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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(1): 73-79, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788450

RESUMO

Neurological abnormalities identified via neuroimaging are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, it is not yet possible to easily detect these abnormalities using head computed tomography in the early stages of the disease. In this review, we evaluated the ways in which modern imaging techniques such as positron emission computed tomography, single photon emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectrum imaging, structural magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging, magnetic resonance sensitive weighted imaging, and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed specific changes not only in brain structure, but also in brain function in Alzheimer's disease patients. The reviewed literature indicated that decreased fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism in the temporal and parietal lobes of Alzheimer's disease patients is frequently observed via positron emission computed tomography. Furthermore, patients with Alzheimer's disease often show a decreased N-acetylaspartic acid/creatine ratio and an increased myoinositol/creatine ratio revealed via magnetic resonance imaging. Atrophy of the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and posterior cingulate gyrus can be detected early using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance sensitive weighted imaging can show small bleeds and abnormal iron metabolism. Task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging can display brain function activity through cerebral blood oxygenation. Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging can display the functional connection between brain neural networks. These are helpful for the differential diagnosis and experimental study of Alzheimer's disease, and are valuable for exploring the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

2.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e18917, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue in Canada that is associated with high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality rates and high financial and social burdens. Telemonitoring (TM) has been shown to improve all-cause mortality and hospitalization rates in patients with HF. The Medly program is a TM intervention integrated as standard of care at a large Canadian academic hospital for ambulatory patients with HF that has been found to improve patient outcomes. However, the cost-effectiveness of the Medly program is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to conduct a cost-utility analysis of the Medly program compared with the standard of care for HF in Ontario, Canada, from the perspective of the public health care payer. METHODS: Using a microsimulation model, individual patient data were simulated over a 25-year time horizon to compare the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) between the Medly program and standard care for patients with HF treated in the ambulatory care setting. Data were sourced from a Medly Program Evaluation study and literature to inform model parameters, such as Medly's effectiveness in reducing mortality and hospitalizations, health care and intervention costs, and model transition probabilities. Scenario analyses were conducted in relation to HF severity and TM deployment models. One-way deterministic effectiveness analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed to explore the impact on the results of uncertainty in model parameters. RESULTS: The Medly program was associated with an average total cost of Can $102,508 (US $77,626) per patient and total QALYs of 5.51 per patient compared with the average cost of Can $97,497 (US $73,831) and QALYs of 4.95 per patient in the Standard Care Group. This led to an incremental cost of Can $5011 (US $3794) and incremental QALY of 0.566, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of Can $8850 (US $6701)/QALY. Cost-effectiveness improved in relation to patients with advanced HF and with deployment models in which patients used their own equipment. Baseline and alternative scenarios consistently showed probabilities of cost-effectiveness greater than 85% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of Can $50,000 (US $37,718). Although the results showed some sensitivity to assumptions about effectiveness parameters, the intervention was found to remain cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: The Medly program for patients with HF is cost-effective compared with standard care using commonly reported willingness-to-pay thresholds. This study provides evidence for decision makers on the use of TM for HF, supports the use of a nurse-led model of TM that embeds clinically validated algorithms, and informs the use of economic modeling for future evaluations of early-stage health informatics technology.

3.
Sci Adv ; 6(40)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008897

RESUMO

Protein N-glycosylation plays critical roles in controlling brain function, but little is known about human brain N-glycoproteome and its alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report the first, large-scale, site-specific N-glycoproteome profiling study of human AD and control brains using mass spectrometry-based quantitative N-glycoproteomics. The study provided a system-level view of human brain N-glycoproteins and in vivo N-glycosylation sites and identified disease signatures of altered N-glycopeptides, N-glycoproteins, and N-glycosylation site occupancy in AD. Glycoproteomics-driven network analysis showed 13 modules of co-regulated N-glycopeptides/glycoproteins, 6 of which are associated with AD phenotypes. Our analyses revealed multiple dysregulated N-glycosylation-affected processes and pathways in AD brain, including extracellular matrix dysfunction, neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, cell adhesion alteration, lysosomal dysfunction, endocytic trafficking dysregulation, endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction, and cell signaling dysregulation. Our findings highlight the involvement of N-glycosylation aberrations in AD pathogenesis and provide new molecular and system-level insights for understanding and treating AD.

