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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2015, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072069

RESUMO

Trichinella infection can induce macrophages into the alternatively activated phenotype, which is primarily associated with the development of a polarized Th2 immune response. In the present study, we examined the immunomodulatory effect of T. spiralis thioredoxin peroxidase-2 (TsTPX2), a protein derived from T. spiralis ES products, in the regulation of Th2 response through direct activation of macrophages. The location of TsTPX2 was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. The immune response in vivo induced by rTsTPX2 was characterized by analyzing the Th2 cytokines and Th1 cytokines in the peripheral blood. The rTsTPX2-activated macrophages (MrTsTPX2) were tested for polarization, their ability to evoke naïve CD4+ T cells, and resistance to the larval infection after adoptive transfer in BALB/c mice. The immunolocalization analysis showed TsTPX2 in cuticles and stichosome of T. spiralis ML. The immunostaining was detected in cuticles and stichosome of T. spiralis Ad3 and ML, as well as in tissue-dwellings around ML after the intestines and muscle tissues of infected mice were incubated with anti-rTsTPX2 antibody. Immunization of BALB/c mice with rTsTPX2 could induce a Th1-suppressing mixed immune response given the increased levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) production along with the decreased levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α). In vitro studies showed that rTsTPX2 could directly drive RAW264.7 and peritoneal macrophages to the M2 phenotype. Moreover, MrTsTPX2 could promote CD4+ T cells polarized into Th2 type in vitro. Adoptive transfer of MrTsTPX2 into mice suppressed Th1 responses by enhancing Th2 responses and exhibited a 44.7% reduction in adult worm burden following challenge with T. spiralis infective larval, suggesting that the TsTPX2 is a potential vaccine candidate against trichinosis. Our study showed that TsTPX2 would be at least one of the molecules to switch macrophages into the M2 phenotype during T. spiralis infection, which provides a new therapeutic approach to various inflammatory disorders like allergies or autoimmune diseases.

2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 6013-6017, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019342

RESUMO

To bridge the gap between the biological sciences (typically female-dominated) and engineering (typically male-dominated), biomedical engineering (BME) activities could potentially be used as a vehicle to alter female students' perception of engineering as a whole. Female's pursuit of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) degrees is typically confined to the biological sciences and females earn a high proportion of degrees in nursing, psychology and the social sciences, yet male presence persists in physical sciences and engineering. Female's participation in engineering remains much lower than men at all degree levels. Here, research questions included do female high school students: 1) perceive engineering as relevant? 2) have an interest & aptitude towards exploring engineering in college and as a career? 3) have anxiety in terms of engineering? 4) have engineering "role-confidence"? Participants, a randomly selected pool of 28 high school students (almost exclusively female from schools throughout the DC Metro area) took part in a week-long, all-day workshop where they were exposed to female engineering mentors, peers, and activities tied to BME & Engineering. Pre and post surveys, adapted from standard STEM surveys, were administered to the pool of participants. Increases in confidence and interest in engineering and decreased anxiety were observed following female high school students' participation in hands-on activities in BME.


Assuntos
Engenharia Biomédica , Engenharia , Engenharia Biomédica/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Tecnologia , Universidades
3.
Parasitology ; : 1-16, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092662

RESUMO

Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia hydatigena formerly referred to as Cysticercus tenuicollis is a disease of veterinary importance that constitutes a significant threat to livestock production worldwide, especially in endemic regions due to condemnation of visceral organs and mortality rate of infected young animals. While the genetic diversity among parasites is found to be potentially useful in many areas of research including molecular diagnostics, epidemiology and control, that of T. hydatigena across the globe remains poorly understood. In this study, analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of adult worms and larval stages of T. hydatigena isolated from dogs, sheep and a wild boar in China showed that the population structure consists of two major haplogroups with very high nucleotide substitutions involving synonymous and non-synonymous changes. Compared with other cestodes such as Echinococcus spp., the genetic variation observed between the haplogroups is sufficient for the assignment of major haplotype or genotype division as both groups showed a total of 166 point-mutation differences between the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences. Preliminary analysis of a nuclear protein-coding gene (pepck) did not reveal any peculiar changes between both groups which suggests that these variants may only differ in their mitochondrial makeup.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876426

