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1.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 50, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accumulation and remobilization of stem water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) are determinant physiological traits highly influencing yield potential in wheat against drought stress. However, knowledge gains of the genetic control are still limited. A hexaploid wheat population of 120 recombinant inbred lines were developed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and to dissect the genetic basis underlying eight traits related to stem WSC under drought stress (DS) and well-watered (WW) conditions across three environments. RESULTS: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed larger environmental and genotypic effects on stem WSC-related traits, indicating moderate heritabilities of 0.51-0.72. A total of 95 additive and 88 pairs of epistatic QTLs were identified with significant additive and epistatic effects, as well as QTL× water environmental interaction (QEI) effects. Most of additive QTLs and additive QEIs associated with drought-stressed environments functioned genetic effects promoting pre-anthesis WSC levels and stem WSC remobilization to developing grains. Compared to other genetic components, both genetic effects were performed exclusive contributions to phenotypic variations in stem WSC-related traits. Nineteen QTL clusters were identified on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3B, 4B, 5A, 6A, 6B and 7A, suggestive of the genetic linkage or pleiotropy. Thirteen additive QTLs were detectable repeatedly across two of the three water environments, indicating features of stable expressions. Some loci were consistent with those reported early and were further discussed. CONCLUSION: Stem WSC-related traits were inherited predominantly by additive and QEI effects with a moderate heritability. QTL cluster regions were suggestive of tight linkage or pleiotropy in the inheritance of these traits. Some stable and common loci, as well as closely linked molecular markers, had great potential in marker-assisted selection to improve stem WSC-related traits in wheat, especially under drought-stressed environments.

2.
Int J Surg Pathol ; : 1066896920918289, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403965

RESUMO

Papillary renal neoplasm with reverse polarity is a form of recently described tumor. These tumors are defined by GATA3 positivity, negative vimentin staining, and the presence of both papillary structures and a layer of eosinophilic cells with apical nuclei and a granular cytoplasm. In the present report, we review 7 cases of papillary renal neoplasm with reverse polarity that were GATA3+ and vimentin-, consistent with past reports. In all 7 of these cases, we found that these tumors were additionally positive for 34ßE12. All 7 of these tumors were categorized as stage pT1. On histological examination, these tumors exhibited branching papillae with apical nuclei. All 7 of these patients were alive on most recent follow-up, with 6 being disease free and one having developed prostate cancer. Together, this overview of 7 additional cases of papillary renal neoplasm with reverse polarity offers further insight into this rare and poorly understood disease.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383850

RESUMO

The spontaneous assembly of nanoscale building blocks into continuous semipermeable membranes is a key requirement for the structuration of synthetic protocells. Engineering the functionality and programmability of these building units provides a step toward more complex cell-like entities with adaptive membrane properties. Inspired by the central role of protein (lectin)-carbohydrate interactions in cellular recognition and adhesion, we fabricate semipermeable polysaccharide-polymer microcapsules (polysaccharidosomes) with intrinsic lectin-binding properties. We employ amphiphilic polysaccharide-polymer membrane building blocks endowed with intrinsic bio-orthogonal lectin-glycan recognition sites to facilitate the reversible noncovalent docking of functionalized polymer or zeolitic nanoparticles on the polysaccharidosomes. We show that the programmed attachment of enzyme-loaded nanoparticles gives rise to a membrane-gated spatially localized cascade reaction within the protocells due to the thermoresponsiveness of the polysaccharidosome membrane, and we demonstrate that extended closely packed networks are produced via reversible lectin-mediated adhesion between the protocells. Our results provide a step toward nanoscale engineering of bioinspired cell-like materials and could have longer-term applications in synthetic virology, protobiology, and microbiosensor and microbioreactor technologies.

4.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-10, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current evidences on the association between hyperuricaemia and retinol intake remain inconsistent. Furthermore, no known studies have investigated the relationship between hyperuricaemia and retinol intake from animal food and plant food separately. This study aimed to assess the relationship between different sources of retinol intake and risk of hyperuricaemia among US adults. DESIGN: Univariate and multivariate weighted logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline models were used to assess the associations of total, animal-derived and plant-derived retinol intakes with the risk of hyperuricaemia. Dietary retinol was measured through two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid level ≥7·0 and ≥6·0 mg/dl in men and women, respectively. SETTING: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014 were used in this cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Overall, 12 869 participants aged ≥20 years were included. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quintile, the multivariable OR of hyperuricaemia for the highest quintile intake of total, animal-derived and plant-derived retinol were 0·71 (95 % CI 0·52, 0·96), 0·76 (95 % CI 0·59, 0·96) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·72, 1·17), respectively. The inverse association between dietary intake of total retinol and the risk of hyperuricaemia was observed in men. Dose-response analyses revealed a novel linear trend between the risk of hyperuricaemia and total, animal-derived retinol intake separately. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that intakes of total and animal-derived retinol were negatively associated with hyperuricaemia in US adults.

