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1.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 200: 105635, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068072

RESUMO

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by enzymatic defects in steroid synthesis. Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH) is the most severe form of CAH, insofar as the initial step of steroid synthesis is impaired. Variants in the steroid acute regulatory (STAR) gene are responsible for LCAH. To describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of three Chinese patients with LCAH. We analyzed the history, clinical manifestations, physical examination, laboratory data, and computed tomography findings of three girls with LCAH. The STAR gene of the probands and their parents were sequenced using genomic DNA. The wild-type and mutant STAR cDNAs were inserted into the pcDNA3.1(+) plasmid vector and transiently transfected into COS7 cells. The enzymatic activities of the wild-type and mutant STAR were evaluated by the enzyme-dependent conversion efficiency of cholesterol to pregnenolone. We identified the molecular genetic abnormalities in three patients with LCAH. All three patients had a female phenotype: karyotype of patients 1 and 2 was 46, XY and patient 3 was 46, XX. DNA sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in STAR for three probands. Two variants, c.659A > G/p.His220Arg and exon 2-3 deletion, were novel. In vitro functional studies uncovered that the His220Arg variant retained 19.2 % of enzymatic activity compared to that of the wild type.

2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 116, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942665

RESUMO

Serious air pollution motivates governments to take control measures. However, specific emission reduction effects of various temporary emission reduction policies are difficult to evaluate. During the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting in Beijing in 2014, the Chinese government implemented a number of emergency emission control measures in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area to maintain the air quality in this region. This gave us an opportunity to quantify the effectiveness of the emission reduction measures separately and identify the efficient policy combinations for the reduction of major pollutants. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of specific emission reduction measures on the concentrations of two major air pollutants (PM2.5 and O3) under eight policy scenarios using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). Comparing these scenarios, we found that the control policies against the primary PM2.5 emission achieved the most significant results. Meanwhile, all the emission control measures raised the ozone concentrations in different degrees, which might be partly attributed to the changes of PM2.5 concentration and the ratio of NOx and VOCs caused by the emission control measures. Our results suggest that, in VOC-sensitive areas like Beijing, emergency control measures focusing on primary PM2.5 emission could lead to significant PM2.5 reduction and relatively small ozone increase, and should be considered as a priority policy. Joint emission control at the regional scale is also important especially under unfavorable meteorological conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Política Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
3.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109751, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675594

RESUMO

Using 2025 as the target year, we quantitatively assessed the reduction potentials of emissions of primary pollutants (including CO, HC, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10) under different vehicle control policies and the impacts of vehicle emission control policies in the BTH region on the regional PM2.5 concentration in winter and the surface ozone (O3) concentration in summer. Comparing the different scenarios, we found that (1) vehicle control policies will bring significant reductions in the emissions of primary pollutants. Among the individual policies, upgrading new vehicle emission standards and fuel quality in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei will be the most effective policy, with emission reductions of primary pollutants of 26.3%-54.7%, 38.0%-70.3% and 46.0%-81.6% in 2025, respectively; (2) for PM2.5 in winter, the Combined Scenario (CS) will lead to a reduction of 0.5-3.9 µg m-3 (3.5%-11.6%) for the monthly average PM2.5 concentrations in most areas. The monthly nitrate and ammonium concentrations would reduce by 5.8% and 5.3%, respectively, in the whole BTH region, indicating that vehicle emission control policies may play an important role in the reduction of PM2.5 concentrations in winter, especially for nitrate aerosols; and (3) for O3 concentrations in summer, vehicle emission control policies will lead to significant decreases. Under the CS scenario, the maximum reduction of monthly average O3 concentrations in the summer is approximately 3.6 ppb (5.9%). Most areas in the BTH region have a decrease of 15 ppb (7.5%) in peak values compared to the base scenario. However, in some VOC-sensitive areas in the BTH region, such as the southern urban areas, significant reductions in NOx may lead to increases in ozone concentrations. Our results highlight that season- and location-specific vehicle emission control measures are needed to alleviate ambient PM2.5 and O3 pollution effectively in this region due to the complex meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemical reactions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Emissões de Veículos
4.
Environ Int ; 135: 105392, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864030

