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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529661

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a lethal clinical syndrome characterized by damage of the epithelial barriers and accumulation of pulmonary edema fluid. Protectin conjugates in tissue regeneration 1 (PCTR1), an endogenously produced lipid mediator, are believed to exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution effects. PCTR1 (1 µg/kg) was injected at 8 hr after lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 14 mg/kg) administration, and the rate of pulmonary fluid clearance was measured in live rats at 1 hr after PCTR1 treatment. The primary type II alveolar epithelial cells were cultured with PCTR1 (10 nmol/ml) and LPS (1 µg/ml) for 8 hr. PCTR1 effectively improved pulmonary fluid clearance and ameliorated morphological damage and reduced inflammation of lung tissue, as well as improved the survival rate in the LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model. Moreover, PCTR1 markedly increased sodium channel expression as well as Na, K-ATPase expression and activity in vivo and in vitro. In addition, PCTR1i also upregulated the expression of LYVE-1 in vivo. Besides that, BOC-2, HK7, and LY294002 blocked the promoted effect of PCTR1 on pulmonary fluid clearance. Taken together, PCTR1 upregulates sodium channels' expression via activating the ALX/cAMP/P-Akt/Nedd4-2 pathway and increases Na, K-ATPase expression and activity to promote alveolar fluid clearance. Moreover, PCTR1 also promotes the expression of LYVE-1 to recover the lymphatic drainage resulting in the increase of lung interstitial fluid clearance. In summary, these results highlight a novel systematic mechanism for PCTR1 in pulmonary edema fluid clearance after ALI/ARDS, suggesting its potential role in a therapeutic approach for ALI/ARDS.

2.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e033842, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salt intake in China is twice the upper limit recommended by the WHO, and nearly 80% of salt is added during cooking. This study will develop a package of salt reduction interventions targeting home cooks and evaluate its effectiveness and feasibility for scale-up. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cluster randomised controlled trial design is adopted in this study, which will be conducted in six provinces covering northern, central and southern China. For each province, 10 communities/villages (clusters) with 13 families (one cook and one adult family member) will be selected in each cluster for evaluation. In total, 780 home cooks and 780 adult family members will be recruited. The home cooks in the intervention group will be provided with the intervention package, including community-based standardised offline and online health education and salt intake monitoring. The duration of the intervention will be 1 year. The primary outcome is the difference between the intervention and control group in change in salt intake as measured by 24 hours urinary sodium from baseline to the end of the trial. The secondary outcome is the difference between the two groups in the change in salt-related knowledge, attitude and practice and blood pressure (BP). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by The Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee (QMERC2018/13) and Institutional Review Board of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (No. 201801). The study findings will be disseminated widely through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications and the general media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800016804.

3.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 177: 114005, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360364

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly considered as the center of pathophysiology in sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. Maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration 1 (MCTR1) is a newly identified specialized pro-resolving mediator (SPM) and has been shown to accelerate tissue regeneration and exert positive inotropic effects. Our present study aims to investigate the effect of MCTR1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac dysfunction and explore its potential mechanisms. Mice were treated with LPS to generate LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction. H9C2 cells were used to verify the effect of MCTR1 in vitro. LPS injection triggered cardiac dysfunction and increased mRNA expression of inflammation cytokines, which were significantly attenuated by post-treatment of MCTR1. Mechanistically, we found that MCTR1 ameliorated LPS-mediated reduction of protein expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1), accompanied by enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Besides, Sirt1 inhibitor EX527 inhibited effects of MCTR1 on mitochondrial biogenesis and function, blunted the protective effect of MCTR1 on cardiac function, and prevented enhancement of survival rate. MCTR1 protected against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction through improvement of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in a Sirt1-dependent manner. Our studies showed that MCTR1 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for cardiac dysfunction caused by sepsis.

