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1.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21871, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473374

RESUMO

Recent investigations of gut microbiota have contributed to understanding of the critical role of microbial community in pathophysiology. Dysbiosis not only causes disturbance directly to the gastrointestinal tract but also affects the liver through gut-liver axis. Various types of dysbiosis have been documented in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis, and may be crucial for the initiation, progression, or deterioration to end-stage liver disease. A few microbial species have been identified as the causal factors leading to these chronic illnesses that either do not have clear etiologies or lack effective treatment. Notably, cytolysin-producing Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus gallinarum were defined for ALD, NASH, and AIH, respectively. These groundbreaking discoveries drive a rapid development in innovative therapeutics, such as fecal microbial transplantation and implementation of specific bacteriophages in addition to prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics for intervention of dysbiosis. Although most emerging interventions are in preclinical development or early clinical trials, a better delineation of specific dysbiosis in these disorders at metabolic, immunogenic, or molecular levels in establishing particular causal effects aids in modulating or correcting the microbial community which is the part of daily life for human being.

2.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 379, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family functions in immune response to viral infection, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been inspected before. This study tries to investigate members of IRF family using bioinformatics approaches in aspect of differential expressions, biological function, tumor immune infiltration and clinical prognostic value for patients with CRC. METHODS: Transcriptome profiles data, somatic mutations and clinical information of CRC were obtained from COAD/READ dataset of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) as a training set. Gene expression data (GSE17536 and GSE39582) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus as a validating set. A random forest algorithm was used to score the risk for every case. Analyzing gene and function enrichment, constructing protein-protein interaction and noncoding RNA network, identifying hub-gene, characterizing tumor immune infiltration, evaluating differences in tumor mutational burden (TMB) and sensitivity to chemotherapeutics or immunotherapy were performed by a series of online tools and R packages. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examinations were carried out validation in tissue samples. RESULTS: Principal-component analysis (PCA) suggested that the transcript expression levels of nine members of IRF family differed between normal colorectum and CRC. The risk score constructed by IRF family not only acted as an independent factor for predicting survival in CRC patients with different biological processes, signaling pathways and TMB, but also indicated different immunotherapy response with diverse immune and stromal cells infiltration. IRF3 and IRF7 were upregulated in CRC and suggested a shorter survival time in patients with CRC. Differentially expressed members of IRF family exhibited varying degrees of immune cell infiltration. IHC analysis showed a positive association between IRF3 and IRF7 expression and tumor-infiltrating immune cells, including CD4+ T cell and CD68+ macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: On account of differential expression, IRF family members can help to predict both response to immunotherapy and clinical prognosis of patients with CRC. Our bioinformatic investigation not only gives a preliminary picture of the genetic features as well as tumor microenvironment, but it may provide a clue for further experimental exploration and verification on IRF family members in CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 347, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are immunosuppressive cells that contribute to impaired anti-cancer immunity. Iron plays a critical role in regulating macrophage function. However, it is still elusive whether it can drive the functional polarization of macrophages in the context of cancer and how tumor cells affect the iron-handing properties of TAM. In this study, using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a study model, we aimed to explore the effect and mechanism of reduced ferrous iron in TAM. METHODS: TAM from HCC patients and mouse HCC tissues were collected to analyze the level of ferrous iron. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess M1 or M2 signature genes of macrophages treated with iron chelators. A co-culture system was established to explore the iron competition between macrophages and HCC cells. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to determine the holo-transferrin uptake of macrophages. HCC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were enrolled to evaluate the prognostic value of transferrin receptor (TFRC) and its relevance to tumor-infiltrating M2 macrophages. RESULTS: We revealed that ferrous iron in M2-like TAM is lower than that in M1-like TAM. In vitro analysis showed that loss of iron-induced immunosuppressive M2 polarization of mouse macrophages. Further experiments showed that TFRC, the primary receptor for transferrin-mediated iron uptake, was overexpressed on HCC cells but not TAM. Mechanistically, HCC cells competed with macrophages for iron to upregulate the expression of M2-related genes via induction of HIF-1α, thus contributing to M2-like TAM polarization. We further clarified the oncogenic role of TFRC in HCC patients by TCGA. TFRC is significantly increased in varieties of malignancies, including HCC, and HCC patients with high TFRC levels have considerably shortened overall survival. Also, TFRC is shown to be positively related to tumor-infiltrating M2 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, we identified iron starvation through TFRC-mediated iron competition drives functional immunosuppressive polarization of TAM, providing new insight into the interconnection between iron metabolism and tumor immunity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Ferro , Camundongos , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor
4.
Liver Int ; 40(4): 830-843, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is challenging, because suppressing fibrotic progression has not been achieved consistently by drug candidates currently in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular interplays underlying NASH-associated fibrosis in a mouse NASH model and human specimens. METHODS: Mice were divided into 4 groups: Controls; NASH (high fat/Calorie diet plus high fructose and glucose in drinking water, HFCD-HF/G) for 16 weeks; HFCD-HF/G plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 16 or 8 weeks. RESULTS: Along with NASH progression, fibrotic deposition was documented in HFCD-HF/G-fed mice. Liver succinate content was significantly increased along with decreased expression of succinate dehydrogenase-A (SDH-A) in these mice; whereas, GPR-91 receptor expression was much enhanced in histology compared to control mice, and co-localized histologically with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Succinate content was increased in fatty acid-overloaded primary hepatocytes with significant oxidant stress and lipotoxicity. Exposure to succinate led to up-regulation of GPR-91 receptor in primary and immortalized HSCs. In contrast, suppression of GPR-91 receptor expression abolished succinate stimulatory role in GPR-91 expression and extracellular matrix production in HSCs. All these changes were minimized or abrogated by DHA supplementation in vivo or in vitro. Moreover, GPR-91 receptor expression correlates with severity of fibrosis in human NASH biopsy specimens. CONCLUSION: Succinate accumulation in steatotoic hepatocytes may result in HSC activation through GPR-91 receptor signalling in NASH progression, and the cross-talk between hepatocytes and HSC through GPR-91 signalling is most likely to be the molecular basis of fibrogenesis in NASH.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Fibrose , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Ácido Succínico
5.
J Dig Dis ; 20(10): 547-556, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lactulose is effective in the treatment and prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), but there are limited data on its use on microbiota in relations to minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) recovery. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of lactulose in recovery of MHE in aspects of cognitive function, quality of life, and impact on intestinal microbiota. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted in 11 teaching hospitals in China. Participants were randomly allocated on a 2:1 basis to receive lactulose (Gp-L) or no therapy as control (Gp-NL) for 60 days. The primary endpoint was the MHE reversal rate. Gut microbiota were compared between MHE patients and healthy volunteers, as well as lactulose-responders and non-responders. RESULTS: A total of 98 cirrhotic patients were included in the study, with 31 patients in the Gp-NL group and 67 patients in the Gp-L group. At day 60, the MHE reversal rate in Gp-L (64.18%) was significantly higher than that in Gp-NL (22.58%) (P = .0002) with a relative risk of 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.32-0.67). Number needed to treat was 2.4. Further, there was significantly more improvement in physical functioning in Gp-L (4.62 ± 6.16) than in Gp-NL (1.50 ± 5.34) (P = .0212). Proteobacteria was significantly higher in MHE patients compared with healthy volunteers (12.27% vs 4.65%, P < .05). Significant differences were found between lactulose responders and non-responders in Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with lactulose significantly improves MHE recovery rate, and gut microbiota change in MHE patients can modulate the effectiveness of this therapy. Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR) (ID: ChiCTR-TRC-12002342).