4.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2020: 8862152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014915

RESUMO

According to the recent data from the United Network for Organ Sharing database, alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) accounts to be the most common indication of liver transplantation (LT) waiting lists in the United States among men without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is serious and the life-threatening form of ARLD and should be treated timely. However, the LT for severe AH remained to be controversial among the transplant community because of marked interests about the constrained organ supply and the hazard that the AH liver recipient will return to risky drinking. Early LT for ARLD refers for a patient with severe AH undergoing LT who are non-responder to medical treatments. These patients are generally on the existing waiting list but usually followed by 6-month duration of alcohol abstinence. However, the rule of 6-month alcohol abstinence need before the LT is ambiguous. The 6-month alcohol abstinence was consistently defended in light of the compelling fact that it would enable patients to recoup from the intense impacts of alcohol to the liver. In routine, however, the purported "6-month abstinence rule" turned into a surrogate for the forecast of future drinking by ARLD patients for the LT. Careful consideration should be given to the alcohol use disorder of craving and the hazard for recidivism after the LT. As for the current situation, there, urgently, is a specific need of standardized criteria for the evaluation of patients with severe AH for earlier LT. Moreover, further studies are required precisely to develop an accurate prediction model for posttransplant alcohol recidivism. Additionally, development of a standardized protocol for post-LT follow-up and management is further needed. We carefully outlined the published experience with the LT for ARLD in this review.

5.
Thorac Cancer ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One classic traditional Chinese medicine theory is that the "lung and intestine are exterior-interiorly related"; however, this has not been confirmed experimentally. The aim of this study was to provide a biological basis for the theory by measuring the tissue distribution of andrographolide. METHODS: Acute pneumonia was induced in a mouse model by repeated stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. The distribution of andrographolide in mice was observed by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [18 F]-labeled andrographolide, and changes in the in vivo distribution before and after modeling were compared. Subsequently, the consistency of pathological changes in lung and intestine was confirmed by observation of pathological sections. Finally, the results were verified by cytokine detection. RESULTS: The value of organ uptake, pathological changes and inflammatory factor expression of the lung and intestine were consistent. The concentration of andrographolide in the lung and intestine increased significantly, and was confirmed by pathology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). CONCLUSIONS: Micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) can be used to visually observe the distribution of medicinal ingredients in vivo, and [18 F]-andrographolide can be used as a tool to assess the interior-exterior relationship between the lung and intestine.

6.
Nat Med ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020644

RESUMO

Autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies targeting CD19 have high efficacy in large B cell lymphomas (LBCLs), but long-term remissions are observed in less than half of patients, and treatment-associated adverse events, such as immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), are a clinical challenge. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing with capture-based cell identification on autologous axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) anti-CD19 CAR T cell infusion products to identify transcriptomic features associated with efficacy and toxicity in 24 patients with LBCL. Patients who achieved a complete response by positron emission tomography/computed tomography at their 3-month follow-up had three-fold higher frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing memory signatures than patients with partial response or progressive disease. Molecular response measured by cell-free DNA sequencing at day 7 after infusion was significantly associated with clinical response (P = 0.008), and a signature of CD8 T cell exhaustion was associated (q = 2.8 × 10-149) with a poor molecular response. Furthermore, a rare cell population with monocyte-like transcriptional features was associated (P = 0.0002) with high-grade ICANS. Our results suggest that heterogeneity in the cellular and molecular features of CAR T cell infusion products contributes to variation in efficacy and toxicity after axi-cel therapy in LBCL, and that day 7 molecular response might serve as an early predictor of CAR T cell efficacy.

7.
J Orthop Res ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038032

RESUMO

Although autophagy may be beneficial for maintaining the metabolic balance of the extracellular matrix in the nucleus pulposus and its vitality under inflammation, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. A previous study found that autophagy activation stimulated the release of exosomes in normal chondrocytes, which are located in a similar avascular environment and share many common features with those of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). This study explored the protective effect on matrix degradation in the nucleus pulposus by exosomes derived from autophagy-activated NPCs and exosomal miRNAs. NPCs-derived exosomes (NPCs-Exos) were isolated from culture medium of either normal NPCs or rapamycin-treated NPCs and quantified by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The effect of rapamycin-treated NPC-derived exosomes on NPCs were assessed by co-culture with IL-1ß-stimulated NPCs. After examination of six major proteinases of the extracellular matrix, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) was chosen for further study. miR-27a, which targets MMP-13, was investigated through previous studies and bioinformatics tool. The levels of miR-27a were upregulated in both rapamycin-treated NPCs and their exosomes, compared to the control. When exosomal miR-27a was transferred into NPCs, it alleviated IL-1ß-induced degradation of the NPC extracellular matrix by targeting MMP-13. Autophagy activation may promote the release of NPCs-derived exosomes and thereby prevent the NPC matrix from degradation. Autophagy activation also alleviates intervertebral disc degeneration, at least partly via exosomal miR-27a, which restrains MMP-13 expression under IL-1ß stimulation. Our work elucidates a new mechanism for how autophagy may participate in preventing intervertebral disc degeneration, which may be a promising therapeutic strategy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Radiat Res ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045079