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) poses health risks to humans worldwide. The investigation of a longer chain of biogeochemical MeHg transport from production to consumption than that addressed in previous studies could provide additional scientific foundation for the reduction of risks. The main objective of this study is to identify the impacts of the interregional food trade along with the age, gender and socioeconomic status of people on human MeHg exposure in a developing megacity. Based on a field investigation, sampling and measurements, we provide experimental evidence regarding the substantial displacement of human MeHg exposure from production areas to consumption areas induced by the food trade. In 2018, 20% and 64% of the exposure in Beijing originated from the international and interprovincial food trade, respectively. Meanwhile, the ingestion of fish contributed 79% to the total exposure, followed by rice (4.4%), crab (3.8%) and shrimp (2.7%), and the exposure risk in urban districts was higher than that in rural areas by a factor of 2.2. A significantly higher contribution of imported deep-sea species to exposure among young people than among older people was observed (P < 0.01**), and a larger contribution of the international food trade to the MeHg exposure risk for women of childbearing age (average: 27%) than that among other groups (average: 10%) was found. Overall, our efforts demonstrate the dramatic impact of the food trade on MeHg exposure in a developing megacity, and we suggest that MeHg-susceptible populations in China should choose indigenous fish species (e.g., hairtail, yellow croaker and carp species) rather than imported deep-sea species as their dietary protein source.

5.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124842, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574436

RESUMO

With a wide range of raw materials, low cost and large specific surface area, biochar has been widely used in environmental remediation. However, the biochar has a saturated adsorption capacity when it is used as a pollutant adsorbent. Recent efforts have been made to prepare biochar and biochar-based catalysts with enhanced catalytic properties to expand their potential applications. The environmental persistent free radicals (EPFRs) of biochar could react with O2 to induce hydroxyl radicals (•OH) without the addition of oxidants. When oxidants were added, biochar and biochar-based catalysts could activate them to generate •OH and sulfate radicals (SO4•-), respectively. Moreover, biochar could act as an electron acceptor to improve the photodegradation capacity of catalysts. With reference to the information regarding biochar and biochar-based catalysts, this work provides a critical review on recent research development as follows: 1) the preparations of various types of biochar and biochar-based catalysts are summarized; 2) the effects of the synthetic conditions and transition metals on the catalytic activity of biochar-based catalysts are discussed; (3) methods for characterizing the active sites of the biochar-based catalysts are described; and (4) the environmental applications of biochar and biochar-based catalysts are discussed with regards to three aspects based on the interaction mechanisms, namely, oxidation, reduction, and photocatalysis. The synthesis conditions and loading of metal/metal-free catalyst are key parameters controlling the catalysis activity of biochar and biochar-based catalysts. This review provides new insights into the application of biochar in catalysis. Key challenges and further research directions are proposed as well.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Catálise
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5164, 2019 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727892

RESUMO

Protecting the environment and enhancing food security are among the world's greatest challenges. Fish consumption is widely considered to be the single significant dietary source of methylmercury. Nevertheless, by synthesizing data from the past six decades and using a variety of models, we find that rice could be a significant global dietary source of human methylmercury exposure, especially in South and Southeast Asia. In 2013, globalization caused 9.9% of human methylmercury exposure via the international rice trade and significantly aggravated rice-derived exposure in Africa (62%), Central Asia (98%) and Europe (42%). In 2016, 180 metric tons of mercury were generated in rice plants, 14-fold greater than that exported from oceans via global fisheries. We suggest that future research should consider both the joint ingestion of rice with fish and the food trade in methylmercury exposure assessments, and anthropogenic biovectors such as crops should be considered in the global mercury cycle.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133794, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756791

RESUMO

As a kind of newly emerging pollutant, nanoplastics are easily to be ingested by organisms, and cause severe damage to biological functions because of their small size, high specific surface area, and strong biological penetration. Recently, there are increasing reports of numerous airborne microplastics, including polystyrene (PS), being detected in atmospheric samples, which implies a potential risk to the human respiratory system. In this work, we evaluated the effects of polystyrene nanoparticles of two different sizes (PS-NP25: 25 nm diameter and PS-NP70: 70 nm diameter) on the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell line including internalization, cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and associated gene transcription and protein expression. Results showed that PS-NP25 was internalized more rapidly and efficiently into the cytoplasm of A549 than PS-NP70. PS-NPs significantly affected the cell viability, caused cell cycle S phrase arrest, activated inflammatory gene transcription, and changed the expression of proteins associated with cell cycle and pro-apoptosis. PS-NPs induced significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8, NF-κB, and TNF-α, as well as pro-apoptotic proteins such as DR5, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and cytochrome c, which revealed that PS-NPs triggered a TNF-α-associated apoptosis pathway. This study suggests that exposure duration, diameter, and concentration are the key factors for evaluating the toxicological effects of PS-NPs on alveolar epithelial cells. More attention must be focused on the risk of nanoplastic-related air pollution and the environmental toxicological effects of nanoplastics on humans and other terrestrial mammals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Pulmão , Testes de Toxicidade
8.
Cereb Cortex ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609430