RESUMO

Sodium layered transition-metal oxides have attracted great attention for advanced Na-ion batteries (NIBs) because of their rich structural diversity and superior specific capacity provided by not only cation redox reactions but also possible oxygen-related anionic redox reactions. However, they usually undergo severe electrochemical performance fading, especially the voltage retention during the cationic and anionic redox processes. Herein, we design and synthesize a couple of novel sodium lithium magnesium aluminum manganese oxides (Na0.75Li0.2Mg0.05Al0.05Mn0.7O2) with the same Na+ coordination environment but different oxide layer stacking sequences, namely, P2-NLMAMO and P3-NLMAMO. We systematically investigate and compare the voltage decay phenomenon and the cationic/anionic redox processes under different electrochemical cycling windows combined with ex situ hard and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. The results clearly indicate that the P2-NLMAMO electrode with a lower extent of Mn redox is prone to deliver a superior capacity retention and rate performance, more importantly, a higher average voltage in contrast to the P3-type counterpart. In addition, negligible change is detected for the average discharge voltage upon extended cycling when increasing the discharge cutoff voltage to 2.5 V for both P2-NLMAMO and P3-NLMAMO. This unique feature work provides an effective strategy for developing high-capacity P-type layered cathodes based on both cationic and anionic redox chemistry under controlled crystal structure arrangement, which could lead to a deeper understanding of the correlation between crystal structure and electrochemical performance for NIBs.

5.
Cell Prolif ; 53(10): e12907, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tissue engineering is a promising strategy for repair of large bone defect. However, the immune system reactions to biological scaffold are increasingly being recognized as a crucial factor influencing regeneration efficacy. In this study, a bone-bioactive hydrogel bead loaded with interleukin-4 (IL-4) was used to regulate macrophages polarization and accelerate bone regeneration. METHODS: IL-4-loaded calcium-enriched gellan gum (Ca-GG + IL-4) hydrogel beads were synthesised. And the effect on cell behaviour was detected. Furthermore, the effect of the Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead on macrophage polarization and the effect of macrophage polarization on bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) apoptosis and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: BMSCs were able to survive in the hydrogel regardless of whether IL-4 was incorporated. Immunofluorescence staining and qPCR results revealed that Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead could promote M2 macrophage polarization and increase transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 expression level, which activates the TGF-ß1/Smad signalling pathway in BMSCs and promotes osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead could promote M2 macrophage polarization and reduce cell apoptosis in vivo. In addition, micro-CT and immunohistochemical analysis at 12 weeks post-surgery showed that Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead could achieve superior bone defect repair efficacy in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: The Ca-GG + IL-4 hydrogel bead effectively promoted bone defect regeneration via regulating macrophage polarization, reducing cell apoptosis and promoting BMSCs osteogenesis through TGF-ß1/Smad pathway. Therefore, it is a promising strategy for repair of bone defect.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/química , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Interleucina-4/química , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
6.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(16): 3408-3417, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223137

RESUMO

Although the crystal structures for many inorganic compounds are readily available, researchers are still working hard to understand the relations between the structures and chemical properties of solutions because most of the chemical reactions take place in solutions. A huge amount of effort has been put toward modeling the ion solvation structure from the perspectives of both experiments and theories. In this study, the solvation structures of Ca2+ ions in aqueous and alcoholic solutions at different concentrations were carefully evaluated by Ca K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also performed to correlate the results with the experimental data and then further extended to other similar systems. It was found that the number of coordinating solvent molecules decreases with increasing Ca2+ concentration and increasing solvent molecule sizes. From the EXAFS data, it was observed that the first solvation shell of Ca2+ splits into two Ca-O distances in a methanol solution and the counter ion Cl- might also be within the first shell at high concentrations. For the first time, the effects of solvents with different polarities and sizes on the ion solvation environment were systematically evaluated.