RESUMO

Radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern for cancer radiotherapy, radiation accidents and occupational exposure, and the damage mainly occurs due to apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. There is currently no effective treatment for this disorder. The ß-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. However, the role of the ß-catenin signaling pathway in radiation-induced skin injury has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrated that the ß-catenin signaling pathway was activated in response to radiation and that its activation by Wnt3a, a ligand-protein involved in the ß-catenin signaling pathway, inhibited apoptosis and the production of ROS in irradiated human keratinocyte HaCaT cells and skin fibroblast WS1 cells. Additionally, Wnt3a promoted cell migration after irradiation. In a mouse model of full-thickness skin wounds combined with total-body irradiation, Wnt3a was shown to facilitate skin wound healing. The results from RNA-Seq revealed that 24 genes were upregulated and 154 were downregulated in Wnt3a-treated irradiated skin cells, and these dysregulated genes were mainly enriched in the tight junction pathway. Among them, Marvel D3 showed the most obvious difference. We further found that the activated ß-catenin signaling pathway stimulated the phosphorylation of JNK by silencing Marvel D3. Treatment of irradiated cells with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, augmented ROS production and impeded cell migration. Furthermore, treatment with Wnt3a or transfection with Marvel D3-specific siRNAs could reverse the above effects. Taken together, these findings illustrate that activated ß-catenin signaling stimulates the activation of JNK by negatively regulating Marvel D3 to ameliorate radiation-induced skin injury.

9.
Mol Immunol ; 127: 212-222, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011404

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as essential regulators in many biological processes; however, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of lncRNA NEAT1 in CNV formation, and assessed whether inhibition of lncRNA NEAT1 could suppress M2-type macrophage polarization and CNV. METHODS: The expression profiles of lncRNAs in a CNV mice model were accessed via microarray analysis. The role of lncRNA NEAT1 on macrophage polarization was assessed both in vitro and vivo. The interaction between lncRNA NEAT1, miR-148a-3p, and PTEN was assessed using a dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay. Additionally, to evaluate the role of lncRNA NEAT1 on CNV development, eyes of mice in the mice CNV model were examined by Fluorescein Angiography (FA) and choroidal flatmounts on days 3 and 7 after intravitreal injection. RESULTS: The results revealed that 128 lncRNAs were significantly altered in the RPE-choroid-sclera complexes of CNV mice (P < 0.05, fold change > 2.0). Additionally, lncRNA NEAT1 increased in CNV formation and M2 macrophage polarization. LncRNA NEAT1 sponging miRNA-148a-3p targeting PTEN can modulate M2 macrophage polarization in mice CNV models as well as in bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in vitro. Inhibition of lncRNA NEAT1 can suppress M2 macrophage both in vitro and vivo. Moreover, the intravitreal injection of a lncRNA NEAT1 Smart Silencer can inhibit CNV leakage and neovascularization. CONCLUSION: LncRNA NEAT1 via miRNA-148a-3p targeting PTEN plays a significant role in M2 macrophage polarization, while the inhibition of lncRNA NEAT1 can suppress choroidal neovascularization by inhibiting M2 macrophage polarization.

10.
J Struct Biol ; : 107601, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068699

RESUMO

Electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) involves the estimation of spatial rotations, or saying orientations, of projection images or three-dimensional (3D) volumes. Euler angle system is widely used to describe spatial rotations in most cryoEM algorithms and software. In this review, we introduce unit quaternion as an alternate to Euler angles for describing spatial rotations, customize and develop corresponding tools for increasing demands of statistical analysis of spatial rotations in cryoEM. Some basic properties and definitions of quaternion are first recalled. Thereafter, distance and geodesic between rotations are introduced to aid comparisons and interpolations between rotations, which are prerequisites of statistics of rotations in 3D cryoEM. Furthermore, statistics of rotations are reviewed. Techniques potentially useful in cryoEM, such as calculations of the average rotation, generation of quasi-regular grids, sampling, inference with uniform distribution and angular central Gaussian (ACG) distribution, and estimation of rotation precision, are reviewed and developed. Finally, molecular symmetry presented in unit quaternion form is discussed. Unit quaternion system is shown as a convenient and comprehensive mathematical tool for cryoEM.