4.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(4): e15933, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salt intake in China is over twice the maximum recommendation of the World Health Organization. Unlike most developed countries where salt intake is mainly derived from prepackaged foods, around 80% of the salt consumed in China is added during cooking. OBJECTIVE: Action on Salt China (ASC), initiated in 2017, aims to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive and tailored salt reduction program for national scaling-up. METHODS: ASC consists of six programs working in synergy to increase salt awareness and to reduce the amount of salt used during cooking at home and in restaurants, as well as in processed foods. Since September 2018, two health campaigns on health education and processed foods have respectively started, in parallel with four open-label cluster randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in six provinces across China: (1) app-based intervention study (AIS), in which a mobile app is used to achieve and sustain salt reduction in school children and their families; (2) home cook-based intervention study (HIS), in which family cooks receive support in using less salt; (3) restaurant-based intervention study (RIS) targeting restaurant consumers, cooks, and managers; and (4) comprehensive intervention study (CIS), which is a real-world implementation and evaluation of all available interventions in the three other RCTs. To explore the barriers, facilitators, and effectiveness of delivering a comprehensive salt reduction intervention, these RCTs will last for 1 year (stage 1), followed by nationwide implementation (stage 2). In AIS, HIS, and CIS, the primary outcome of salt reduction will be evaluated by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in 6030 participants, including 5436 adults and 594 school children around 8-9 years old. In RIS, the salt content of meals will be measured by laboratory food analysis of the 5 best-selling dishes from 192 restaurants. Secondary outcomes will include process evaluation; changes in knowledge, attitude, and practice on salt intake; and economic evaluation. RESULTS: All RCTs have been approved by Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee and the Institutional Review Boards of leading institutes in China. The research started in June 2017 and is expected to be completed around March 2021. The baseline investigations of the four RCTs were completed in May 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The ASC project is progressing smoothly. The intervention packages and tailored components will be promoted for salt reduction in China, and could be adopted by other countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. AIS: ChiCTR1800017553; https://tinyurl.com/vdr8rpr. HIS: ChiCTR1800016804; https://tinyurl.com/w8c7x3w. RIS: ChiCTR1800019694; https://tinyurl.com/uqkjgfw. CIS: ChiCTR1800018119; https://tinyurl.com/s3ajldw. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/15933.

5.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323910

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Glycemic control in type 1 diabetes can be challenging, and is influenced by many factors. This study aimed to investigate glycemic control and its associated factors in Chinese people with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 779 participants with type 1 diabetes selected from hospital records review, outpatient clinics and inpatient wards. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, medical records and venous blood samples. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine factors associated with glycemic control. RESULTS: Among 779 participants, 49.2% were male. The median age was 24 years (interquartile range 14-36 years). The median age at diagnosis of diabetes was 17 years (interquartile range 10-28 years) and the median duration of diabetes was 4 years (interquartile range 1-8 years). The mean ± standard deviation hemoglobin A1c was 9.1 ± 2.5%. Nearly 80% of participants had inadequate glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c ≥7.0%). Multivariable analysis showed that age at diagnosis of diabetes ≤20 years, living in a rural location, low household income, low intake of fruit and vegetables, low level of physical activity, low adherence to insulin, and low utilization of insulin pump were independent risk factors for poor glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c ≥9.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate glycaemic control is common among people with type 1 diabetes in China. Efforts should be made to control the modifiable risk factors, which include low intake of fruit and vegetables, low level of physical activity, and low adherence to insulin for the improvement of glycemic control. Appropriate use of insulin pump among type 1 diabetes should be encouraged.

6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(4): e18333, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the management of type 2 diabetes remains suboptimal in primary care, the Road to Hierarchical Diabetes Management at Primary Care (ROADMAP) study was designed and conducted in diverse primary care settings to test the effectiveness of a three-tiered diabetes management model of care in China. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to predetermine the detailed analytical methods for the ROADMAP study before the database lock to reduce potential bias and facilitate transparent analyses. METHODS: The ROADMAP study adopts a community-based, cluster randomized controlled trial design that compares the effectiveness of a tiered diabetes management model on diabetes control with usual care among patients with diabetes over a 1-year study period. The primary outcome is the control rate of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7% at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include the control rates of ABC (HbA1c, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], individual and combined) and fasting blood glucose, and the change in each outcome. The primary analysis will be the log-binomial regression with generalized estimating equation (GEE), which accounts for the clustering within communities, for binary outcomes and linear regression with GEE for continuous outcomes. For both, the baseline value of the analyzed outcome will be the covariate. The other covariate further adjusted models and the repetitive models after multiple imputation (when more than 10% of observations in HbA1c after 1 year are missing) will be used for sensitivity analysis. Five prespecified subgroup analyses have also been planned to explore the heterogeneity of the intervention effects by adding the subgroup variable and its interaction with the intervention to the primary model. RESULTS: This plan has been finalized, approved, and signed off by the principle investigator, co-principle investigator, and lead statisticians as of November 22, 2019, and made public on the institutional website without any knowledge of intervention allocation. Templates for the main figure and tables are presented. CONCLUSIONS: This statistical analysis protocol was developed for the main results of the ROADMAP study by authors blinded to group allocation and with no access to study data, which will guarantee the transparency and reduce potential bias during statistical analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IOC-17011325; https://tinyurl.com/ybpr9xrq. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/18333.