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Lactulose/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/microbiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Lab Invest ; 99(6): 749-763, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700851

RESUMO

Activation of inflammation is an important mechanism in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aims to delineate how mitophagy affects NLRP3 inflammasome activation in hepatic lipotoxicity. Mice were fed a high fat/calorie diet (HFCD) for 24 weeks. Primary rat hepatocytes were treated with palmitic acid (PA) for various periods of time. Mitophagy was measured by protein levels of LC3II and P62. NLRP3, caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-18, and IL-1ß at mRNA and protein levels were used as indicators of inflammasome activation. Along with steatotic progression in HFCD-fed mice, ratio of LC3II/ß-actin was decreased concurrently with increased levels of liver P62, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1ß, IL-18, and serum IL-1ß levels in late-stage NASH. PA treatment resulted in mitochondrial oxidative stress and initiated mitophagy in primary hepatocytes. The addition of cyclosporine A did not change LC3II/Τοmm20 ratios; but P62 levels were increased after an extended duration of PA exposure, indicating a defect in autophagic activity. Along with impaired mitophagy, mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-18 and IL-1ß were upregulated by PA treatment. Pretreatment with MCC950, N-acetyl cysteine or acetyl-L-carnitine reversed inflammasome activation and a pyroptotic cascade. Additionally, mitophagic flux was partially recovered as indicated by increases in LC3II/Tomm20 ratio, parkin, and PINK1 expression, and decreased P62 expression. The findings suggest that impaired mitophagy triggers hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a murine NASH model and primary hepatocytes. The new insights into inflammasome activation through mitophagy advance our understanding of how fatty acids elicit lipotoxicity through oxidant stress and autophagy in mitochondria.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Necroptose , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
7.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(1): 109-117, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187612

RESUMO

Addition of peginterferon alpha (PEG-IFN add-on) to entecavir (ETV) treatment after a short lead-in phase results in more response than ETV monotherapy in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB). This study is the first to assess long-term efficacy of this treatment strategy. Patients who received ETV ± 24 weeks of PEG-IFN add-on in a global trial (ARES study) and completed follow-up were eligible to participate in this observational LTFU study if they had at least one combined HBeAg and HBV DNA measurement beyond week 96 of the ARES study. The primary endpoint was combined response (HBeAg loss and HBV DNA <200 IU/mL) at LTFU. In total, 48 patients treated with PEG-IFN add-on and 48 patients treated with ETV monotherapy were included. The median follow-up duration was 226 (IQR 51) weeks, and 86/96 (90%) patients were initial non-responders. At LTFU, combined response was present in 13 (27%) vs 11 (23%) patients (P = 0.81), and 1 log10  HBsAg decline in 59% vs 28% (P = 0.02) for PEG-IFN add-on and ETV monotherapy, respectively. In 41 initial non-responders who continued ETV therapy, combined response at LTFU was present in 9 patients (PEG-IFN add-on: 5/22 [23%]; ETV monotherapy: 4/19 [21%]). Beyond week 96 of follow-up, rates of serological response became comparable between PEG-IFN add-on and ETV monotherapy. Although in this LTFU study initial non-responders were overrepresented in the add-on arm, PEG-IFN add-on possibly leads rather to accelerated HBeAg loss than to increased long-term HBeAg loss rates.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Adulto , DNA Viral/sangue , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Guanina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lab Invest ; 97(10): 1201-1217, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28869588

