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1.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238780

RESUMO

Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is characterized by complete or partial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, cyatic dilatation of the forth ventricle, and enlarged posterior fossa. However, the mechanism is still not completely understood up to now. In this study, we reported a rare case that a foetus with DWM showed partial trisomy 12p and distal 15q deletion. Karyotype analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were not always concordant with each other, and it is suggested that they should be performed for prenatal genetic diagnosis together. DWM is a rare central nervous system malformation, reported in 1/25-30,000 live births, characterized by complete or partial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, cyatic dilatation of the forth ventricle, and enlarged posterior fossa (Kumar et al. 2001; Klein et al. 2003; Agrawal et al. 2016). The neurological development of children with DWM may range from normal to severely retarded, and cause variable clinical feature. Although several efforts have been made to explore its pathogenesis, however, it is still not completely understood. During the past decade, some genetic loci, microdeletion or duplication have been reported to be associated with DWM, such as 9p trisomy, partial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 13, genes ZIC1 and ZIC4 (von Kaisenberg et al. 2000; McCormack et al. 2003; Grinberg et al. 2004). In the present study, we describe a prenatal diagnosis case that a foetus with DWM on ultrasound scanning accepted genetic testing, and it revealed a microduplication of 12p13.33p11.1 and microdeletion of 15q11.2 in 750K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, while it showed 46,XX,der(8)(8pter→8q24::12p10→12qter),i(12)(p10) in karyotyping.

2.
Future Med Chem ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240624

RESUMO

Studies have shown that the FTO gene is closely related to obesity and weight gain in humans. FTO is an N6-methyladenosine demethylase and is linked to an increased risk of obesity and a variety of diseases, such as acute myeloid leukemia, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, glioblastoma and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. In light of the significant role of FTO, the development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting the FTO protein provides not only a powerful tool for grasping the active site of FTO but also a theoretical basis for the design and synthesis of drugs targeting the FTO protein. This review focuses on the structural characteristics of FTO inhibitors and discusses the occurrence of obesity and cancer caused by FTO gene overexpression.

3.
Pharm Res ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254224

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Topical treatment of various skin disorders requires drug absorption and penetration through the stratum corneum (SC) into the epidermis and dermis tissues. The use of nano-drug delivery systems including liposomes and lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been shown to facilitate SC penetration. The goal of this work was to study the impact of liposome sizes and the resulted drug distribution inside various skin tissue. METHODS: All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was used as the model drug and loaded into gel phase HSPC/CHOL/DSPE-PEG liposomes (lipo-ATRA) with sizes ranging from 80 nm to more than 300 nm. The percutaneous drug absorption process was monitored and analyzed. RESULTS: There were significant differences in percutaneous absorption and tissue distribution resulted from liposomes smaller than 100 nm and those bigger than 200 nm. Lipo-ATRA with a mean diameter of 83 nm can deliver the content to epidermis and dermis. But for 200 nm - 300 nm liposomes, the resulted epidermis and dermis ATRA levels were less than about one third, suggesting bigger liposomes had poor penetration through the brick and mortar structure of SC. CONCLUSIONS: Gel phase liposomes with sizes under 100 nm improved encapsulated drug absorption and distribution into the epidermis and dermis tissues. A size dependent mechanism for liposome penetration of the stratum corneum was proposed.

4.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(15): 1033-1038, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228695