11.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(5): 3629-3634, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000201

RESUMO

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit δ isoform (P110δ) is mainly expressed in white blood cells. It is involved in T and B lymphocyte differentiation, maturation and the neutrophil chemotaxis process. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an arginine­rich alkaline protein, which is present in plasma chylomicron, low­density lipoprotein and very low­density lipoprotein. The present study aimed to determine the effects of P110δ deletion on myocarditis in ApoE­/­ mice. A mouse model of ApoE and P110δ double deletion was initially constructed; hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to detect the histological alterations in the mouse myocardium. Systolic and diastolic alterations, and alterations in the left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were examined by electrocardiogram. Blood cell of ApoE and P110δ double mice was used to detect changes in white blood cells and monocytes. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis­associated proteins, whereas flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of apoptosis. Morphological alterations in myocardial cells were observed under a microscope. The results of polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that double deletion mice were successfully constructed. H&E staining revealed that cells in the ApoE­/­ mice were spindle­shaped; however, the nuclei were smaller in the double deletion mice. There was no change in cardiac contraction in normal mice; however, in double deletion mice, the systolic and diastolic contractions were markedly reduced. LVFS and LVEF were decreased compared with in the control group. Blood cell analysis indicated that the content of white blood cells and monocytes in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Western blotting demonstrated that the expression levels of apoptotic proteins in double deletion mice were significantly higher compared with in the control group. Flow cytometry revealed that the apoptotic ratio was increased in double deletion mice compared with in the control group (42 vs. 21%). These findings suggested that deletion of P110δ may induce monocyte peritoneal infiltration and increase apoptosis, thus promoting the development of myocarditis.

12.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025200

RESUMO

The hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein of betacoronavirus lineage A is a secondary receptor in the infection process and is involved in the emergence of new betacoronavirus genotypes with altered host specificity and tissue tropism. We previously reported a novel recombinant bovine coronavirus (BCoV) strain that was circulating in dairy cattle in China, but this virus was not successfully isolated, and the genetic characteristics of BCoV are still largely unknown. In this study, 20 diarrheic faecal samples were collected from a farm in Liaoning province that had an outbreak of calf diarrhea (≤ 3 months of age) in November 2018, and all of the samples tested positive for BCoV by RT-PCR. In addition, a BCoV strain with a recombinant HE (designated as SWUN/A1/2018) and another BCoV strain with a recombinant HE containing an insertion (designated as SWUN/A10/2018) were successfully isolated in cell culture (TCID50: 104.25/mL and 104.73/mL, respectively). Unexpectedly, we identified the emergence of a novel BCoV variant characterized by a 12-nt bovine gene insertion in the receptor-binding domain in a natural recombinant HE gene, suggesting a novel evolutionary pattern in BCoV.

13.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that discharge SBP had different associations with outcomes in non-HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≥40%) patients with or without high blood pressure (HBP) at admission. METHODS: Non-HFrEF patients hospitalized for decompensated heart failure were consecutively recruited and were categorized into HBP (admission SBP ≥130 mmHg) group and non-HBP group. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death and heart transplantation. Multivariate Cox and penalized spline analyses were used to assess the relationships between discharge SBP and outcomes. RESULTS: Nine hundred and sixty-four non-HFrEF patients were enrolled with a median follow-up of 71.8 months. Three hundred and sixty-five (37.9%) patients had HBP. In multivariate Cox analyses, non-HBP patients with higher discharge SBP were associated with a better outcome (per 10 mmHg increased, hazard ratio = 0.788, P = 0.001). However, an opposite relationship between discharge SBP and the primary outcome was observed in HBP group (per 10 mmHg increased, hazard ratio = 1.312, P = 0.002). Results of penalized spline regression models showed that there was a U-shaped association between discharge SBP and outcomes in the total cohort. Compared with 120 mmHg, the risk of the primary outcome increased when discharge SBP was below 99 mmHg in non-HBP group; in HBP group, a worse outcome was observed when discharged SBP was above 145 mmHg. CONCLUSION: Non-HFrEF had a U-shaped association between discharge SBP and adverse events. Such an association was modified by admission HBP. Higher discharge SBP correlated with a worse outcome in non-HFrEF patients with admission HBP, as opposed to patients admitted without HBP.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the incidence of sudden deafness has gradually increased, with a very limited understanding of the etiology and the pathogenesis. Glucocorticoids are the first choice for the treatment, but some hormoneresistant patients are not sensitive to glucocorticoid therapy. The pathogenesis is not yet known. In this study, we aim to construct HEI-OC1 cell line stably overexpressing glucocorticoid receptor beta (GRß), and identify its exact role in the cases of glucocorticoid-resistant sudden deafness. METHOD: We used the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cochlear hair cells (HEI-OC1) to investigate the relationship of inflammation factor IL-2, TNF alpha, and SRp30c with the high expression GRß. We build a stable GRß high expression HEI-OC1 cell line and clarified its effects on the therapeutic effect from Dexamethasone. MTT assay, colony formation assay, CCK-8 assay, Western blot, and RT-qPCR were utilized for the characterizations. RESULTS: Dexamethasone reduced LPS-induced inflammatory response in HEI-OC1 cells (p<0.05), detected by MTT assay. Dexamethasone could protect HEI-OC1 cells, but its protective effect was weakened due to the transfection of SRp30c overexpression plasmid (p<0.05). The transfection of SRp30c over-expression plasmid in HEI-OC1 cells could elevate the expressions of GRß (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: We clarified the mechanisms of high expression of GRß in glucocorticoid-resistant sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and proved that the inhibition of SRp30c may act as a new treatment way of glucocorticoid-resistant sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