5.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468909

RESUMO

Aim: To achieve safe and biocompatible gene carriers. Materials & methods: A core/shell-structured hierarchical carrier with an internal peptide/gene coacervate 'core' and a dextran nanogel 'shell' on the surface has been designed. Results: The dextran nanogels shield coacervate (DNSC) can effectively condense genes and release them in reducing environments. The dextran nanogel-based 'shell' can effectively shield the positive charge of the peptide/gene coacervate 'core', thus reducing the side effects of cationic gene carriers. In contrast with the common nonviral gene carriers that had high cytotoxicities, the DNSC showed a high transfection efficiency while maintaining a low cytotoxicity. Conclusion: The DNSC provides an effective environmentally responsive gene carrier with potential applications in the fields of gene therapy and gene carrier development.

6.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(6): 460-470, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469170

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MicroRNAs play key regulatory roles in the tumorigenesis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC). This study aimed to explore the regulatory effects of microRNA-98-5p (miR-98-5p) on the proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of HBV-HCC cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms involving nuclear factor-κB-inducing kinase (NIK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expressions of miR-98-5p and NIK in HBV-HCC tissues and cells, and the level of HBV DNA in HBV-HCC cells were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of HBV-HCC cells were analyzed by cell counting kit-8, wound healing, transwell, and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The targeting relationship between miR-98-5p and NIK was predicted by StarBase3.0 and verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. HBV-HCC xenograft tumor model was constructed in mice to observe the tumor growth in vivo. RESULTS: The expression of miR-98-5p was declined in HBV-HCC tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-98-5p markedly reduced the level of HBV DNA; inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion; and promoted the apoptosis of HBV-HCC cells. NIK was a target of miR-98-5p. Overexpression of miR-98-5p markedly decreased the protein expression of NIK in MHCC97H-HBV cells. NIK reversed the tumor-suppressing effect of miR-98-5p on HBV-HCC cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-98-5p significantly inhibited the xenograft tumor growth and decreased the expression of NIK in mice. CONCLUSION: MiR-98-5p inhibits the secretion of HBV, proliferation, migration, and invasion of HBV-HCC cells by targeting NIK.

7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 719-728, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353677

RESUMO

Remobilization of stem water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) can supply crucial carbon resources for grain filling under drought stress, while the regulatory metabolism associated with abscisic acid (ABA) is still limited. Two cultivars, LJ196 (drought-tolerant) and XD18 (drought-prone), were pot-grown under well-watered (WW) and drought-stressed (DS) conditions. Concentrations of WSC components and ABA, and fructan metabolizing enzymes and genes were investigated in peduncle after anthesis. When compared with those under the WW, LJ196 remained higher grain yield and grain-filling rate than XD18 under the DS. During the early period of grain filling (0-14 DAA), DS increased concentrations of total WSC and its components, but thereafter substantially reduced them. The gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH) and fructan 6-exohydrolases (6-FEH) showed similar trends, whereas those of fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT), and sucrose: fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were depressed and declined over the period of examination. LJ196 still showed higher levels of ABA and fructan metabolizing. The ABA concentration under the DS was positively and significantly correlated with total WSC and fructan concentration, and expression levels of these enzymes and genes as well, with more prominently with those of 6-FEH. Presumably, ABA could enhance fructan hydrolysis by strongly up-regulating the gene expression and enzymatic activity of 6-FEH to accelerate WSC remobilization. However, stem WSC induced by DS could be not fully remobilized to grains, due to its weaker correlation with grain-filling rate and finally indicating lower grain yield. The findings would provide useful information for wheat production under water-deficit environments.