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy and reliability of standing lateral lumbar radiographs for measurements of spinopelvic parameters, compared with whole-spine EOS® images. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Lateral lumbar radiographs are commonly used for measurements of spinopelvic parameters. However, variable magnifications by fan-beam x-ray projection at margins may cause measurement errors. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with standing lateral lumbar radiographs and whole-spine EOS® images were retrospectively reviewed from March to July in 2019. Two orthopedic surgeons (observers) independently measured the spinopelvic parameters including pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), and lumbar lordosis (LL) on the computers. These spinopelvic parameters of each patient were measured twice on both lateral lumbar radiograph and EOS® image by two observers with the usage of Surgimap software. The measurement difference and agreement of each parameter value between lateral lumbar radiographs and EOS® images were analyzed by paired t test and the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. Intra- and inter-observer's reliabilities of both imaging methods were assessed by ICC. RESULTS: The measurement difference of each spinopelvic parameter on EOS® images and lateral lumbar radiographs was less than 1° on average. Only the measurement difference of PI value revealed statistically significant (P = 0.020) with 0.9° discrepancy (95% confidential interval: 0.2-1.6), which indicated no clinical significance. The ICC values of lateral lumbar radiographs and EOS® images were more than 0.870 (range, 0.872-0.976), thus showed good to excellent measurement agreement between both imaging methods. All the ICC values for evaluating intra- and inter-observer reliability were greater than 0.960 (range, 0.963-0.993), indicating excellent reliability for observer's measurements. CONCLUSION: Measurements of spinopelvic parameters (PI, PT, SS, and LL) on standing lateral lumbar radiographs are accurate and reliable, which are comparable to whole-spine EOS® images.Level of Evidence: 3.


Assuntos
Região Lombossacral , Radiografia/normas , Posição Ortostática , Humanos , Região Lombossacral/anatomia & histologia , Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270228

RESUMO

Cyclopenta[b]thiopyran, isomeric to benzo[b]thiophene while isoelectronic to azulene, is involved as a building block to construct soluble organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors. Two series of angular-shaped heteroarenes based on cyclopenta[b]thiopyran, that is, Cn-SS (n = 4, 6, 8, 10) with different linear alkyl groups and C8-SS-Clm (m = 2, 3, 4) with chlorides substituted at different positions, have been straightforward synthesized. The obtained seven S-heteroarenes exhibit intriguing and similar photophysical and electrochemical properties, such as near-infrared absorption and high-energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbitals. Nevertheless, the S-heteroarenes with identical π-conjugated skeletons demonstrate completely different molecular packing structures, which is proofed to be the key determinate factor for the charge carrier mobilities. Upon the engineering of the pendant alkyl lengths, the highest hole mobility in the Cn-SS series is achieved for C8-SS (1.1 cm2 V-1 s-1) with moderate alkyl length. The further incorporation of chlorides on C8-SS results in the shortened intermolecular H···S contacts and the interplane distances. Most interestingly, when chlorine-containing chloroform and chlorobenzene are used as crystallization solvents, single crystals of C8-SS-Clm with different packing structures are produced owing to the intermolecular interactions among the solute and solvent molecules. Upon further engineering of the chlorination position and the crystallization solvent, the maximum hole mobility in the ambient air improves to 2.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 for C8-SS-Cl2 crystallized from chlorobenzene, suggesting that the introduction of the accessible chlorides is a feasible pathway to engineering the crystal structures and controlling the charge transport characteristics.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14511, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267240