15.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034848

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multiple circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been reported to be dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, their functions and modes of action are still largely unclear. Identifying key circRNAs and revealing their potential functions and molecular mechanisms is considered important for improving the diagnosis and treatment of HCC. METHODS: Dysregulated circRNAs in HCC were identified through integration of three human HCC circRNAs microarray datasets (GSE94508, GSE97332 and GSE 78520), followed by qRT-PCR validation in primary HCC tissues and cell lines. circRNA characteristics were verified through Sanger sequencing, RNase R treatment, northern blotting and intracellular localization analyses. In addition, circRNA functions in HCC development were assessed using CCK8, colony formation, EDU incorporation, flow cytometry, transwell and scratch wound healing assays in vitro and tumor xenograft assays in vivo. Next, underlying molecular mechanisms in HCC were assessed using dual-luciferase reporter, RNA pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation and western blotting assays. RESULTS: We found that a novel circular RNA, circ-102,166, was down-regulated in HCC and that its expression level was significantly associated with multiple clinicopathologic characteristics, as well as the clinical prognosis of HCC patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that circ-102,166 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, migration and tumorigenicity of HCC cells. Furthermore, we found that circ-102,166 can bind to miR-182 and miR-184 to regulate the expression of several of their downstream targets (FOXO3a, MTSS1, SOX7, p-RB and c-MYC). CONCLUSION: Our data revealed a tumor-suppressing role of circ-102,166 in HCC. Down-regulation of circ-102,166 enhanced the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells by releasing the oncomiRs miR-182 and miR-184.

16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 250: 116985, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049870

RESUMO

In this study, citric acid (CA) esterified canna starch was firstly synthesized with the aid of vacuum, microwave and infrared radiation treatment. The changes in structural, physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of the modified starch were then investigated. The maximum degree of substitution (DS) reached 0.273 and the maximum thermo-stable resistant starch (RS) content reached 86.5 %. FT-IR confirmed the esterification reaction had successfully occurred, XRD and DSC results revealed that the crystalline and endothermic peaks of the samples disappeared after CA-treated, and TGA showed that the thermal degradation temperatures were above 280 °C. SEM showed the destroyed surface of the starch granules. All modified samples were lighter and generally whiter than native canna starch in color. These results suggest that the aid of vacuum treatment, microwave and infrared radiations for CA esterified of canna starch is an effective method for preparing high content of thermally stable RS4.