8.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(6): 1072-1078, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as promising cancer biomarkers. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prognostic significance of miR-200c in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expression levels of miR-200c in 204 pairs of OSCC and adjacent noncancerous. Correlations between miR-200c expression levels and clinicopathological characteristics were investigated. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was performed with a Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: The expression of miR-200c was significantly down-regulated in OSCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.0001). Low expression of miR-200c in tumor tissues was significantly correlated with the positive N classification (p = 0.013), advanced TNM stage (p = 0.007) and poor differentiation grade (p = 0.026). Lower miR-200c expression in patients was significantly associated with poor recurrence-free survival (RFS, p = 0.0003) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.0026). Multivariate analysis confirmed that low miR-200c expression was an independent predictor for poor RFS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.705, 95% CI 1.136-2.56, p = 0.01) and OS (HR 1.669, 95% CI 1.03-2.703, p = 0.037) in patients with OSCC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the miR-200c might be a potential prognostic biomarker for OSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Acta Trop ; 211: 105439, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156616

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including cattle, causing serious disease to animals and humans. Because cattle provide milk and meat for humans, an increasing number of people are raising cattle as a source of income. However, T. gondii may be transmitted to humans through the meat and milk of cattle. Although substantial relevant studies have been performed, overall data on the seroprevalence of T. gondii in cattle is still lacking. In this meta-analysis, 71 relevant studies were included from five databases that investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in cattle in China from 2010 to 2019. The overall pooled T. gondii seroprevalence in cattle was 10.1% (4217/39,274) in China. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was highest in southwestern China (21.6%, 727/3117) and lowest in northern China (4.5%, 185/1966). Due to the implementation of disease control measures during 2012 to 2020, the lowest positive rate was seen in the post-2017 subgroup of sampling years (5.8%, 170/3022). In the cattle breeds subgroups, the seroprevalence was highest in yaks (14.3%, 1695/10,777). Cattle aged ≥12 months (9.6%, 1248/12,438) had a higher seroprevalence than those <12 months (6.7%, 226/3132). Female cattle had a slightly higher seroprevalence (12.5%, 793/6670) than male cattle (11.7%, 418/3856). The seroprevalence in summer (11.8%, 517/4744) was the highest of all seasons. The present study shows that T. gondii is common in cattle in China. Therefore, monitoring measures and further research are needed to control T. gondii and improve public health.

11.
Anal Chem ; 92(4): 3373-3379, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941278

RESUMO

Single-atom nanozymes (SAzymes), as novel nanozymes with atomically dispersed active sites, are of great importance in the development of nanozymes for their high catalytic activities, the maximum utilization efficiency of metal atoms, and the simple model of active sites. Herein, the peroxidase-like SAzymes with high-concentration Cu sites on carbon nanosheets (Cu-N-C) were synthesized through a salt-template strategy. With the densely distributed active Cu atoms (∼5.1 wt %), the Cu-N-C SAzymes exhibit remarkable activity to mimic natural peroxidase. Integrating Cu-N-C SAzymes with natural acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase, three-enzyme-based cascade reaction system was constructed for the colorimetric detection of acetylcholine and organophosphorus pesticides. This work not only provides a strategy to synthesize SAzymes with abundant active sites but also gives some new insights for robust nanozyme biosensing systems.

12.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(1): 51-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368858

RESUMO

Chlamydia, a kind of obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, can infect humans and animals worldwide, including pigs. However, the information on Chlamydia infection is unavailable in pigs in Shandong province, eastern China. To assess the seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Shandong province, eastern China, a total of 2108 serum samples of slaughter pigs were collected between January 2017 and December 2018, and specific antibodies against Chlamydia were detected by the indirect hemagglutination assay. The overall Chlamydia seroprevalence was 24.15% (509/2108, 95% confidence interval: 22.32-25.97). Species, sampling regions, and rearing systems of pigs were considered as risk factors for Chlamydia infection through statistical analysis by SAS analysis (p < 0.05). These results indicated that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in slaughter pigs in Shandong province, eastern China, and may pose a potential risk for human health. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of Chlamydia seroprevalence in slaughter pigs in Shandong province, eastern China. Moreover, this is the first report to compare the Chlamydia seroprevalence between domestic pigs and farmed wild boars in a same study, which may provide important data for preventing and controlling Chlamydia infection in pigs in China.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 109999, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812824