RESUMO

Sepsis survivors present long-term cognitive deficits. The present study was to investigate the effect of early administration of high-dose vitamin C on cognitive function in septic rats and explore its possible cerebral protective mechanism. Rat sepsis models were established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Ten days after surgery, the Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the behavior and cognitive function. Histopathologic changes in the hippocampus were evaluated by nissl staining. The inflammatory cytokines, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase or SOD) and oxidative products (malondialdehyde or MDA) in the serum and hippocampus were tested 24 h after surgery. The activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) in the hippocampus were measured 24 h after surgery. Compared with the sham group in the Morris water maze test, the escape latency of sepsis rats was significantly (P = 0.001) prolonged in the navigation test, whereas the frequency to cross the platform and the time spent in the target quadrant were significantly (P = 0.003) reduced. High-dose vitamin C significantly decreased the escape latency (P = 0.01), but increased the time spent in the target quadrant (P = 0.04) and the frequency to cross the platform (P = 0.19). In the CLP+ saline group, the pyramidal neurons were reduced and distributed sparsely and disorderly, the levels of inflammatory cytokines of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 in the serum and hippocampus were significantly increased (P = 0.000), the blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability in the hippocampus was significantly (P = 0.000) increased, the activities of SOD in the serum and hippocampus were significantly (P = 0.000 and P = 0.03, respectively) diminished while the levels of MDA in the serum and hippocampus were significantly (P = 0.007) increased. High-dose vitamin C mitigated hippocampus histopathologic changes, reduced systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation, attenuated BBB disruption, inhibited oxidative stress in brain tissue, and up-regulated the expression of nuclear and total Nrf2 and HO-1. High-dose vitamin C significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), MDA in the serum and hippocampus, and the activity of MMP-9 in the hippocampus, but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the levels of SOD, the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the serum and hippocampus, and nuclear and total Nrf2, and HO-1 in the hippocampus. In conclusion, high-dose vitamin C can improve cognition impairment in septic rats, and the possible protective mechanism may be related to inhibition of inflammatory factors, alleviation of oxidative stress, and activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 939-949, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247108

RESUMO

The root phenotype is an important aspect of plant architecture and plays a critical role in plant facilitation of the extraction of water and nutrition from the soil. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are classes of small RNAs with important roles in regulating endogenous gene expression at the post-transcriptional level that function in a range of plant development processes and in the response to abiotic stresses. However, little is known concerning the molecular mechanism of miRNAs in regulating the generation and development of plant root architecture. Herein, we demonstrated that potato miR160a/b acted as a critical regulator and affected plant root architecture by targeting the mRNA of StARF10 and StARF16 for cleavage. The miR160a/b precursor was cloned from potato. Quantitative PCR assays showed that the expression levels of miR160 and its targets were down- or up-regulated with the development of potato roots, respectively. Moreover, transgenic lines with suppressed stu-miR160 expression were established with the short tandem targets mimic (STTM), and the results showed that the ectopic expression of miR160a/b altered the levels of auxin and the expression of auxin signaling-related genes and caused drastic change in root architecture compared with that in control plants. Suppressing the expression of miR160 led to a severe reduction in root length, an increase in the number of lateral roots, and a decrease in fresh root weight in potato. Collectively, our data established a key role of miR160 in modulating plant root architecture in potato.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148964, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273841

RESUMO

Medical waste (MW) has exploded since the COVID-19 pandemic and aroused great concern to MW disposal. Meanwhile, the energy recovery for MW disposal is necessary due to high heat value of MW. Harmless disposal of MW with economically and environmentally sustainable technologies along with higher energy recovery is urgently required, and their energy recovery efficiencies and environmental impacts reduction due to energy recovery are key issues. In this study, five MW disposal technologies, i.e. rotary kiln incineration, pyrolysis incineration, plasma melting, steam sterilization and microwave sterilization, were evaluated and compared via energy recovery analysis (ERA), life cycle assessment (LCA), and life cycle costing (LCC) methods. Furthermore, three MW incineration technologies with further energy recovery and two sterilization followed by co-incineration technologies were analyzed to explore their improvement potential of energy recovery and environment benefits via scenario analysis. ERA results reveal that the energy recovery efficiencies of "steam and microwave sterilization + incineration" are the highest (≥83.4%), while that of the plasma melting is the lowest (19.2%). LCA results show that "microwave sterilization + landfill" outperforms others while the plasma melting exhibits the worst, electricity is the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts of five technologies. Scenario analysis shows that the overall environmental impact of all technologies reduced by at least 45% after further heat utilization. LCC results demonstrate that pyrolysis incineration delivers the lowest economic cost, while plasma melting is the highest. Co-incineration of sterilized MW and municipal solid waste could be recommended.