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is considered as a precancerous condition. However, hepatic carcinogenesis from NASH is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the activation of pluripotent genes (c-Myc, Oct-4, KLF-4, and Nanog) and morphogenic gene (Gli-1) in hepatic progenitor cells from patient specimens and in an animal model to determine the possibility of normal stem/progenitor cells becoming the origin of NASH-HCC. In this study, expression of pluripotent and morphogenic genes in human NASH-HCC tissues was significantly upregulated compared to adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. After feeding high-fat/calorie diet plus high fructose/glucose in drinking water (HFC diet plus HF/G) for up to 12 months, mice developed obesity, insulin resistance, and steatohepatitis with significant necroptotic inflammation and fibrotic progression, as well as occurrence of hyperplastic nodules with dysplasia; and this model represents pathohistologically as a transition from NASH to NASH-HCC in a pre-carcinomatous stage. High expression of pluripotent and morphogenic genes was immunohistochemically visualized in the dysplasia areas of mouse liver, where there were many OV-6-positive cells, indicating proliferation of HOCs in NASH with fibrotic progression. Moreover, oncogenic transcription factors (c-Myc, KLF-4, and Nanog) were co-localized in these hepatic progenitor cells. In conclusion, pluripotent and morphogenic genes may contribute to the reprogramming of hepatic progenitor cells in driving these cells to be the origin of NASH-HCC in a steatotic and inflamed microenvironment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/química , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Homeobox Nanog , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
Cancer Res ; 77(19): 5287-5300, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775168

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) is a malignancy whose incidents are rapidly increasing. However, the mechanisms that drive development of HCC in a steatotic microenvironment remain unknown. Here we report that the obesity-associated protein JCAD is expressed at significantly higher levels in human NASH-HCC specimens compared with pericarcinoma specimens. High JCAD expression was verified in multiple hepatoma cell lines. Forced overexpression of JCAD in hepatoma cells promoted tumor growth and proliferation, whereas JCAD silencing yielded opposite effects. JCAD interacted with the kinase domain of the tumor suppressor kinase LATS2, a core component of the Hippo signaling pathway. JCAD overexpression inhibited the ability of LATS2 to phosphorylate YAP in this pathway, in turn upregulating CCND1 and GLI2 to promote hepatoma cell proliferation. JCAD was induced by fatty acid overload in hepatic cells and was highly expressed in a mouse model of NASH-precarcinoma lesions, where the ratio of phospho-YAP to YAP was decreased. In human NASH-HCC specimens, JCAD expression and YAP phosphorylation patterns paralleled with the mouse model. Our findings illuminate a new role for JCAD and its critical interplay in the Hippo signaling cascade during the transition of NASH to HCC, with potential implications for therapeutic development in this setting. Cancer Res; 77(19); 5287-300. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
J Infect Dis ; 215(7): 1085-1093, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28329061

RESUMO

Background: We studied whether 48 weeks of pegylated interferon alfa-2b (peginterferon) add-on therapy increases serological response in hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients receiving nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy, compared with continued NA monotherapy. Methods: This randomized trial included HBeAg-positive patients with compensated liver disease who were treated with entecavir/tenofovir for >12 months and had an HBV DNA load of <2000 IU/mL. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 48 weeks of peginterferon add-on therapy (n = 39) or continued NA monotherapy (n = 38). Response (defined as HBeAg seroconversion with an HBV DNA load of <200 IU/mL) was assessed at week 48, with responders discontinuing NA therapy at week 72. Results: The primary end point (response at week 96) was achieved in 18% of patients who were assigned peginterferon add-on therapy versus 8% of patients assigned NA monotherapy (P = .31). Among 58 interferon-naive patients, add-on therapy led to a greater frequency of HBeAg seroconversion (30% vs 7%; P = .034) and response (26% vs 7%; P = .068) at week 96, compared with monotherapy. Among 8 responders at week 48 who discontinued NA therapy at week 72, 6 patients (75%) maintained a response until week 96 (4 of 6 [67%] in the add-on therapy group vs 2 of 2 [100%] in the monotherapy group; P = 1.00). Adverse events were mainly related to peginterferon. Conclusion: The primary end point was negative, but peginterferon add-on therapy appeared to result in a greater frequency of HBeAg seroconversion, compared with NA monotherapy, in interferon-naive patients receiving NA therapy. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01532843.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , China , DNA Viral/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2 , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 19(30): 4984-91, 2013 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23946605