8.
Phytomedicine ; 71: 153223, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida albicans-related infections are common infections in clinic, among which biofilm-associated infections are most devastating and challenging to overcome. Myricetin (MY) is a plant-derived natural product with various pharmacological activities. Its anti-biofilm effect against C. albicans and its ability to increase the antifungal effect of miconazole nitrate (MN) were unclear and yet need to be explored. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: In this study the anti-biofilm effect of MY and its ability to increase the antifungal effect of MN were investigated in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: MY or/and MN were incorporated into a thermosensitive hydrogel (TSH) of poloxamer. The safety of MY or/and MN loaded TSHs towards human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was evaluated by a MTT assay and the in vivo safety towards mice knees was confirmed by histopathological examination. The anti-biofilm effect of MY and its ability to increase the antifungal effect of MN were investigated in vitro with C. albicans ATCC 10231 by broth microdilution method, crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as in vivo in an established mouse model of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) by SEM, histological analysis, microorganism culture and detection of the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The mechanism of action of MY was analyzed by qRT-PCR assay with C. albicans SC5314. RESULTS: Our results showed that MY and MN incorporated into TSHs exhibited good stability and safety, excellent temperature sensitivity and controlled drug release property. MY (5-640 µg/ml) exhibited no effect on C. albicans cell viability and MY (≥80 µg/ml) showed a significantly inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. MIC50 (the lowest concentrations of drugs resulting in 50% decrease of C. albicans growth) and MIC80 (the lowest concentrations of drugs resulting in 80% decrease of C. albicans growth) of MN were respectively decreased from 2 µg/ml to 0.5 µg/ml and from 4 µg/ml to 2 µg/ml when used in combination with MY (80 µg/ml). The mouse PJI was effectively prevented by MY and MN incorporated into TSH. CONCLUSIONS: Local application of MY and MN incorporated into TSH might be useful for clinical biofilm-associated infections.

9.
Am J Pathol ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339498

RESUMO

Recent studies have deciphered the transcriptional profile of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) in body donor eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and were thus limited by the time span from death to preservation and the associated 5'-RNA degradation. Therefore, this study used CNV and control specimens which had been formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded immediately after surgical extraction and analyzed them using a 3' RNA sequencing approach. Transcriptome profiles were analyzed and used to estimate content of immune and stromal cells and to define disease-associated gene signatures using statistical and bioinformatic methods. We identified 158 differentially-expressed genes (DEG) that were significantly increased in CNV compared to control tissue. Cell type enrichment analysis revealed a diverse cellular landscape with an enrichment of immune and stroma cell types in CNV including endothelial cells, macrophages, T cells and NKT cells. Gene ontology enrichment analysis demonstrated that DEG contributed to Blood Vessel Development, Extracellular Structure Organization, Response to Wounding and several immune-related terms. The S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) and S100A9 emerged among the top DEG, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry on CNV tissue and protein analysis of vitreous samples. This study provides a high-resolution RNA-sequencing-based transcriptional signature of human CNV, characterizes its compositional pattern of immune and stromal cells and reveals S100A8/A9 as a novel biomarker and promising target for AMD-directed therapeutics and diagnostics.

10.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 32(7): 676-689, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317092

RESUMO

To explore the mechanisms leading to the poor quality of IVF blastocysts, the single-cell whole-genome methylation sequencing technique was used in this study to analyse the methylation patterns of bovine blastocysts derived from invivo, fresh (IVF) or vitrified (V_IVF) oocytes. Genome methylation levels of blastocysts in the IVF and V_IVF groups were significantly lower than those of the invivo group (P<0.05). In all, 1149 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified between the IVF and invivo groups, 1578 DMRs were identified between the V_IVF and invivo groups and 151 DMRs were identified between the V_IVF and IVF groups. For imprinted genes, methylation levels of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) and protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 9A (PPP1R9A) were lower in the IVF and V_IVF groups than in the invivo group, and the methylation level of paternally expressed 3 (PEG3) was lower in the V_IVF group than in the IVF and invivo groups. Genes with DMRs between the IVF and invivo and the V_IVF and IVF groups were primarily enriched in oocyte maturation pathways, whereas DMRs between the V_IVF and invivo groups were enriched in fertilisation and vitrification-vulnerable pathways. The results of this study indicate that differences in the methylation of critical DMRs may contribute to the differences in quality between invitro- and invivo-derived embryos.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303544