RESUMO

In the present study, we performed a cross-sectional survey to determine the occurrence and genotype distribution of T. gondii DNA in soil samples collected from different sources from six geographic regions in China. Between March 2015 and June 2017, 2100 soil samples were collected from schools, parks, farms and coastal beaches, and examined for T. gondii DNA using three PCR assays targeting 529-bp repeat element (RE) sequence, B1 gene and ITS-1 gene sequences. Also, we investigated whether geographic region, soil source and type, and sampling season can influence the prevalence of T. gondii DNA in the soil. Soil samples collected from farms and parks had the highest prevalence, whereas samples collected from school playgrounds and coastal beaches had the lowest prevalence. PCR assays targeting 529-bp RE and ITS-1 gene sequences were more sensitive than the B1 gene-based assay. Positive PCR products were genotyped using multi-locus PCR-RFLP, and ToxoDB #9 was the predominant genotype found in the contaminated soil samples. Multiple logistic regression identified factors correlated significantly with the presence of T. gondii DNA in the soil to be the source of the soil, including farms (odds ratio 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52 to 6.29; p = 0.002) and parks (2.59; 95% CI 1.28 to 5.27; p = 0.009). These results show that Chinese soil hosts T. gondii of the most prevalent genotype in China (ToxoDB#9) and that the soil type influences infection patterns.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/análise , Solo/química , Toxoplasma/genética , China , Estudos Transversais , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
14.
Genomics ; 112(2): 1853-1860, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678151

RESUMO

To increase the current understanding of the gene-expression profiles in different skin regions associated with different coat colors and identify key genes for the regulation of color patterns in goats, we used the Illumina RNA-Seq method to compare the skin transcriptomes of the black- and white-coated regions containing hair follicles from the Boer and Macheng Black crossbred goat, which has a black head and a white body. Six cDNA libraries derived from skin samples of the white-coated region (n = 3) and black-coated region (n = 3) were constructed from three full-sib goats. On average, we obtained approximately 76.5 and 73.5 million reads for skin samples from black- and white-coated regions, respectively, of which 75.39% and 76.05% were covered in the genome database. A total of 165 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between these two color regions, among which 110 were upregulated and 55 were downregulated in the skin samples of white- vs. black-coated regions. The results of Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of these DEGs may play an important role in controlling the pigmentation of skin or hair follicles. We identified three key DEGs, i.e., Agouti, DCT, and TYRP1, in the pathway related to melanogenesis in the different skin regions of the crossbred goat. DCT and TYRP1 were downregulated and Agouti was upregulated in the skin of the white-coated region, suggesting a lack of mature melanocytes in this region and that Agouti might play a key developmental role in color-pattern formation. All data sets (Gene Expression Omnibus) are available via public repositories. In addition, MC1R was genotyped in 200 crossbred goats with a black head and neck. Loss-of-function mutations in MC1R as well as homozygosity for the mutant alleles were widely found in this population. The MC1R gene did not seem to play a major role in determining the black head and neck in our crossbred goats. Our study provides insights into the transcriptional regulation of two distinct coat colors, which might serve as a key resource for understanding coat color pigmentation in goats. The region-specific expression of Agouti may be associated with the distribution of pigments across the body in Boer and Macheng Black crossbred goats.

16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 502, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium viatorum is a minor Cryptosporidium pathogen in humans. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and genotypes of C. viatorum in animals in China. METHODS: In this study, 228 faecal samples were collected from two wild rat species (Leopoldamys edwardsi and Berylmys bowersi) in Chongqing Municipality and Guangdong Province, China. These specimens were analyzed for C. viatorum and then subtyped it using PCR and sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and 60-kilodalton glycoprotein (gp60) genes, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 25 (11.0%) faecal samples were tested positive for C. viatorum by SSU rRNA assay. Of these samples, 4 (3.6%) came from L. edwardsi and 21 (18.0%) from B. bowersi. Of the 25 C. viatorum-positive samples, 17 were successfully amplified at the gp60 gene locus, which represented four subtypes belonging to two subtype families, including XVa (XVaA6, XVaA3g, XVaA3h) and XVc (XVcA2G1). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gp60 amino acid sequences indicated that all of the C. viatorum isolates grouped together, supporting the conclusion that C. viatorum from the wild rats represent two subtype families. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate an occurrence of C. viatorum XVa subtype family from rats which is genetically identical to those found in humans. Our findings suggest that wild rats may be a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Murinae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/química , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Sialoglicoproteínas/química , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 854, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, and Dipylidium caninum are four common large and medium-sized tapeworms parasitizing the small intestine of dogs and other canids. These parasites cause serious impact on the health and development of livestock. However, there are, so far, no commercially available molecular diagnostic kits capable of simultaneously detecting all four parasites in dogs. The aim of the study was therefore to develop a multiplex PCR assay that will accurately detect all four cestode infections in one reaction. METHODS: Specific primers for a multiplex PCR were designed based on corresponding mitochondrial genome sequences, and its detection limit was assessed by serial dilutions of the genomic DNAs of tapeworms examined. Furthermore, field samples of dog feces were tested using the developed assay. RESULTS: A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that accurately and simultaneously identify four cestode species in one reaction using specific fragment sizes of 592, 385, 283, and 190 bp for T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, and D. caninum, respectively. The lowest DNA concentration detected was 1 ng for T. hydatigena, T. multiceps and T. pisiformis, and 0.1 ng for D. caninum in a 25 µl reaction system. This assay offers high potential for the rapid detection of these four tapeworms in host feces simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an efficient tool for the simultaneous detection of T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. pisiformis, and D. caninum. The assay will be potentially useful in epidemiological studies, diagnosis, and treatment of these four cestodes infections during prevention and control program.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Cães
18.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(6): 85-90, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472052