9.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(1): 15-19, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247998

RESUMO

Thyroid dysfunction is an important factor to cause failure in assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedures. In this study, we recorded the serum level of thyroid autoantibody to fig. out its relationship with the ART outcome. The results showed that the serum concentrations of TSH had a statistically significant increase between the basal level and the levels at time of serum pregnancy test both in women with and without thyroid autoantibody (p= 0.002 and p=0.019, respectively). Additionally, the TSH level increased significantly in thyroid autoantibody-positive group than those in thyroid autoantibody-negative group during controlled ovarian hyper stimulation (COH) process(p = 0.006). The risk of preterm delivery was lower in thyroid autoantibody-negative group. In sum, the present study provided evidence of an association between thyroid autoantibody and preterm delivery in euthyroid women.

10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2101230, 2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250753

RESUMO

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is highly heterogeneous. Here, the authors perform exome sequencing and bulk RNA sequencing on 73 tumor regions from 14 ICC patients to portray the multi-faceted intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) landscape of ICC. The authors show that ITH is highly concordant across genomic, transcriptomic, and immune levels. Comparison of these data to 8 published datasets reveals significantly higher degrees of ITH in ICC than hepatocellular carcinoma. Remarkably, the authors find that high-ITH tumors highly overlap with the IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase)-mutant subgroup (IDH-SG), comprising of IDH-mutated tumors and IDH-like tumors, that is, those IDH-wildtype tumors that exhibit similar molecular profiles to the IDH-mutated ones. Furthermore, IDH-SG exhibits less T cell infiltration and lower T cell cytotoxicity, indicating a colder tumor microenvironment (TME). The higher ITH and colder TME of IDH-SG are successfully validated by single-cell RNA sequencing on 17 503 cells from 4 patients. Collectively, the study shows that IDH mutant subgroup status, rather than IDH mutation alone, is associated with ITH and the TME of ICC tumors. The results highlight that IDH-like patients may also benefit from IDH targeted therapies and provide important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of ICC.

11.
Mar Drugs ; 19(6)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199219

RESUMO

Natural astaxanthin helps reduce the negative effects caused by oxidative stress and other related factors, thereby minimizing oxidative damage. Therefore, it has considerable potential and broad application prospects in human health and animal nutrition. Haematococcus pluvialis is considered to be the most promising cell factory for the production of natural astaxanthin. Previous studies have confirmed that nonmotile cells of H. pluvialis are more tolerant to high intensity of light than motile cells. Cultivating nonmotile cells as the dominant cell type in the red stage can significantly increase the overall astaxanthin productivity. However, we know very little about how to induce nonmotile cell formation. In this work, we first investigated the effect of phosphorus deficiency on the formation of nonmotile cells of H. pluvialis, and then investigated the effect of NaCl on the formation of nonmotile cells under the conditions of phosphorus deficiency. The results showed that, after three days of treatment with 0.1% NaCl under phosphorus deficiency, more than 80% of motile cells had been transformed into nonmotile cells. The work provides the most efficient method for the cultivation of H. pluvialis nonmotile cells so far, and it significantly improves the production of H. pluvialis astaxanthin.

12.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114235

RESUMO

Protein ubiquitination is one of the most important posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells, and it is involved in a variety of biological processes, including abiotic stress response. The ubiquitination modification is highly specific, which depends on the accurate recognition of substrate proteins by ubiquitin ligase. Plant U-box (PUB) proteins are a class of ubiquitin ligases, multiple members of which have shown to participate in water-deficit stress in Arabidopsis and rice. U-box gene family and large-scale profiling of the ubiquitome in potato has not been reported to date, although it is one of the most important food crops. The identified 66 U-box genes from the potato genome database were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes. These StPUBs have a large number of tandem repeat sequences. Analysis of gene expression characteristics revealed that many StPUBs responded to abiotic stress. Three hundred and fourteen lys modification sites were identified under PEG-induced drought stress, which were distributed on 200 proteins, with 25 differential ubiquitination modification sites, most of which were up-regulated. The ubiquitination modification in potato protein was enhanced under PEG-induced drought stress, and U-box ubiquitin ligase was involved. This study provides an overall strategy and rich data set to clarify the effects of ubiquitination on potatoes under PEG-induced drought stress and the ubiquitination modification involved in potato U-box genes in response to PEG-induced drought stress.

