAi and Ca2+ imaging confirmed the involvement of Brv1 in sensing touch and demonstrated that Brv1 mediates the mechanotransduction of class III dendritic arborization neurons. Electrophysiological recordings further revealed that the expression of Brv1 protein in HEK293T cells gives rise to stretch-activated cation channels. Purified Brv1 protein reconstituted into liposomes were found to sense stretch stimuli. In addition, co-expression studies suggested that Brv1 amplifies the response of mechanosensitive ion channel NOMPC (no mechanoreceptor potential C) to touch stimuli. Altogether, these findings demonstrate a molecular entity that mediates the gentle-touch response in Drosophila larvae, providing insights into the molecular mechanisms of touch sensation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular , Tato , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 556, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422604

RESUMO

In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10-8). Replication of 10 promising signals in up to 2737 patients and 4752 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium yields new genome-wide significant loci: rs13303010 at 1p36.33 (NOC2L, P = 8.36 × 10-14), rs2941471 at 8q21.11 (HNF4G, P = 6.60 × 10-10), rs4795218 at 17q12 (HNF1B, P = 1.32 × 10-8), and rs1517037 at 18q21.32 (GRP, P = 3.28 × 10-8). rs78417682 is not statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer in PANDoRA. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in three independent pancreatic data sets provides molecular support of NOC2L as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Tensinas/genética
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(10): E2329-E2337, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463744

RESUMO

Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases are associated with particular MHC haplotypes and expansion of autoreactive T cells. Induction of MHC-mismatched but not -matched mixed chimerism by hematopoietic cell transplantation effectively reverses autoimmunity in diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, even those with established diabetes. As expected, MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism mediates deletion in the thymus of host-type autoreactive T cells that have T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizing (cross-reacting with) donor-type antigen presenting cells (APCs), which have come to reside in the thymus. However, how MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism tolerizes host autoreactive T cells that recognize only self-MHC-peptide complexes remains unknown. Here, using NOD.Rag1-/-BDC2.5 or NOD.Rag1-/-BDC12-4.1 mice that have only noncross-reactive transgenic autoreactive T cells, we show that induction of MHC-mismatched but not -matched mixed chimerism restores immune tolerance of peripheral noncross-reactive autoreactive T cells. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism results in increased percentages of both donor- and host-type Foxp3+ Treg cells and up-regulated expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) by host-type plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments showed that engraftment of donor-type dendritic cells (DCs) and expansion of donor-type Treg cells are required for tolerizing the noncross-reactive autoreactive T cells in the periphery, which are in association with up-regulation of host-type DC expression of PD-L1 and increased percentage of host-type Treg cells. Thus, induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism may establish a peripheral tolerogenic DC and Treg network that actively tolerizes autoreactive T cells, even those with no TCR recognition of the donor APCs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Tolerância Periférica , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Autoimunidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/transplante , Quimeras de Transplante/genética
14.
Nature ; 554(7693): 533-537, 2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443959