17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(10): e20720, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is one of the most important food assistance programs in the United States, serving 6.4 million low-income, eligible women, infants, and children under 5 years of age in 2019. In the program, participants are prescribed a list of food benefits, which can be redeemed in WIC-authorized stores. However, there are multiple behavioral barriers in the program and the stores that prevent participants from redeeming the benefits fully. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the relationship between the use of a widely used mobile phone app, WICShopper, and the redemption of the prescribed food packages. METHODS: WIC administrative data were obtained from West Virginia for the period January 2019 to January 2020 and included 30,440 WIC households that had received food benefits in that period. The redemption rates of 18 WIC food benefits were compared between app users and nonapp users, that is, those who never used the app in the study period. The use behaviors were defined for the app users, including the number of active use benefit cycles, active benefit cycle rates, number of active use days in the cycle, and proportion rates of daytime use. Panel linear regressions were applied to examine how the redemption rates were related to these behaviors over time. RESULTS: App users consistently had higher average redemption rates than nonapp users; the difference ranged from 3.6% (4.8% relative) for infant formula to 14.3% (40.7% relative) for fish. After controlling for sociodemographics, the coefficients of app use were significantly positive for all benefit categories except for WIC-eligible nutritionals. More active cycles and active days in the cycle were significantly related to redemption rates for all categories, except for frozen juice (coefficient=-0.002, P=.09). Daytime app access was positively associated with redemption rates for most food benefits except only a few, such as infant formula (coefficient=-0.03, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Use of the WIC app was significantly related to higher redemption rates across food benefits, although the association varied across benefit categories. More active days were positively related to benefit redemptions across food categories, and the app's daytime use was positively associated with the redemption of most benefit categories. These findings suggest that the WIC app can be an important tool for the promotion of benefit redemption among WIC participants.

18.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e036927, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine whether eHealth interventions can effectively improve anthropometric and biochemical indicators of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, the Web of Science, Embase, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Wanfang and Weipu databases were comprehensively searched for papers that were published from database inception to May 2019. Articles were included if the participants were metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients, the participants received eHealth interventions, the participants in the control group received usual care or were wait listed, the outcomes included anthropometric and biochemical indicators of MetS, and the study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) or a controlled clinical trial (CCT). The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to assess the methodological quality of the included articles. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager V.5.3 software. RESULTS: In our review, seven RCTs and two CCTs comprising 935 MetS participants met the inclusion criteria. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that eHealth interventions resulted in significant improvements in body mass index (standardised mean difference (SMD)=-0.36, 95% CI (-0.61 to -0.10), p<0.01), waist circumference (SMD=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.84 to -0.09), p=0.01) and systolic blood pressure(SMD=-0.35, 95% CI (-0.66 to -0.04), p=0.03) compared with the respective outcomes associated with the usual care or wait-listed groups. Based on the included studies, we found significant effects of the eHealth interventions on body weight. However, we did not find significant positive effects of the eHealth interventions on other metabolic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that eHealth interventions were beneficial for improving specific anthropometric outcomes, but did not affect biochemical indicators of MetS. Therefore, whether researchers adopt eHealth interventions should be based on the purpose of the study. More rigorous studies are needed to confirm these findings.

19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 192: 113661, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053507

RESUMO

Paclitaxel (PTX) is a powerful anticancer natural product, with its separation and purification having been widely studied. In this work, new molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with different molar ratios were prepared as functional monomers. These were then used as adsorbents in solid phase extraction (SPE) for the separation of PTX from its structural analogs. The polymers were characterized by energy disperive X-rays (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results suggested that the formative regular DES-MIPs had an even pore-size distribution and a large specific surface area. The dynamic adsorption and static adsorption showed that the DES-MIPs had excellent adsorption performance, with a maximum adsorption capacity and optimum adsorption time of 87.08 mg/g and 180 min, respectively. The selective adsorption experiments showed that the material had outstanding selectivity, and the maximum selectivity factor was 6.20. For stability, after six consecutive adsorption and desorption cycles, the DES-MIPs maintained the perfect stability and reusability. Furthermore, the fabricated SPE column was successfully utilized for extracting and eluting PTX. This study provides a reliable protocol for the separation and purification PTX from its structural analogs and the DES-MIPs materials have excellent potential application value in pharmaceutical industry.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5263, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067430

RESUMO

Global emergence of Gram-negative bacteria carrying the plasmid-borne resistance genes, blaMBL and mcr, raises a significant challenge to the treatment of life-threatening infections by the antibiotics, carbapenem and colistin (COL). Here, we identify an antirheumatic drug, auranofin (AUR) as a dual inhibitor of metallo-ß-lactamases (MBLs) and mobilized colistin resistance (MCRs), two resistance enzymes that have distinct structures and substrates. We demonstrate that AUR irreversibly abrogates both enzyme activity via the displacement of Zn(II) cofactors from their active sites. We further show that AUR synergizes with antibiotics on killing a broad spectrum of carbapenem and/or COL resistant bacterial strains, and slows down the development of ß-lactam and COL resistance. Combination of AUR and COL rescues all mice infected by Escherichia coli co-expressing MCR-1 and New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase 5 (NDM-5). Our findings provide potential therapeutic strategy to combine AUR with antibiotics for combating superbugs co-producing MBLs and MCRs.

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