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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 112915, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360044

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Stellera Linn. consists of species of perennial herbs and shrubs, and is mainly distributed in the temperate regions of east Asia to west Asia. There are 10∼12 species in the world, two species in China: Stellera chamaejasme Linn. and Stellera formosana Hayata ex Li. As recorded, the roots of Stellera species are used to dissipate phlegm and relieve pain. The roots and the barks can be used for papermaking. AIM OF THIS REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the ethnopharmacological uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical applications and toxicology of the genus Stellera to better understand their therapeutic potential in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information of the genus Stellera was collected from scientific databases (Pubmed, ACS website, SciFinder Scholar, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Web of Science and CNKI). Information was also gathered from 'Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae (〈〈〉〉)', folk records, conference papers on ethnopharmacology, Ph.D. and Masters' Dissertation. RESULTS: Stellera plants have been studied as traditional folk medicines all around the world. The chemical constituents of Stellera species mainly comprise terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, and so on. Extracts and compounds of Stellera species exhibit extensive pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-convulsive, anti-epileptic, anti-bacterial and anti-insect activities, etc. Clinical applications have suggested that the genus Stellera has the effects in treating several skin diseases and cancers, however, the results should be further verification. The genus Stellera plants are toxic and should be used reasonable. CONCLUSION: This paper reviewed the ethnopharmacological uses, chemical constituents, pharmacology, clinical applications and toxicology of the genus Stellera. The genus Stellera has broad application prospects. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medical uses of the genus and its chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical applications and toxicology.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the therapeutic effect of subconjunctival injection of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) pre-stimulated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on ocular alkali burns in a rat model. METHODS: After applying a 6 mm filter paper soaking in 1 N NaOH on the cornea of rats, the suspension of TNF-α pre-stimulated BMMSCs, BMMSCs and PBS were given subconjunctivally and respectively. Corneal epithelial defect, corneal opacity, inflammation as well as PTGS2 and TSG-6 expression on day 7 and fibrosis on day 14 were compared. RESULTS: TNF-α pre-stimulated BMMSCs group had a more predominate effect on promoting corneal epithelial repairing, decreasing corneal opacity, reducing inflammatory cells and CD68 + macrophages on day 7 and suppressing fibrosis on day 14 compared to BMMSCs group. Besides, it had significant increased expressions of PTGS2 and TSG-6 in vitro. Pre-treated with Indomethacin revealed a reverse effect on above-mentioned changes. CONCLUSION: Subconjunctival injection of TNF-α pre-stimulated BMMSCs enhanced anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effect in ocular alkali burns, which was possibly though up regulation of PTGS2 and TSG-6 expression.

3.
Eye Contact Lens ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for Demodex mite infestation of the eyelashes in Chinese children. METHODS: A total of 1,575 children were surveyed from June 2017 to January 2019 and stratified into two age groups: 3 to 6 and 7 to 14 years. All subjects underwent routine eye examination and lash epilation for Demodex mite identification and counting using microscopy. Demographic data and lifestyle habits were also recorded. RESULTS: Demodex mites were detected in 189 of 1,575 (12.0%) children, including Demodex folliculorum (D. folliculorum) in 180 (11.4%), Demodex brevis (D. brevis) in 11 (0.7%), and both mites in 2 (0.1%). The median number of D. folliculorum mites was 1 (interquartile range [IQR], 1-2) and that of D. brevis was 1 (IQR, 1-1). Children with Demodex infestation did not exhibit more ocular discomfort than those without (21.2% vs. 23.1%; P=0.56). However, lash abnormalities, including trichiasis, cylindrical dandruff, or scaly discharge at the lash root, were more prevalent in children with Demodex infestation (24.9% vs. 12.8%; P<0.001) and in the 7 to 14-year subgroup (33.7% vs. 12.8%; P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that autumn-winter was associated with a higher detection rate of Demodex infestation (all P<0.05). In the 3-6-year subgroup, children residing in rural regions exhibited a higher prevalence of Demodex infestation (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Ocular Demodex infestation, with a low Demodex mite count, was found in healthy Chinese children aged 3 to 14 years.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(7): 1610-7, 2016 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26843032