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of gentiopicrin on the expressions of inflammatory factors in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLS) and the underlying mechanism. Human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLS) were cultured in vitro at 37 °C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) in a humidified incubator containing 5 % CO2. Cell viability was determined using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expressions of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNAs. The expressions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were determined using Western blotting. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of IL-1ß and IL-6 in cell lysate. Treatment with 5-25 µM gentiopicrin did not significantly affect the number of viable cells, when compared with control group (p > 0.05). However, at 50 and 100 µM gentiopicrin, the number of viable cells were significantly increased, relative to control group (p < 0.05). Results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression levels of IL-1ß and IL-6 mRNAs were significantly higher in TNF-α group than in control group (p < 0.05). However, treatment with gentiopicrin significantly and dose-dependently decreased their expression levels compared with TNF-α group (p < 0.05). Western blotting results showed that the expressions of p-p38MAPK and NF-κB-p65 proteins were significantly upregulated in TNF-α group, when compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, treatment with gentiopicrin significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated the expression of these proteins compared with TNF-α group (p < 0.05). The levels of IL-1ß and IL-6 in cell lysate were significantly higher in TNF-α group than in control group (p < 0.05). However, treatment with gentiopicrin, and p38MAPK/NF-κB pathway inhibitors (SB203580 and BAY11-7082) significantly reduced the levels of these inflammatory factors compared with TNF-α group (p < 0.05).  Gentiopicrin has therapeutic potential for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA  ) through a mechanism involving the inhibition of p38MAPK/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sinoviócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Glucosídeos Iridoides/administração & dosagem , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
19.
Microb Pathog ; 136: 103687, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442572

RESUMO

Mussels, randomly collected from fish markets in China, were analyzed by a semi-nested PCR to detect B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii. Out of the 2215 samples, fifty-five (2.48%) were detected T. gondii-positive. The prevalence in Shandong province, Liaoning province and Zhejiang province were 2.51%, 2.26% and 2.69%, respectively. T. gondii oocysts were more frequently detected in digestive glands (1.04%) and haemolymph (1.49%) when compared with gills (0.23%). Of the 55 positive DNA, only two samples showed complete genotype at 11 locus and were authenticated as ToxoDB Genotype #9. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to confirm the presence of T. gondii in market-sold mussels in China. The findings point to the risk of humans acquiring T. gondii infection by consuming mussels bought in the aquatic product market.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Mytilus edulis/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Estruturas Animais/parasitologia , Animais , China , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(29): 16230-16239, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298262

RESUMO

Understanding the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) dependence on the reaction environment pH is important to find alternative strategies to define an optimal pH value for high electrocatalytic activity. SrCoO2.5 films with the brownmillerite phase are investigated in this study for their strain effects on the OER activity, with particular regard to the pH dependence. Pulsed laser deposited films with different thicknesses and, thus, strain conditions, are characterized in terms of long range and near-order structural properties and electrochemical OER activity. By comparison, more strained thinner films have smaller OER current at lower pH conditions, but higher sensitivity to the environment pH. Spectroscopic measurements allow us to correlate such behaviors to the Co 3d-O 2p hybridization effects of the CoO6 octahedral sites, which lead to a variation of the 3d level electronic occupation. At the same time, density functional theory calculations show that the oxygen vacancy channels of the CoO4 tetrahedral sites are stable with respect to the strain effects. These results provide new perspectives to manipulate the pH dependent OER activity through the strain effects, useful for designing water splitting-based devices with optimized performances.

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