7.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of basal insulin (BI) for adequate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been well documented by randomized clinical trials. This post hoc analysis of the Observational Registry of Basal Insulin Treatment (ORBIT) study was performed to explore the 6-month dose of BI used in insulin-naïve T2DM patients achieving HbA1c target (<7%) and determine the patient characteristics that affect the 6-month dose of BI in the setting of real-world clinics in China. METHODS: This multicenter observational registry screened 19 894 adult T2DM patients with inadequately controlled hyperglycemia and treated with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in China. Of these patients, 5191 who continued to receive BI after 6 months and achieved HbA1c target were analyzed. Patient characteristics including age, body weight, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), use of OADs, insulin (type and dose), and glycemic control were recorded at baseline and 6-month follow-ups. RESULTS: The 6-month dose of BI needed for effective glycemic control was 0.20 ± 0.08 U/kg/day. High body mass index, high FPG, young age, longer duration of diabetes or OAD treatment, a greater number of OADs at baseline, and allocation to detemir and glargine were significant independent predictors for high dose of BI at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc analysis of the ORBIT registry provides key information on the 6-month dose of BI needed for effective glycemic control in Chinese T2DM patients. Furthermore, it identified crucial patient characteristics that are significant determinants of the dose of BI in a real-world setting.

8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(8): 4736-4747, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160403

RESUMO

Maresin Conjugates in Tissue Regeneration 1 (MCTR1) is a newly identified macrophage-derived sulfido-conjugated mediator that stimulates the resolution of inflammation. This study assessed the role of MCTR1 in alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in a rat model of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were intravenously injected with MCTR1 at a dose of 200 ng/rat, 8 hours after administration of 14 mg/kg LPS. The level of AFC was then determined in live rats. Primary rat ATII (Alveolar Type II) epithelial cells were also treated with MCTR1 (100 nmol/L) in a culture medium containing LPS for 8 hours. MCTR1 treatment improved AFC (18.85 ± 2.07 vs 10.11 ± 1.08, P < .0001) and ameliorated ALI in rats. MCTR1 also significantly promoted AFC by up-regulating epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na+ -K+ -adenosine triphosphatase (Na, K-ATPase) expressions in vivo. MCTR1 also activated Na, K-ATPase and elevated phosphorylated-Akt (P-Akt) by up-regulating the expression of phosphorylated Nedd4-2 (P-Nedd4-2) in vivo and in vitro. However, BOC-2 (ALX inhibitor), KH7 (cAMP inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) abrogated the improved AFC induced by MCTR1. Based on the findings of this study, MCTR1 may be a novel therapeutic approach to improve reabsorption of pulmonary oedema during ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