RESUMO

The coordination of cytoskeletal regulation is a prerequisite for proper neuronal migration during mammalian corticogenesis. Neuronal tyrosine-phosphorylated adaptor for the phosphoinositide 3-kinase 1 (Nyap1) is a member of the Nyap family of phosphoproteins, which has been studied in neuronal morphogenesis and is involved in remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. However, the precise role of Nyap1 in neuronal migration remains unknown. Here, overexpression and knockdown of Nyap1 in the embryonic neocortex of mouse by in utero electroporation-induced abnormal morphologies and multipolar-bipolar transitions of migrating neurons. The level of phosphorylated Nyap1 was crucial for neuronal migration and morphogenesis in neurons. Furthermore, Nyap1 regulated neuronal migration as a downstream target of Fyn, a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is a member of the Src family of kinases. Importantly, Nyap1 mediated the role of Fyn in the multipolar-bipolar transition of migrating neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that cortical radial migration is regulated by a molecular hierarchy of Fyn via Nyap1.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565062

RESUMO

Background and Aim: The progression of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is currently insufficiently controlled worldwide. The Yi Guan Jian decoction (YGJD) has been widely used in the treatment of liver fibrosis in CHB cases. Although animal studies have reported the antifibrotic effects of the decoction, the active ingredients of the YGJD remain unknown. This study aimed at identifying the potential active ingredients and exploring the mechanisms of action (MOA) of the decoction when treating CHB patients with fibrosis. Methods: Using data mining techniques and a structural clustering analysis, the potential active ingredients were determined. A network analysis of the differentially expressed genes was conducted to identify the potential targets. Selected compounds were docked to the potential targets for the compound-target interaction simulation. In vitro validation, including a cell proliferation assay and Western blot analysis, was conducted to evaluate the prediction results. Results: In the microarray data, 224 differentially expressed genes related to liver fibrosis were considered to be potential targets. Thirty active ingredients of the YGJD and 15 main targets and relevant pathways were identified. Among them, two active ingredients, methylophiopogonone A and 8-geranyloxypsoralen, were validated as exhibiting antifibrotic effects on hepatic stellate cells. Conclusions: We identified the potential active ingredients of the YGJD and proposed the possible explanation for the MOA in the treatment of CHB patients with liver fibrosis. Moreover, this study provides a methodological reference for the systematic investigation of the bioactive compounds and related MOA of a traditional Chinese medicine formula in a clinical context.

10.
Chin Med ; 14: 35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572487

RESUMO

Background: Sigesbeckia glabrescens Makino (SG) is one of the important plant origins of Sigesbeckiae herba and has been widely used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases in China. However, the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism of SG is rarely investigated and reported. There are more than 40 kinds of chemical constituents in SG, but the action of the bioactive compounds of SG is still unclear. Therefore, we aimed to systemically investigate the mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory properties of SG by combining in vitro and in silico investigations. Methods: Cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Nitric oxide (NO) release was detected using the Griess assay. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the expression of relevant proteins were assessed using ELISA kits and Western blots, respectively. Molecular docking was performed and scored using AutoDock via a comparison with the molecular docking of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (NAG). Results: In lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, SG significantly inhibited NO, MCP-1, and IL-6 secretion; iNOS expression; and NF-κB activation but did not significantly affect MAPK signalling (p38, ERK, and JNK). Moreover, the results from the molecular docking prediction suggested that over 10 compounds in SG could likely target TLR4, p105, and p65. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of SG are highly related to the inactivation of NF-κB. Moreover, this study provides a novel approach to investigate the effects of herbal medicine using combined in vitro and in silico investigations.