13.
Cancer Biomark ; 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nuclear pore membrane protein 121 (POM121) is a novel biomarker involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, little is known about the role of POM121 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to detect the expression of POM121 in NSCLC and its relationship with clinicopathologic feature and cell biological behavior, and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The expression of POM121 in NSCLC tissues and para-carcinoma tissues was compared by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis. The relationship between POM121 protein and clinicopathological characteristics in NSCLC was investigated. Roles of POM121 in NSCLC cells were investigated by CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, transwell migration and invasion assay, and in vivo experiments. Variations of signaling pathways were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. RESULTS: The POM121 expression in NSCLC tissues was significantly higher than that in para-carcinoma tissues, both at the mRNA and protein level. The POM121 expression was related to sex, advanced differentiation, tumor diameter, lymph node metastases, distant metastases, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, venous invasion, and perineural invasion in NSCLC. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that NSCLC patients with high POM121 expression had poor overall survival. Downregulation of POM121 inhibited cell proliferation, clone formation, migration and invasion. TGF-ß/SMAD and PI3K/AKT pathways were involved in POM121-induced functional changes in NSCLC cells. CONCLUSION: POM121 plays an oncogenic role in NSCLC through TGF-ß/SMAD and PI3K/AKT pathways. POM121 expression is a potential independent prognostic factor for NSCLC.

14.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140681

RESUMO

Drug discovery focused on target proteins has been a successful strategy, but many diseases and biological processes lack obvious targets to enable such approaches. Here, to overcome this challenge, we describe a deep learning-based efficacy prediction system (DLEPS) that identifies drug candidates using a change in the gene expression profile in the diseased state as input. DLEPS was trained using chemically induced changes in transcriptional profiles from the L1000 project. We found that the changes in transcriptional profiles for previously unexamined molecules were predicted with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.74. We examined three disorders and experimentally tested the top drug candidates in mouse disease models. Validation showed that perillen, chikusetsusaponin IV and trametinib confer disease-relevant impacts against obesity, hyperuricemia and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, respectively. DLEPS can generate insights into pathogenic mechanisms, and we demonstrate that the MEK-ERK signaling pathway is a target for developing agents against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Our findings suggest that DLEPS is an effective tool for drug repurposing and discovery.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142322

RESUMO

The red imported fire ant is one of the world's most devastating invasive species, adversely affecting humans, wildlife, crops, and livestock. To control infestations, chemical pesticides are deployed extensively around the world. However, their extensive use has led to negative effects on the environment and human health. Essential oils, which are safe and ecofriendly, can potentially be used as alternatives to chemical pesticides. In this study, grapefruit essential oils were used as fumigant agents to control red imported fire ants. The crude grapefruit oil (GO1) contained 28 compounds, and the concentrated grapefruit oil (GO2), which was refined from GO1 by vacuum distillation, contained 20 compounds. D-Limonene was the dominant constituent in both GO1 (70.1%) and GO2 (73.96%), and other important constituents included ß-pinene, α-pinene, ß-phellandrene, octanal, d-carvone, α-terpineol, and linalool. Both the essential oils and their individual constituents (α-pinene, α-terpineol, ß-phellandrene, octanal, and d-carvone) showed strong lethal fumigant effects against workers. Workers were more susceptible to GO2 than GO1, and octanal was more toxic to workers as compared with the other four constituents. When antennas of workers were treated with the two oils or the five constituents, their walking and gripping abilities were significantly suppressed, and there was an obvious bending or breaking phenomenon on the sensilla of the antennas. Fumigant activity by grapefruit essential oils and their main compounds were associated with their effects on the walking and gripping behavior of workers, and this confirmed that grapefruit essential oil is a promising, ecofriendly, and safe fumigant for the control of red imported fire ants.