9.
Lab Invest ; 100(7): 904-915, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123295

RESUMO

Gram-negative bacterial infection causes an excessive inflammatory response and acute organ damage or dysfunction due to its outer membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Protectin conjugates in tissue regeneration 1 (PCTR1), an endogenous lipid mediator, exerts fundamental anti-inflammation and pro-resolution during infection. In the present study, we examined the properties of PCTR1 on the systemic inflammatory response, organic morphological damage and dysfunction, and serum metabolic biomarkers in an LPS-induced acute inflammatory mouse model. The results show that PCTR1 reduced serum inflammatory factors and ameliorated morphological damage and dysfunction of the lung, liver, kidney, and ultimately improved the survival rate of LPS-induced acute inflammation in mice. In addition, metabolomics analysis and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that LPS-stimulated serum linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were significantly altered by PCTR1. Moreover, PCTR1 upregulated LPS-inhibited fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), and elongase of very long chain fatty acids 2 (ELOVL2) expression, and downregulated LPS-stimulated phospholipase A2 (PLA2) expression to increase the intrahepatic content of AA. However, these effects of PCTR1 were partially abrogated by a lipoxin A4 receptor (ALX) antagonist (BOC-2). In summary, via the activation of ALX, PCTR1 promotes the conversion of LA to AA through upregulation of FADS1, FADS2, and ELOVL2 expression, and inhibits the conversion of bound AA into free AA through downregulation of PLA2 expression to decrease the serum AA and PGE2 levels.

10.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e032734, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes management in primary care remains suboptimal in China, despite its inclusion in the essential public health service (EPHS). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile health (mHealth) based and three-tiered diabetes management system in diverse Chinese contexts. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial, named road to hierarchical diabetes management at primary care (ROADMAP). 19 008 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) were recruited from primary care clinics in 864 communities across 144 counties/districts of 24 provinces. Eligible participants were adult patients diagnosed with T2D and registered for diabetes management in communities. Patients within the same communities (clusters) were randomly allocated into the intervention or control arm for 1 year in a 2:1 ratio. The control arm patients received usual care as EPHS packaged: at least four blood glucose (BG) and blood pressure (BP) tests, and lifestyle and medication instruction, yearly, from primary care providers. The intervention arm patients received at least two BG and one BP tests, monthly, and lifestyle and treatment instruction from a three-tiered contracted team. A mHealth platform, Graded ROADMAP, enabled test results uploading and sharing, and patient referral within the team. The intervention participants will be further divided into basic or intensive intervention group according to whether they were actively using the Your Doctor App. The primary outcome is the BG control rate with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)<7.0%. Secondary outcomes include control rates and changes of ABC (HbA1c, BP and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and fasting BG, hypoglycaemia episodes and health-related quality of life (EuroQol (EQ-5D)). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has been approved by the Institutional Review Board at Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital. Findings on the intervention effectiveness will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and other relevant mechanisms. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-IOC-17011325.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e032976, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924637

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salt intake in China (≈12 g/day) is more than twice the upper limit recommended by the WHO (5 g/day). To reduce salt intake, Action on Salt China (ASC) was launched in 2017. As one of four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the ASC programme, a comprehensive intervention study was designed to test whether all the components of the interventions adopted by other RCTs are acceptable, scalable and effective when provided to a region in the real world. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using a cluster RCT design, 2688 participants were selected from 48 towns (clusters) in 12 counties in 6 provinces and assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Randomisation was performed after the baseline survey was completed. Information on salt-related knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP), blood pressure and 24-hour urinary sodium were collected. The intervention includes government engagement, health education and other intervention components targeting restaurants, home cooks and primary school students and their families that have been used in other RCTs. The control group will not receive the intervention. The project will be followed up for 2 years, with the intervention being carried out for the first year only. The primary outcome is salt intake measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion after 1 year. The secondary outcomes are the long-lasting effectiveness on salt intake and blood pressure measured by the same method, as well as salt-related KAP and blood pressure at the 1-year and 2-year follow-ups. Process evaluation and health economics analysis will be conducted as well. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated through presentations, publications and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800018119.