11.
Water Res ; 166: 115042, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520812

RESUMO

The magnitude of environmental change due to anthropogenic impacts might greatly exceed that of natural disturbances. In this work, we quantitatively examine the impacts of river damming, soil erosion, and point-source release on the transport of methylmercury (MeHg) throughout the Yangtze River, the third longest river in the world. Based on seasonal observations and the subsequent material flow analysis, we found that in 2016, the Yangtze River discharged 470 ±â€¯200 kg MeHg to the coastal and shelf areas, a value at least ten-fold larger than existing observations in other large rivers around the world. The construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world's largest hydropower dam, induced a substantial amount of MeHg (at least 250 ±â€¯220 kg) accumulation in the reservoir and a relatively small amount of MeHg (150 ±â€¯37 kg) discharge to the downstream region in 2016. The reservoir itself is not expected to be more contaminated by MeHg than the downstream areas of the river after the TGD, and the TGD has an additive effect on downstream MeHg transport. The riverine MeHg flux in the river mouth was 3-fold that discharged from the TGD mainly due to TGD-induced resuspension of MeHg from the downstream riverbed, as well as MeHg imports to the downstream area from tributaries, soil erosion, municipal wastewater, and in situ production. Our analysis offers new evidence that in future decades, the increase in estuarine MeHg contamination resulting from the increasing construction of large dams might pose a challenge for global coastal fisheries.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , China , Rios , Solo
12.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510076

RESUMO

Tin oxide quantum dots were synthesized in aqueous solution via a simple hydrolysis and oxidation process. The morphology observation showed that the quantum dots had an average grain size of 2.23 nm. The rutile phase SnO2 was confirmed by the structural and compositional characterization. The fluorescence spectroscopy of quantum dots was used to detect the heavy metal ions of Cd2+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and Pb2+, which caused the quenching effect of photoluminescence. The quantum dots showed the response of 2.48 to 100 ppm Ni2+. The prepared SnO2 quantum dots exhibited prospective in the detection of heavy metal ions in contaminated water, including deionized water, deionized water with Fe3+, reclaimed water and sea water. The limit of detection was as low as 0.01 ppm for Ni2+ detection. The first principle calculation based on the density function theory demonstrated the dependence of fluorescence response on the adsorption energy of heavy metal ions as well as ion radius. The mechanism of fluorescence response was discussed based on the interaction between Sn vacancies and Ni2+ ions. A linear correlation of fluorescence emission intensity against Ni2+ concentration was obtained in the logarithmic coordinates. The density of active Sn vacancies was the crucial factor that determined fluorescence response of SnO2 QDs to heavy metal ions.

13.
Environ Int ; 131: 104996, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369980

RESUMO

Production system-related air pollution emissions are dominant components in global emission reduction targets and in realizing relevant sustainable development goals (SDGs). To better understand the air pollution emissions induced by globalized production systems through a life cycle perspective, environmental extended multiregional input-output (EE-MRIO) analysis was applied to calculate the primary product-based emissions and the final product-based emissions embodied in the global production systems. Combined with two types of linkage analysis, named the hypothetical extraction method (HEM) and the emissions pure backward linkage (EPBL), emissions were analysed at three scopes at the sector level from macro sector linkage perspectives. An illustrative analysis was presented based on the global EXIOBASE MRIO database and primary PM2.5 emissions from 1995 to 2011. The results show that from 1995 to 2011, the primary PM2.5 emissions in the global production systems increased by 35%. In 2011, China's production system generated the highest primary product-based and final product-based primary PM2.5 emissions, which accounted for 30.7% and 29.6% of the global total, respectively. The emission flows balance between primary product-based emissions and final product-based emissions revealed that most developing countries are sources of emissions and that developed countries are sinks of emissions in production systems. An approximately U-shaped relationship was found in the primary PM2.5 emissions embodied in final products, while the opposite relationship was found embodied in primary products. Meanwhile, sector-specific protocols for controlling the high indirect emissions sectors can make the supply chain cleaner. Our findings further indicated that focusing more on industries can help relevant emissions control policymaking processes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Indústrias , Internacionalidade
14.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-11, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286789