RESUMO

Decontamination practices which often involve thermal treatments are routinely performed in beef packing plants and have generally improved the safety of meat in North America. We investigated whether Escherichia coli in the beef production chain are becoming more heat resistant due to those treatments. Cattle isolates (n = 750) included seven serogroups (O157, O103, O111, O121, O145, O26 and O45) which were collected between 2002 and 2017. Beef plant isolates (n = 700) from carcasses, fabrication equipment, and beef products were included. Heat resistance was determined in Luria-Bertani broth at 60oC, and by PCR screening for the locus of heat resistance (LHR). The decimal reduction for E. coli at 60oC (D 60°C-values) ranged from 0 to 7.54 min, with 97.2% of the values being < 2 min. Prevalence of E. coli with D 60°C-values > 2 min was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among cattle and meat plant isolates. E. coli from equipment before sanitation (median, 1.03 min) were more heat resistant than those after sanitation (median, 0.9 min). No significant difference in D 60°C-values was observed between E. coli from different years, carcasses before and after antimicrobial interventions, or before and during carcass chilling. Of all isolates, 1.97% harbored LHR, and the LHR positive isolates had greater median D 60°C-value than the LHR negative ones (3.25 vs 0.96 min). No increase in heat resistance in E. coli was observed along the beef production chain or with time.Importance The implementation of multiple hurdles in beef production chain has resulted in substantial improvement in the microbial safety of beef in Canada. In this study, we characterized a large number of E. coli (n=1450) from various sources/stages of beef processing to determine whether the commonly used antimicrobial interventions would give rise to heat resistant E. coli on meat, which in turn may require alternatives to the current control of pathogens and/or modifications to the current cooking recommendations for meat. The findings show the degree and rate of heat resistance in E. coli did not increase along the production chain or with time. This furthers our understanding of man-made ecological niches that are required for the development of heat resistance in E. coli.

12.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(2): 254-271, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of lycopene on metabolism of glycolipid and inflammation in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: According to body weight, sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, non-alcoholic fatty liver model group, 20, 60 mg/kg lycopene intervention groups, with 15 rats in each group. The control group was fed normal diet, and the other 3 groups were fed high-fat and high-fructose diet for 4 weeks to establish the model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. After modeling, the intervention groups were fed lycopene of different doses by gavage. After 8 weeks of continuous feeding, the rats were sacrificed, the body weight and liver weight were weighed, and the liver index was calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the morphological changes of liver tissue. Serum was collected, fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(INS), and insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR) were calculated; Liver function indicators alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST) were measured; Serum triglycerides(TG), total cholesterol(TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C) and levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-18(IL-18) and interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß) were measured. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the liver weight and liver index in the model group increased by 27% and 24%, respectively; And steatosis occurred in the liver tissue; The levels of serum ALT, TG, TC, LDL-C, IL-6, IL-1ß were significantly increased, the level of serum HDL-C was significantly decreased(P<0. 05). Compared with the model group, liver weight, liver index, levels of serum ALT, TG, FBG, IL-6 and IL-1ß were significantly lower in the 20, 60 mg/kg lycopene intervention groups(P<0. 05), the INS and HOMA-IR index showed a downward trend; Liver tissue lesions were reduced to different degrees, and the effect was more significant in the 60 mg/kg lycopene group. CONCLUSION: Lycopene can improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating glycolipid metabolism and reducing levels of inflammatory cytokines in rats.

13.
Cell ; 181(2): 325-345.e28, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302571

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granule assembly, including the basis for establishing and maintaining RNP granules with distinct composition, are unknown. One prominent type of RNP granule is the stress granule (SG), a dynamic and reversible cytoplasmic assembly formed in eukaryotic cells in response to stress. Here, we show that SGs assemble through liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) arising from interactions distributed unevenly across a core protein-RNA interaction network. The central node of this network is G3BP1, which functions as a molecular switch that triggers RNA-dependent LLPS in response to a rise in intracellular free RNA concentrations. Moreover, we show that interplay between three distinct intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) in G3BP1 regulates its intrinsic propensity for LLPS, and this is fine-tuned by phosphorylation within the IDRs. Further regulation of SG assembly arises through positive or negative cooperativity by extrinsic G3BP1-binding factors that strengthen or weaken, respectively, the core SG network.