16.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065280

RESUMO

Yongchuan douchi is a traditional fermented soya bean product which is popular in Chinese dishes due to its unique flavor. In this study, the key aroma-active compounds of Yongchuan douchi were characterized by the combined gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with sensory evaluation. In total, 49 aroma compounds were sniffed and identified, and 20 of them with high flavor dilution factors (FD) and odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one were screened by applied aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and quantitated analysis. Finally, aroma recombination and omission experiments were performed and 10 aroma-active compounds were thought to have contributed significantly including 2,3-butanedione (butter, cheese), dimethyl trisulfide (garlic-like), acetic acid (pungent sour), acetylpyrazine (popcorn-like), 3-methylvaleric acid (sweaty), 4-methylvaleric acid (sweaty), 2-mehoxyphenol (smoky), maltol (caramel), γ-nonanolactone (coconut-like), eugenol (woody) and phenylacetic acid (flora). In addition, sensory evaluation showed that the flavor profile of Yongchuan douchi mainly consisted of sauce-like, sour, nutty, smoky, caramel and fruity notes.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Odorantes/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Olfatometria/métodos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148025, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119792

RESUMO

Although the impacts of teleconnection indices on climate metrics such as precipitation and temperature in California have been widely studied, less attention has been given to the impact on integrated climate indices such as chill accumulation. This study investigates the linkages between large-scale teleconnections and winter chill accumulation for specialty crops in California, which may enable more effective and dynamic adaptation to in-season climate variability. Three large-scale teleconnection indices were selected: Oceanic Nino Index (ONI), Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern (PNA), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index to assess their effects on chill accumulation. The Chill Hours Model and Dynamic Model are adopted to calculate chill accumulation in Chill Hours (CH) and Chill Portions (CP) from November to January. Three major crop-producing regions, including the Central Coast, Sacramento Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, are used as the focused regions. Our results suggest CP generally has a stronger response to teleconnection patterns than CH in California. The correlations between chill accumulation and teleconnections are generally weaker during the summer than other seasons, and significant correlation can be observed 2-10 months before the start of the chill accumulation period. Among the three teleconnection indices, ONI is most weakly correlated to chill accumulation in focused regions, while PDO shows the strongest positive correlation and explains up to 39% variability of CP. PNA presents the most widespread negative correlation with chill accumulation. When aggregated to different teleconnection modes, +3.6 above-average CP is expected during ONI positive mode; +2.3 above-average CP is expected during PDO positive mode, while +2.1 above-average CP is expected during PNA negative mode. This study provides insights on early-season chill prediction and feasible management and adaptation strategies, and the methodology presented here can be used to develop decision support tools of risk control for agricultural producers and policymakers.

18.
J Mol Model ; 27(7): 205, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160692

RESUMO

Benefiting from the new strategy of oxidative azo coupling of the N-NH2 moiety, a series of energetic nitrogen-rich molecules with long catenated nitrogen chains have been successfully synthesized. As one of them, the synthesized 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole shows excellent thermal stability, great explosive performance, and special photochromic properties, which has caused widespread concern. To further characterize its performance, the structural, electronic, vibrational, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole were investigated based on the first-principles density functional theory calculations. The obtained structural parameters are consistent with previous results. We used the band structure, density of states, Mulliken charges, bond populations, and electron density to analyze the electronic properties and chemical bonding. The vibrational frequency regions (396.51-3210.12 cm-1) were assigned to the corresponding vibrational modes. Furthermore, mechanical properties of 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole are also calculated. Finally, the thermodynamic properties of 1,1'-azobis-1,2,3-triazole were calculated, including the specific heat at constant volume Cv, temperature*entropy TS, enthalpy H, Gibbs free energy G, and Debye temperature ΘD.