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and to assess corresponding health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in hospitalized cirrhotic patients in China. METHODS: This multi-center cross-sectional study included 16 teaching hospitals, which were members of "Hepatobiliary Cooperation Group, Society of Gastroenterology, Chinese Medical Association", from different areas of China carried out between June and October in 2011. All the eligible hospitalized cirrhotic patients (n = 538) were required to complete triplicate number connection tests combined with one digit symbol test for diagnosing MHE. Patients' clinical examination data were complemented by a modified questionnaire assessing HRQoL. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient. RESULTS: Male was predominant (68.6%) in 519 patients who met the criteria of the study, with a mean age of 49.17 ± 11.02 years. The most common cause of liver cirrhosis was chronic hepatitis B (55.9%). The prevalence of MHE was 39.9% and varied by Child-Pugh-Classification score (CPC-A: 24.8%, CPC-B: 39.4% and CPC-C: 56.1%, P < 0.01). MHE (P < 0.01) and higher CPC scores (P < 0.01) were associated with a high HRQoL scores (reflecting poorer quality of life). The prevalence of MHE was proportionate to CPC (P = 0.01) and high quality of life scores (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized cirrhotic patients have a high prevalence of MHE that is proportionate to the degree of liver function and HRQoL impairment.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/psicologia , Hospitalização , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 18(27): 3617-22, 2012 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22826629

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity and cytotoxicity of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) following lamivudine treatment of HepG2.2.15 cells. METHODS: HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with 2 µmol/L lamivudine for 16 d (lamivudine group), cultured for 10 d, followed by 5 ng/mL TNF-α and 1000 U/mL IFN-γ for 6 d (cytokine group), or treated with 2 µmol/L lamivudine for 10 d followed by 5 ng/mL TNF-α and 1000 U/mL IFN-γ for 6 d (sequential group), or cultured without additions for 16 d (control group). Intracellular DNA was extracted from 3 × 10(5) HepG2.2.15 cells from each group. The extracted DNA was further purified with mung bean nuclease to remove HBV relaxed circular DNA that may have remained. Both HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and HBV DNA were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction. The titers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability was measured with the cell counting kit-8 assay. RESULTS: Compared to lamivudine alone (22.63% ± 0.12%), both sequential (51.50% ± 0.17%, P = 0.034) and cytokine treatment (49.66% ± 0.06%, P = 0.041) showed a stronger inhibition of HBV cccDNA; the difference between the sequential and cytokine groups was not statistically significant (51.50% ± 0.17% vs 49.66% ± 0.06%, P = 0.88). The sequential group showed less inhibition of HBV DNA replication than the lamivudine group (67.47% ± 0.02% vs 82.48% ± 0.05%, P = 0.014); the difference between the sequential and cytokine groups was not statistically significant (67.47% ± 0.02% vs 57.45% ± 0.07%, P = 0.071). The levels of HBsAg and HBeAg were significantly decreased in the sequential treatment group compared to the other groups [HBsAg: 3.48 ± 0.04 (control), 3.09 ± 0.08 (lamivudine), 2.55 ± 0.13 (cytokine), 2.32 ± 0.08 (sequential), P = 0.042 for each between-group comparison; HBeAg: 3.48 ± 0.01 (control), 3.08 ± 0.08 (lamivudine), 2.57 ± 0.15 (cytokine), 2.34 ± 0.12 (sequential), P = 0.048 for each between-group comparison]. Cell viability in the cytokine group was reduced to 58.03% ± 8.03% compared with control cells (58.03% ± 8.03% vs 100%, P = 0.000). Lamivudine pretreatment significantly reduced IFN-γ + TNF-α-mediated toxicity of HepG2.2.15 cells [85.82% ± 5.43% (sequential) vs 58.03% ± 8.03% (cytokine), P = 0.002]. CONCLUSION: Sequential treatment overcame the lower ability of lamivudine alone to inhibit cccDNA and precluded the aggressive cytotoxicity involving IFN-γ and TNF-α by decreasing the viral load.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Viral/biossíntese , DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Células Hep G2 , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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