RESUMO

Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is one of the oldest applied medicinal herbs. Significant pharmacological and clinical evidence have highlighted the medicinal application of fenugreek. Explore the current knowledge regarding the bioactivity (animal aspects) and clinical application of fenugreek and its bioactive components, as well as the products, markets and patents related to fenugreek. This review highlights the phytochemicals, bioactivity (animal aspects) and clinical application of fenugreek from recent literatures and products, markets and patents from database. Until now, more than 100 phytochemicals have been isolated from fenugreek seeds, mainly including polysaccharides, saponins, alkaloids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Fenugreek extract and its bioactive compounds showed excellent antidiabetic activity and anti-obesity activity in animal and human study. Although the fenugreek seed has been used as TCM raw materials for a long time of period in China, China is lacking the research of fenugreek in both depth and width.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1537-1545, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096363

RESUMO

The environmental risk of galaxolide (HHCB) spurs the need to develop efficient and economical removal technology. Although sorption is one of the best removal approaches, studies on sorption of HHCB by biochar were limited. With the purpose of combining the advantages of ball-milling and sorption technologies, six ball-milled biochars (BM-biochars) varied with biomasses and pyrolysis temperature were produced, characterized, and tested for HHCB removal from aqueous solution. At an initial HHCB concentration of 2 mg L-1, the unmilled and BM-biochars adsorbed 330-746 and 609-2098 mg kg-1 of HHCB, respectively. The increase in sorption capacities (about 3-fold increase) was mainly ascribed to the increase in BM-biochar's external and internal surface area, pore volume and pore size, and the exposure of the graphitic structure. The removal of HHCB by the BM-biochars increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. For lower temperature biochar (300 °C wheat straw biochar, WS300), hydrophobic partitioning played a major role in HHCB sorption onto unmilled biochar (log Koc/log Kow value of WS300 was 0.772 at a Ce of 1 mg L-1). Ball milling reduced the hydrophobicity of 300 °C biochar, which diminished the HHCB sorption. However, increased surface area, pore volume, pore size, and graphitic structure provided additional sorption sites, resulting in enhanced HHCB uptake (log Koc/log Kow value of BMWS300 was 1.23 at a Ce of 1 mg L-1). For higher temperature biochars (500 and 700 °C), ball milling mainly enhanced HHCB sorption onto high temperature biochars via surface adsorption, π-π interaction, and pore filling. For WS500, 77.9% of HHCB removal was due to surface adsorption. Ball milling increased this percentage to 96.7% for BMWS500. This work highlighted the potential of ball milling as an excellent engineering method to improve biochar's sorption properties.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Benzopiranos/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Modelos Químicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 114: 108863, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991286

RESUMO

Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula that has been widely used in the treatment of liver fibrosis caused by chronic hepatitis B and jaundice for more than 1800 years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptosis regulation mechanisms of YCHD and its active components suppresses liver fibrosis. The active components and putative targets of YCHD were predicted by network pharmacology approach. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis were presented in the present study by using clusterProfiler. Further, experimental validation was done by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT) dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and western blotting in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis rats, and cell proliferation assay, apoptosis assay, and western blotting in human hepatic L02 cells and LX2 cells. 45 active compounds in YCHD formula, 592 potential target proteins and 1191 liver fibrosis-related human genes were identified. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that YCHD obviously influenced TNF, PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Further, In vivo experiment indicated that YCHD treatment not only attenuated the symptoms of liver fibrosis, but also decrease the apoptosis of hepatic parenchyma cells. Moreover, in vitro experiments showed that rhein, kaempferol and quercetin treatments remarkably decreased the protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and increased p-ERK1/2, PI3K and Bcl-XL protein expression in TNF-α-stimulated L02 cells. On the contrary, rhein, kaempferol, aloe-emodin and quercetin inhibited the proliferation of LX2 cells and up-regulated the protein levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-8. In conclusion, 45 active components and 296 potential targets of YCHD against liver fibrosis were identified by the analysis of network pharmacology and transcriptomics combination. The mechanisms of YCHD against liver fibrosis were involved in the regulation of multiple targets, especially affecting the apoptosis-related signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(13): 12940-12947, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891702