19.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(6): e356-e367, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health impacts of ambient air pollution impose large costs on society. Although all people are exposed to air pollution, the older population (ie, those aged ≥60 years) tends to be disproportionally affected. As a result, there is growing concern about the health impacts of air pollution as many countries undergo rapid population ageing. We investigated the spatial and temporal variation in the economic cost of deaths attributable to ambient air pollution and its interaction with population ageing from 2000 to 2016 at global and regional levels. METHODS: In this global analysis, we developed an age-adjusted measure of the value of a statistical life-year (VSLY) to estimate the economic cost of deaths attributable to ambient PM2·5 pollution using Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 data and country-level socioeconomic information. First, we estimated the global age-specific and cause-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) attributable to PM2·5 pollution using the global exposure mortality model and global estimates of exposure at 0·1°â€ˆ× 0·1° (about 11 km × 11 km at the equator) resolution. Second, for each year between 2000 and 2016, we translated the YLLs within each age group into a health-related cost using a country-specific, age-adjusted measure of VSLY. Third, we decomposed the major driving factors that contributed to the temporal change in health costs related to PM2·5. Finally, we did a sensitivity test to analyse the variability of the estimated health costs to four alternative valuation measures. We identified the uncertainty intervals (UIs) from 1000 draws of the parameters and concentration-response functions by age, cause, country, and year. All economic values are reported in 2011 purchasing power parity-adjusted US dollars. All simulations were done with R, version 3.6.0. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2016, PM2·5 was estimated to have caused 8·42 million (95% UI 6·50-10·52) attributable deaths, which was associated with 163·68 million (116·03-219·44) YLLs. In 2016, the global economic cost of deaths attributable to ambient PM2·5 pollution for the older population was US$2·40 trillion (1·89-2·93) accounting for 59% (59-60) of the cost for the total population ($4·09 trillion [3·19-5·05]). The economic cost per capita for the older population was $2739 (2160-3345) in 2016, which was 10 times that of the younger population (ie, those aged <60 years). By assessing the factors that contributed to economic costs, we found that increases in these factors changed the total economic cost by 77% for gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, 21% for population ageing, 16% for population growth, -41% for age-specific mortality, and -0·4% for PM2·5 exposure. INTERPRETATION: The economic cost of ambient PM2·5 borne by the older population almost doubled between 2000 and 2016, driven primarily by GDP growth, population ageing, and population growth. Compared with younger people, air pollution leads to disproportionately higher health costs among older people, even after accounting for their relatively shorter life expectancy and increased disability. As the world's population is ageing, the disproportionate health cost attributable to ambient PM2·5 pollution potentially widens the health inequities for older people. Countries with severe air pollution and rapid ageing rates need to take immediate actions to improve air quality. In addition, strategies aimed at enhancing health-care services, especially targeting the older population, could be beneficial for reducing the health costs of ambient air pollution. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, and Qiushi Foundation.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3903, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281719

RESUMO

While mass-scale vaccination campaigns are ongoing worldwide, genomic surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to monitor the emergence and global spread of viral variants of concern (VOC). Here, we present a streamlined workflow-COVseq-which can be used to generate highly multiplexed sequencing libraries compatible with Illumina platforms from hundreds of SARS-CoV-2 samples in parallel, in a rapid and cost-effective manner. We benchmark COVseq against a standard library preparation method (NEBNext) on 29 SARS-CoV-2 positive samples, reaching 95.4% of concordance between single-nucleotide variants detected by both methods. Application of COVseq to 245 additional SARS-CoV-2 positive samples demonstrates the ability of the method to reliably detect emergent VOC as well as its compatibility with downstream phylogenetic analyses. A cost analysis shows that COVseq could be used to sequence thousands of samples at less than 15 USD per sample, including library preparation and sequencing costs. We conclude that COVseq is a versatile and scalable method that is immediately applicable for SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance and easily adaptable to other pathogens such as influenza viruses.

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