RESUMO

High salt intake has been known to cause hypertension and other side effects. However, it is still unclear whether it also affects fibrosis in the mature or developing liver. This study demonstrates that high salt exposure in mice (4% NaCl in drinking water) and chick embryo (calculated final osmolality of the egg was 300 mosm/L) could lead to derangement of the hepatic cords and liver fibrosis using H&E, PAS, Masson, and Sirius red staining. Meanwhile, Desmin immunofluorescent staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that hepatic stellate cells were activated after the high salt exposure. pHIS3 and BrdU immunohistological staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that cell proliferation decreased; as well, TUNEL analyses indicated that cell apoptosis increased in the presence of high salt exposure. Next, dihydroethidium staining on the cultured chick hepatocytes indicated the excess ROS was generated following high salt exposure. Furthermore, AAPH (a known inducer of ROS production) treatment also induced the liver fibrosis in chick embryo. Positive Nrf2 and Keap1 immunohistological staining on mouse liver suggested that Nrf2/Keap1 signaling was involved in high salt induced ROS production. Finally, the CCK8 assay was used to determine whether or not the growth inhibitory effect induced by high salt exposure can be rescued by antioxidant vitamin C. Meanwhile, the RT-PCR result indicated that the Nrf2/Keap1 downsteam genes including HO-1, NQO-1, and SOD2 were involved in this process. In sum, these experiments suggest that high salt intake would lead to high risk of liver damage and fibrosis in both adults and developing embryos. The pathological mechanism may be the result from an imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Embrião de Galinha , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo
5.
J Exp Biol ; 218(Pt 21): 3468-77, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26347567

RESUMO

In this study, we show that high-salt exposure dramatically increases chick mortality during embryo development. As embryonic mortality at early stages mainly results from defects in cardiovascular development, we focused on heart formation and angiogenesis. We found that high-salt exposure enhanced the risk of abnormal heart tube looping and blood congestion in the heart chamber. In the presence of high salt, both ventricular cell proliferation and apoptosis increased. The high osmolarity induced by high salt in the ventricular cardiomyocytes resulted in incomplete differentiation, which might be due to reduced expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA4. Blood vessel density and diameter were suppressed by exposure to high salt in both the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and chorioallantoic membrane models. In addition, high-salt-induced suppression of angiogenesis occurred even at the vasculogenesis stage, as blood island formation was also inhibited by high-salt exposure. At the same time, cell proliferation was repressed and cell apoptosis was enhanced by high-salt exposure in YSM tissue. Moreover, the reduction in expression of HIF2 and FGF2 genes might cause high-salt-suppressed angiogenesis. Interestingly, we show that high-salt exposure causes excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart and YSM tissues, which could be partially rescued through the addition of antioxidants. In total, our study suggests that excess generation of ROS might play an important role in high-salt-induced defects in heart and angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/embriologia , Proliferação de Células , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/irrigação sanguínea , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Coração/embriologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Morfogênese , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saco Vitelino/irrigação sanguínea , Saco Vitelino/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 82(5): 365-76, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873034

RESUMO

Many maternal disorders that modify the embryonic microenvironment, such as a change in osmolarity, can affect development, but how these changes influence the early embryo remains obscure. Neural tube defects, for example, are common congenital disorders found in fetus and neonates. In this study, we investigated the impact of anisotonic osmolarity (unequal osmotic pressures) on neural tube development in the early chick embryo, finding that neuronal cell differentiation was impaired in the neural tube due to enhanced apoptosis and repressed cell proliferation. Anisotonic osmolarity also affected normal development of the neural crest, which in turn influenced abnormal development of the neural tube. As neural tube development is highly dependent on the proper expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), paired box 7 (PAX7), and sonic hedgehog (SHH) genes in the dorsal and ventral regions along the tube, we investigated the impact of anisotonic osmolarity on their expression. Indeed, small changes in osmolarity could positively and negatively impact the expression of these regulatory genes, which profoundly affected neural tube development. Thus, both the central and peripheral nervous systems were perturbed by anisotonic consitions as a consequence of the abnormal expression of key genes within the developing neural tube.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/embriologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Embrião de Galinha , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Tubo Neural/embriologia , Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/patologia , Concentração Osmolar , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/metabolismo
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