12.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(11): e13236, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have been a great burden on health care systems, affecting the quality of life of millions of people worldwide. Developing countries, including China, suffer from the double burden of both the increasing mental health issues in population and the deficiency in mental health care resources. The use of mobile health technologies, especially for mobile phone apps, can be a possible solution. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to describe the features and assess the quality of mental health apps in major mobile phone app markets in China and further discuss the priorities for mental health app development. METHODS: Keywords including psychology, psychological health, psychological hygiene, psychological health service(s), mental, mental health, mental hygiene, mental health service(s), depression, and anxiety were searched in Chinese in 3 Android app markets (Baidu Mobile Assistant, Tencent MyApp, and 360 Mobile Assistant) and iOS App Store independently. Mental health apps were then selected according to established criteria for in-depth analysis and quality assessment by the Mobile App Rating Scale. RESULTS: In total, 63 of 997 mental health apps were analyzed in depth, of which 78% (49/63) were developed by commercial entities for general population, 17% (11/63) were for patients or clients of specialized psychiatric hospitals or counseling agencies, 3% (2/63) were by government or local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for general information, and 2% (1/63) for students of a university. Major built-in features of the apps included counseling services, mental health education, and self-assessment of mental health status by validated self-rating scales. The overall quality score of the MH apps was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health apps are emerging in the area of mobile health in China. Popular mental health apps usually provide a synthetic platform organizing resources of information, knowledge, counseling services, self-tests, and management for the general population with mental health-related inquiries. The quality of the apps was rated as acceptable on average, suggesting some space for improvement. Official guidelines and regulations are urgently required for the field in the future.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e025623, 2019 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the changes in the salt content of sauces in the UK in the past 10 years; (2) to compare the salt content of sauces in China with equivalent products sold in the UK and (3) to calculate the proportion of sauce products meeting the salt targets set by the UK Department of Health (DoH). DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys from the nutrition information panels of sauces. SETTING: Major retailers in London, Beijing and Shijiazhuang operating at data collection times. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Salt content of sauces. RESULTS: Relative change in the median salt content of UK products ranged from -70.6% to +3.0% in sauces for which salt targets were set, whereas it ranged from -27.1% to +111.5% in sauces without targets. Median salt contents were on average 4.4-fold greater in Chinese sauces compared with their UK equivalents surveyed during the same period (2015-2017). Only 13.4% of the Chinese products met the UK 2017 salt targets, compared with 70.0% of UK products. CONCLUSION: In the UK, the target-based approach contributed to the reduction in the salt content of sauces over the course of the past 10 years. Currently, large variations in salt content exist within the same categories of sauces and 70% of the products have met DoH's 2017 targets, demonstrating that further reductions are possible and lower salt targets should be set. In China, salt content of sauces is extremely high with similarly large variations within same categories of sauces, demonstrating the feasibility of reducing their salt content. As processed foods (including sauces) are expected to become an important contributor to salt intake in China, national salt reduction efforts such as setting salt targets would be a valuable, proactive strategy.

14.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(7): e13261, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of mobile apps that provide dietary guidance to support a healthy lifestyle and disease management. However, the characteristics of these nutrition-related apps are not well analyzed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the functionality and quality of nutrition-related apps in China. METHODS: Mobile apps providing dietary guidance were screened in the Chinese iOS and Android app stores in November 2017, using stepwise searching criteria. The first screening consisted of extracting information from the app descriptions. Apps that (1) were free, (2) contain information on diet and nutrition, and (3) were last updated after January 1, 2016, were downloaded for further analysis. Nutritional functionalities were determined according to the Chinese Dietary Guidelines framework. Market-related functionalities were developed from previous studies and tailored to downloaded apps. The quality of apps was assessed with the user version of the Mobile App Rating Scale (uMARS). RESULTS: Out of 628 dietary guidance apps screened, 44 were nutrition-related. Of these, guidance was provided on diet exclusively (11/44, 25%), fitness (17/44, 39%), disease management (11/44, 25%), or maternal health (5/44, 11%). Nutritional functionalities included nutritional information inquiry (40/44, 91%), nutrition education (35/44, 80%), food record (34/44, 77%), diet analysis (34/44, 77%), and personalized recipes (21/44, 48%). Dietary analysis and suggestions mainly focused on energy intake (33/44, 75%) and less on other factors such as dietary structure (10/44, 23%). Social communication functionalities were available in 42 apps (96%), user incentives were supported in 26 apps (59%), and intelligent recognition technology was available in 8 apps (18%). The median score for the quality of the 44 apps, as determined on a 5-point uMARS scale, was 3.6 (interquartile range 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: Most nutrition-related apps are developed for health management rather than for dietary guidance exclusively. Although basic principles of energy balance are used, their nutritional functionality was relatively limited and not individualized. More efforts should be made to develop nutrition-related apps with evidence-based nutritional knowledge, comprehensive and personalized dietary guidance, and innovative technology.