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation increases the risk of developing one of several types of cancer. Inflammatory responses are currently thought to be controlled by mechanisms that rely on transcriptional networks that are distinct from those involved in cell differentiation. The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 participates in a wide variety of processes, including cholesterol and glucose metabolism in the liver, resolution of endoplasmic reticulum stress, intestinal glucocorticoid production, pancreatic development and acinar differentiation. In genome-wide association studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vicinity of NR5A2 have previously been associated with the risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In mice, Nr5a2 heterozygosity sensitizes the pancreas to damage, impairs regeneration and cooperates with mutant Kras in tumour progression. Here, using a global transcriptomic analysis, we describe an epithelial-cell-autonomous basal pre-inflammatory state in the pancreas of Nr5a2+/- mice that is reminiscent of the early stages of pancreatitis-induced inflammation and is conserved in histologically normal human pancreases with reduced expression of NR5A2 mRNA. In Nr5a2+/-mice, NR5A2 undergoes a marked transcriptional switch, relocating from differentiation-specific to inflammatory genes and thereby promoting gene transcription that is dependent on the AP-1 transcription factor. Pancreatic deletion of Jun rescues the pre-inflammatory phenotype, as well as binding of NR5A2 to inflammatory gene promoters and the defective regenerative response to damage. These findings support the notion that, in the pancreas, the transcriptional networks involved in differentiation-specific functions also suppress inflammatory programmes. Under conditions of genetic or environmental constraint, these networks can be subverted to foster inflammation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/genética , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Células Acinares/metabolismo , Células Acinares/patologia , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genes jun/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Pancreatite/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/deficiência , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo
15.
Gut ; 67(3): 521-533, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the genetic architecture of gene expression in pancreatic tissues. DESIGN: We performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=95) using RNA sequencing and the corresponding 1000 genomes imputed germline genotypes. Data from pancreatic tumour-derived tissue samples (n=115) from The Cancer Genome Atlas were included for comparison. RESULTS: We identified 38 615 cis-eQTLs (in 484 genes) in histologically normal tissues and 39 713 cis-eQTL (in 237 genes) in tumour-derived tissues (false discovery rate <0.1), with the strongest effects seen near transcriptional start sites. Approximately 23% and 42% of genes with significant cis-eQTLs appeared to be specific for tumour-derived and normal-derived tissues, respectively. Significant enrichment of cis-eQTL variants was noted in non-coding regulatory regions, in particular for pancreatic tissues (1.53-fold to 3.12-fold, p≤0.0001), indicating tissue-specific functional relevance. A common pancreatic cancer risk locus on 9q34.2 (rs687289) was associated with ABO expression in histologically normal (p=5.8×10-8) and tumour-derived (p=8.3×10-5) tissues. The high linkage disequilibrium between this variant and the O blood group generating deletion variant in ABO (exon 6) suggested that nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the 'O' mRNA might explain this finding. However, knockdown of crucial NMD regulators did not influence decay of the ABO 'O' mRNA, indicating that a gene regulatory element influenced by pancreatic cancer risk alleles may underlie the eQTL. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified cis-eQTLs representing potential functional regulatory variants in the pancreas and generated a rich data set for further studies on gene expression and its regulation in pancreatic tissues.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/genética , Expressão Gênica , Pâncreas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Neoplásico/análise , Transcriptoma , Alelos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de RNA
16.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 17(12): 1089-1096, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057681

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Liquid biopsies, especially the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), as a novel and non-invasive method for the diagnosis and monitoring of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have already been implemented in clinical settings. The majority of ctDNA is released from apoptotic or necrotic tumor cells, thus reflecting the genetic profile of a tumor. Numerous studies have reported a high concordance in mutation profiles derived from liquid biopsy and tissue biopsy, especially in driver genes. Liquid biopsy could overcome the clonal heterogeneity of tumour biopsy, as it provides a single snapshot of a tumour tissue. Moreover, non-invasiveness is the biggest advantage for liquid biopsy, and the procedure can be repeatedly performed during the treatment for the purpose of monitoring. Therefore, ctDNA could act as a potential complementary method for tissue biopsies in diagnosis, prognostic, treatment response and resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes the recent advancements in liquid biopsy with a focus on NSCLC, including its applications and technologies associated with assessing ctDNA. The authors conclude the review by discussing the challenges associated with liquid biopsy. Expert commentary: The analysis of ctDNA represents a promising method for liquid biopsy, which will be a novel and potentially complementary method in diagnosis, treatment and prognostic in NSCLC at all stages.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Medicina de Precisão
17.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 148, 2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28747715