14.
Glia ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150307

RESUMO

Myeloid cells such as resident retinal microglia (MG) or infiltrating blood-derived macrophages (Mϕ) accumulate in areas of retinal ischemia and neovascularization (RNV) and modulate neovascular eye disease. Their temporospatial distribution and biological function in this process, however, remain unclarified. Using state-of-the-art methods, including cell-specific reporter mice and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA Seq), this study determined the extent of MG proliferation and Mϕ infiltration in areas with retinal ischemia and RNV in Cx3cr1CreERT2 :Rosa26-tdTomato mice and examined the transcriptional profile of MG in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). For RNA Seq, tdTomato-positive retinal MG were sorted by flow cytometry followed by Gene ontology (GO) cluster analysis. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injections of the cell proliferation marker 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) were performed from postnatal day (p) 12 to p16. We found that MG is the predominant myeloid cell population while Mϕ rarely appears in areas of RNV. Thirty percent of retinal MG in areas of RNV were EdU-positive indicating a considerable local MG cell expansion. GO cluster analysis revealed an enrichment of clusters related to cell division, tubulin binding, ATPase activity, protein kinase regulatory activity, and chemokine receptor binding in MG in the OIR model compared to untreated controls. In conclusion, activated retinal MG alter their transcriptional profile, exhibit considerable proliferative ability and are by far the most frequent myeloid cell population in areas of ischemia and RNV in the OIR model thus presenting a potential target for future therapeutic approaches.

15.
Leuk Res ; 92: 106340, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182487

RESUMO

Several lines of evidence show that RUNX2 as a transcription factor is closely involved in carcinogenesis in a variety of human cancers. Cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) is an important part of the mechanism underlying drug resistance in hematological tumors. In this study, we investigated the biological function of RUNX2 in B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM). We assessed the expression of RUNX2 in suspension and adhesion model by western blot in B-NHL and MM. Adhesion assay, flow cytometry and CCK-8 were utilized to examine the role and mechanism of RUNX2 in CAM-DR and proliferation in B-NHL and MM. RUNX2 was highly expressed in adherent B-NHL and MM cells compared to suspension cells, and knockdown the expression of RUNX2 could reverse CAM-DR. Besides, RUNX2 could promote the proliferation of B-NHL and MM cells. Furthermore, RUNX2 participated the process of CAM-DR and proliferation by regulating the AKT/GSK-3ß pathway. Developing RUNX2 inhibitor may be a possible strategy for drug resistance.

16.
Plant Dis ; 104(5): 1407-1414, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150505

RESUMO

Diseases caused by insect-transmitted viruses are the predominant constraint to wheat production worldwide. However, detailed knowledge of virus incidence and dynamics in China in recent years is very limited. Here, major wheat-growing regions of China were surveyed over 10 years for insect-transmitted viruses, and 2,143 samples were collected (in 2007 to 2015) and analyzed by molecular hybridization or multiplex reverse-transcription PCR for barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs: BYDV-GAV, -GPV, and -PAV) and wheat dwarf virus (WDV). In a 4-year survey (2016 to 2019), the incidence of eight insect-transmitted viruses (BYDVs, WDV, wheat yellow striate virus [WYSV], barley yellow striate mosaic virus [BYSMV], northern cereal mosaic virus [NCMV], and rice black-streaked dwarf virus [RBSDV]) was investigated, and BYDVs and WDV were widely distributed across China. BYDV-GAV (29.0% of the tested sample) was the most abundant, followed by BYDV-PAV (23.2%) from 2007 to 2015. From 2016 to 2019, however, BYDV-PAV had become the predominant species (39.5% positive of 952 samples tested), while the incidence of BYDV-GAV (13.4%) had declined. During the entire survey, the incidence of BYDV-GPV was very low in some locations in northwestern and northern China, and all eight viruses caused only local epidemics, not large-scale outbreaks throughout China. Two new cereal-infecting rhabdoviruses, leafhopper-transmitted WYSV and planthopper-transmitted BYSMV, were also found in China in recent years.


Assuntos
Vírus de Insetos , Triticum , Animais , China , Grão Comestível , Incidência , Insetos , Doenças das Plantas
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 185: 113229, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163852