15.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e027793, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272977

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salt intake is very high in China, with ≈80% being added by the consumers. It is difficult to reduce salt in such settings. Our previous study (School-based Education programme to reduce Salt(School-EduSalt)) demonstrated that educating schoolchildren, who then instructed their families to reduce the amount of salt used at home, is effective in lowering salt intake in both children and adults. Our team also developed an app called 'KnowSalt', which could help individuals to estimate their salt intake and the major sources of salt in the diet. Building on School-EduSalt and KnowSalt, we propose to develop a new app (AppSalt) focusing on salt reduction through education, target setting, monitoring, evaluation, decision support and management to achieve a progressive lower salt intake for long term. To evaluate the effectiveness of the AppSalt programme, we will carry out a cluster randomised controlled trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will recruit 54 primary schools from urban and rural areas of three provinces in China. A total of 594 children aged 8-9 years and 1188 adult family members will be randomly selected for evaluation. After baseline assessment, schools will be randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group. Children in the intervention group will be taught, with support of AppSalt, about salt reduction and assigned homework to get the whole family involved in the activities to reduce salt consumption. The duration of the intervention is two school terms (ie, 1 year). The primary outcome is the difference between the intervention and control group in the change of salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee and Peking University Health Science Centre IRB. Results will be disseminated through presentations, publications and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800017553.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214454, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958868

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding context and how this can be systematically assessed and incorporated is crucial to successful implementation. We describe how context has been assessed (including exploration or evaluation) in Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) implementation research projects focused on improving health in people with or at risk of chronic disease and how contextual lessons were incorporated into the intervention or the implementation process. METHODS: Using a web-based semi-structured questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to collect quantitative and qualitative data across GACD projects (n = 20) focusing on hypertension, diabetes and lung diseases. The use of context-specific data from project planning to evaluation was analyzed using mixed methods and a multi-layered context framework across five levels; 1) individual and family, 2) community, 3) healthcare setting, 4) local or district level, and 5) state or national level. RESULTS: Project teams used both qualitative and mixed methods to assess multiple levels of context (avg. = 4). Methodological approaches to assess context were identified as formal and informal assessments, engagement of stakeholders, use of locally adapted resources and materials, and use of diverse data sources. Contextual lessons were incorporated directly into the intervention by informing or adapting the intervention, improving intervention participation or improving communication with participants/stakeholders. Provision of services, equipment or information, continuous engagement with stakeholders, feedback for personnel to address gaps, and promoting institutionalization were themes identified to describe how contextual lessons are incorporated into the implementation process. CONCLUSIONS: Context is regarded as critical and influenced the design and implementation of the GACD funded chronic disease interventions. There are different approaches to assess and incorporate context as demonstrated by this study and further research is required to systematically evaluate contextual approaches in terms of how they contribute to effectiveness or implementation outcomes.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Geografia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Cooperação Internacional , Internet , Pneumopatias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Participação dos Interessados , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(4): e13250, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High salt consumption has contributed to the rise of noncommunicable diseases around the world. The application of mobile health (mHealth) technologies has witnessed rapid growth in recent years. However, evidence to support mHealth interventions to confront the challenge of salt reduction has not yet been critically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate mHealth interventions aimed at salt reduction across the world. METHODS: A systematic search of studies in English or Chinese language published from January 1, 1992 to July 31, 2017 was conducted using 4 English databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Global Health, and Cochrane) and 3 Chinese databases (Wanfang, China Science and Technology Journal, and China National Knowledge of Infrastructure). All studies directly using mobile technologies in health care with a primary or secondary objective of reducing dietary salt consumption were included. RESULTS: A total of 1609 articles were found using the search strategy, with 11 full articles (8 English and 3 Chinese) being included for data extraction, including 11 interventional studies. Overall, few high-quality interventions were identified. Most interventions were limited by small study population sample sizes, lack of control groups, and short follow-up times, all of which were obstacles in generating long-term scalable approaches. Most interventions employed short message service as a platform for mHealth interventions, whereas some innovative mHealth technologies were also explored. Most interventions had a primary focus of improving awareness of dietary salt consumption. The outcome variables used to measure intervention effectiveness included 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, spot urine sampling, dietary records, and indirect behavior or knowledge indicators targeting salt consumption. Although most interventions displayed positive outcome results, none of them provided reliable evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of salt reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Salt reduction in mHealth initiatives remains relatively unexplored; however, studies that did intervene on salt-reduction show the potential of mHealth as an effective intervention method. We provide 3 recommendations for future mHealth interventions in salt reduction-(1) increased use of new, innovative, and interactive mHealth technologies; (2) development of mHealth interventions with primary prevention measures and goals of salt reduction; and (3) large-scale, rigorously designed, and object-targeted clinical trials of mHealth interventions with appropriate quantitative outcome variables, in particular 24-hour urine sodium.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(6): e140, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health services are thriving in the field of maternal and child health in China due to expansions in the field of electronic health and the introduction of the two-child policy. There are numerous maternal and child health apps in computer stores, but the exact number of apps, number of downloads, and features of these apps is not known. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the use of maternal and child health apps in Android and iOS app stores and to describe the key functional features of the most popular apps, with the purpose of providing insight into further research and development of maternal and child health mobile health products. METHODS: The researchers conducted a search in the 3 most popular Android app stores (Tencent MyApp, Baidu Mobile Assistant, and 360 Mobile Assistant) and the iTunes App Store in China. All apps regarding family planning (contraception and preparing for pregnancy), pregnancy and perinatal care, neonatal care and health, and development for children under 6 years were included in the initial analysis. Maternal and child health mobile apps with predominant features of product marketing, children's songs, animation, or games were excluded from the study. The 50 most frequently used apps in each of the Android stores as well as the iTunes store (a total of 78 deduplicated apps) were selected and downloaded for an in-depth analysis. RESULTS: A total of 5276 Android apps and 877 iOS apps developed for maternal and child health care were identified. Of the 78 most frequently used apps, 43 (55%) apps focused on one stage of MCH care, mainly targeting child care (25 apps) and before pregnancy care (11 apps), whereas 35 (45%) of the apps covered 2 or more stages, most of which (32 apps) included both pregnancy and child care services. The app features that were commonly adopted by the popular apps were health education, communication, health status self-monitoring, a diary, reminders, and counseling. Within the app feature of "health status self-monitoring," the researchers found 47 specific tools supporting activities such as pregnancy preparation, fetal heart monitoring, blood glucose and blood pressure monitoring, and doctor visits. A few apps were equipped with external devices (n=3) or sensors. No app with intelligent decision-support features to support disease management for conditions such as gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension was found. A small number of apps (n=5) had a Web connection with hospital information systems to support appointment making, payments, hospital service guidance, or checking of laboratory results. CONCLUSIONS: There are thousands of maternal and child health apps in the Chinese market. Child care, pregnancy, and before pregnancy were the mostly covered maternal and child health stages, in that order. Various app features and tools were adopted by maternal and child health apps, but the use of internal or external sensors, intelligent decision support, and tethering with existing hospital information systems was rare and these features need more research and development.