RESUMO

Magnesium is an essential ion for numerous physiological processes. MgtE is a Mg2+ selective channel involved in the maintenance of intracellular Mg2+ homeostasis, whose gating is regulated by intracellular Mg2+ levels. Here, we report that ATP binds to MgtE, regulating its Mg2+-dependent gating. Crystal structures of MgtE-ATP complex show that ATP binds to the intracellular CBS domain of MgtE. Functional studies support that ATP binding to MgtE enhances the intracellular domain affinity for Mg2+ within physiological concentrations of this divalent cation, enabling MgtE to function as an in vivo Mg2+ sensor. ATP dissociation from MgtE upregulates Mg2+ influx at both high and low intracellular Mg2+ concentrations. Using site-directed mutagenesis and structure based-electrophysiological and biochemical analyses, we identify key residues and main structural changes involved in the process. This work provides the molecular basis of ATP-dependent modulation of MgtE in Mg2+ homeostasis.MgtE is an Mg2+ transporter involved in Mg2+ homeostasis. Here, the authors report that ATP regulates the Mg+2-dependent gating of MgtE and use X-ray crystallography combined with functional studies to propose the molecular mechanisms involved in this process.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Antiporters/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Homeostase , Magnésio/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antiporters/química , Antiporters/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Thermus thermophilus/genética , Thermus thermophilus/metabolismo
18.
J Clin Invest ; 127(5): 1960-1977, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414296

RESUMO

Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) interacts with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and the immunostimulatory molecule CD80 and functions as a checkpoint to regulate immune responses. The interaction of PD-L1 with CD80 alone has been shown to exacerbate the severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), whereas costimulation of CD80 and PD-1 ameliorates GVHD. Here we have demonstrated that temporary depletion of donor CD4+ T cells early after hematopoietic cell transplantation effectively prevents GVHD while preserving strong graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects in allogeneic and xenogeneic murine GVHD models. Depletion of donor CD4+ T cells increased serum IFN-γ but reduced IL-2 concentrations, leading to upregulation of PD-L1 expression by recipient tissues and donor CD8+ T cells. In GVHD target tissues, the interactions of PD-L1 with PD-1 on donor CD8+ T cells cause anergy, exhaustion, and apoptosis, thereby preventing GVHD. In lymphoid tissues, the interactions of PD-L1 with CD80 augment CD8+ T cell expansion without increasing anergy, exhaustion, or apoptosis, resulting in strong GVL effects. These results indicate that the outcome of PD-L1-mediated signaling in CD8+ T cells depends on the presence or absence of CD4+ T cells, the nature of the interacting receptor expressed by CD8+ T cells, and the tissue environment in which the signaling occurs.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Efeito Enxerto vs Leucemia/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Efeito Enxerto vs Leucemia/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15034, 2017 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28447668

RESUMO

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped multiple independent cancer susceptibility loci to chr5p15.33. Here, we show that fine-mapping of pancreatic and testicular cancer GWAS within one of these loci (Region 2 in CLPTM1L) focuses the signal to nine highly correlated SNPs. Of these, rs36115365-C associated with increased pancreatic and testicular but decreased lung cancer and melanoma risk, and exhibited preferred protein-binding and enhanced regulatory activity. Transcriptional gene silencing of this regulatory element repressed TERT expression in an allele-specific manner. Proteomic analysis identifies allele-preferred binding of Zinc finger protein 148 (ZNF148) to rs36115365-C, further supported by binding of purified recombinant ZNF148. Knockdown of ZNF148 results in reduced TERT expression, telomerase activity and telomere length. Our results indicate that the association with chr5p15.33-Region 2 may be explained by rs36115365, a variant influencing TERT expression via ZNF148 in a manner consistent with elevated TERT in carriers of the C allele.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Telomerase/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Telomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Telomerase/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 46(5): 1535-1539, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27689921

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated. Two fetuses were born, and neonatal MRI was performed. One fetus was terminated. RESULTS: A characteristic dilated structure in the midline of the brain presented in each fetus. The arteriovenous fistula led to anatomical brain changes such as in the hydrocephalus, dilated feeding vessels (one or more), jugular vein, and/or superior vena cava. Substantial brachiocephalic vessel dilation was observed in two fetuses. Following parturition, one baby had neonatal asphyxia and sinus thrombosis, and MRI revealed hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Cardiomegaly was detected in all three cases. CONCLUSION: With a large field of view, fetal MRI can observe brain VGAM, as well as the heart and affected large vessels. It can determine hydrocephalus, ischemia, intracranial hemorrhage, and sinus thrombosis. Providing such information on the infant's entire body can aid clinicians in determining the most appropriate treatment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1535-1539.


Assuntos
Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Fístula Arteriovenosa , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Cerebrais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
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