RESUMO

There is a growing trend in the pharmaceutical industry towards substituting conventional chemical synthesis routes of semi-synthetic ß-lactam antibiotics (SSBAs) through environmentally sustainable enzymatic processes. These have advantages such as cost reduction in terms of solvent and waste treatment and time saving owing to fewer reaction steps. Penicillin G acylase (PGA) is an industrially important enzyme that is mainly used to catalyze the synthesis of SSBAs. In this study, we established an integrative strategy using three different analytical methods for determining the PGA-associated residual protein content, which is a critical quality issue in the end product. Cefaclor was taken as representative example of SSBAs. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) allowed the routine analysis of PGA residual proteins and other low molecular weight (MW) impurities with high detection specificity and sensitivity, comparable to those of the Bradford assay and microfluidic protein chip electrophoresis. However, these latter two methods were superior for quantitative and qualitative analysis, respectively, and should be regarded as necessary adjuncts to the HPLC-FD method. By combining the three methods, trace levels of residual proteins were detected in four (out of 13) cefaclor bulk samples from two different manufacturers, with a major protein MW of ∼63 kDa. This suggests that the higher MW PGA subunit tends to persist in the end product. The integrative determination strategy described here can be used to evaluate SSBA bulk samples and monitor the process of SSBA manufacturing by enzymatic methods, especially in terms of inter-batch consistency and process stability.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 137970, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217404

RESUMO

Strains of the environmental bacterium Myroides odoratimimus can cause human infections. However, treating M. odoratimimus infections can be difficult because of multidrug resistance in this organism. In this study, we isolated strain M. odoratimimus G13 from pastureland in Tibet, China. The minimum inhibitory concentration analysis suggested that strain G13 has resistance to multiple antibiotics, with an MIC for tetracycline of 168 mg/L. Whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genome of G13 was rich in virulence factor-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The mobilizable genomic island MGI1313 was also identified and characterized, and six resistance genes related to four types of antibiotics were annotated in MGI1313. Conjugation assays indicated that MGI1313 could be transferred from G13 to Escherichia coli 25DN by horizontal gene transfer, resulting in multidrug-resistant E. coli conjugants. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant M. odoratimimus G13 and the mobility of MGI1313 raise the risk of difficult-to-treat bacterial infections and should be under close surveillance.

19.
Eur J Radiol ; 126: 108939, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171915

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the role of volumetric apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in discriminating between benign and malignant testicular masses. METHODS: In this retrospective study, fifty-nine patients with 61 pathologically confirmed testicular masses were consecutively enrolled, including 18 benign lesions and 43 malignant lesions. All patients conducted preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging. Eighteen volumetric histogram parameters were extracted from the ADC map of each lesion. Comparisons were conducted by an independent t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. The classification performance of the parameters that showed significant differences between benign and malignant testicular disease were evaluated via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: Among the 18 histogram parameters we extracted, the energy, total energy, and range of ADC of testicular malignancies were all significantly increased compared with those of benignities. The minimum ADC and 10th percentile ADC of testicular malignancies were both significantly reduced compared with those of benignities. The minimum ADC value achieved the highest diagnostic performance in distinguishing between testicular benignities and malignancies, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.822, sensitivity of 81.40 %, and specificity of 77.78 %. CONCLUSIONS: Volumetric ADC histogram analysis might be a useful tool to preoperatively discriminate between benign and malignant testicular masses.

20.
Eur J Cancer ; 128: 27-37, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109848

RESUMO

AIM: Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are prominent immune cells infiltrating in solid tumours with phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. However, the clinical significance of heterogeneous subtypes of TAMs in gastric cancer still remains obscure. Here, we aimed to explore the clinical significance of TAMs expressing dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and its relevance with immune contexture in gastric cancer. METHODS: We selected 453 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples and 51 fresh tissue specimens of patients with gastric cancer from Zhongshan Hospital. The association of DC-SIGN+ macrophages with clinicopathological parameters, overall survival (OS) and responsiveness to fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was inspected. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry (FCM) were applied to characterize immune cells in gastric cancer. RESULTS: We demonstrated that high intratumoral DC-SIGN+ macrophages infiltration predicted poor OS and inferior therapeutic responsiveness to fluorouracil-based ACT in patients with gastric cancer. Furthermore, higher infiltration of DC-SIGN+ macrophages indicated an increased number of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD8+ T cells and a higher ratio of Foxp3+/CD8+ within the tumour microenvironment (TME). In addition, CD8+ T cells in DC-SIGN+ macrophages high subgroup were functionally impaired, showing decreased interferon-γ (IFN-γ), granzyme B (GZMB) and perforin production yet elevated programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) expression. CONCLUSIONS: DC-SIGN+ macrophages were associated with immunoinvasive TME and indicated poor prognosis and inferior therapeutic responsiveness to fluorouracil-based ACT. DC-SIGN+ macrophages might be an independent prognosticator and a potential immunotherapeutic target for gastric cancer.

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