20.
Endokrynol Pol ; 69(4): 395-402, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates an insulin dose titration model and factors that impact insulin dose adjustment in Chinese adults with type-2 diabetes, who receive basal insulin in real-world settings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 19,894 patients from the ORBIT study were included. These patients were divided into four groups, according to the type of insulin dose adjustment: no insulin titration (group A), self-titration (group B), physician-led insulin titration (group C), and combined physician and patient-led insulin titration (group D). Data were collected and compared at baseline and after six months of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 12,865 patients completed the visits and were included in the analysis. Among these patients, 3187 (24.8%), 1971 (15.3%), 5165 (40.1%), and 2542 (19.8%) patients were included in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the duration of diabetes, body mass index, microvascular complications, inpatient days, HbA1C level, and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) were positively correlated with insulin titration in group B, C, and D, compared with group A. The number of inpatient days and outpatient visits were positively correlated with dose adjustment for physician-led titration, while this was negatively correlated for self-titration. Self-titration encouraged by physicians and home blood glucose monitoring were positively correlated with self-titration and the combined physician and patient-led titration. CONCLUSIONS: High HbA1C level, SMBG, long disease duration, microvascular complications, and the encouragement of physicians while initiating insulin use prompt patients to perform dose adjustments in real-world settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Automonitorização da Glicemia , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros
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