RESUMO

Solanum nigrum L. is a hyperaccumulator and shows very high phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soil. Fertilizer addition to soil is an effective pathway to improve Cd hyperaccumulation. This article compared the strengthening roles of commonly used four nitrogen fertilizers with three organic fertilizers on S. nigrum hyperaccumulating Cd at the same total nitrogen level. The results showed that Cd concentrations in roots and shoots of S. nigrum were not affected by the addition of inorganic nitrogen like NH4HCO3, NH4Cl, (NH4)2SO4, and CH4N2O compared with the control without nitrogen addition. However, Cd concentrations in S. nigrum roots and shoots were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) when the organic nitrogen was added in the form of chicken manure, pig manure, and commercial organic fertilizer (by 15.6% and 15.1%, 30.1% and 23.6%, 20.3% and 16.8%, respectively). On the other hand, of all nitrogen treatments, the addition of (NH4)2SO4 and CH4N2O to the soil enormously increased S. nigrum biomass, i.e., S. nigrum shoot biomass increased 2.0- and 2.1-fold compared with the control. Correspondingly, Cd loads in S. nigrum shoots were also the highest in former two treatments and amounted to 79.91 µg pot-1 and 80.17 µg pot-1, respectively. Compared with the control, the addition of three organic fertilizers significantly increased (p < 0.05) pH and decreased (p < 0.05) available Cd concentrations in the soil, which could be the main reasons for their negative effects on S. nigrum accumulating Cd. (NH4)2SO4 and CH4N2O significantly increased S. nigrum biomasses and exerted no effects on the available soil Cd concentration, which made them more better fertilizers in practice. In general, the same fertilizer may show different effects on different hyperaccumulators. The selection of fertilizer should be decided in accordance with the specific conditions in the phytoremediation practice of contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum nigrum/metabolismo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/química , Esterco , Nitrogênio/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Solanum nigrum/química , Suínos
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(8): 4206-4214, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864783

RESUMO

Soil erosion, which has been recently shown to significantly perturb carbon cycling, occurs naturally but can be either enhanced or reduced by human activities. However, the impacts of soil erosion on terrestrial contaminant cycles remain unclear. Here, we select eight trace elements, i.e., arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, and mercury, to examine the erosional impacts of the elements' fate and transport across China. By synthesizing the detailed distribution of soil erosion fluxes, soil element inventories, and diverse modeling methods, we reveal that while human activities have reduced the lateral transport of these elements in the Loess Plateau (Central North China, a 56% decline in the past two decades with a range of 46% to 110%) due to soil conservation projects, they have increased these transport fluxes in China's major karst regions (Southwest China, a 84% increase with a range of 55% to 150%) because of severe rocky desertification. These fluxes have completely overwhelmed the soil conservation efforts in the Loess Plateau. Fluxes of these elements into aquatic environments from Southwest China reached 46% of the total input in China in 2010. These fluxes were higher than the inputs from point sources in the region by a factor of 50 because of impacts of excessive agricultural cultivation and geographical and climatic factors. These findings indicate the enormous perturbation of terrestrial contaminant cycles caused by soil erosion in karst regions and demonstrate the need for long-term sustainable management of soil erosion and contaminant discharge to protect fragile terrestrial ecosystems.


Assuntos
Solo , Oligoelementos , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905649

RESUMO

As a plant-specific transcription factor, the NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) domain protein plays an important role in plant growth and development, as well as stress resistance. Based on the genomic data of the cacao tree, this study identified 102 cacao NAC genes and named them according to their location within the genome. The phylogeny of the protein sequence of the cacao tree NAC family was analyzed using various bioinformatic methods, and then divided into 12 subfamilies. Then, the amino-acid composition, physicochemical properties, genomic location, gene structure, conserved domains, and promoter cis-acting elements were analyzed. This study provides information on the evolution of the TcNAC gene and its possible functions, laying the foundation for further research on the NAC family.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13860, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218092

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) might be protective against oxidative stress at nutritional levels, but elevated Se concentrations in the diet has been revealed as the main culprit for the extinction of natural fish populations in Se-contaminated lakes. Though Se predominate as waterborne selenite (IV) and selenate (VI) in the water, the differences in bioaccumulation, effects (e.g., oxidative stress, antioxidants etc.) and molecular mechanisms between Se(IV) and Se(VI) have been relatively understudied in wild fish. In this study, the P. parva were exposed to waterborne Se (10, 200 and 1000 µg/L of Se(IV) or Se(VI)) and sampled at 4, 14 and 28 days. Bioaccumulation, tissue distributions of Se and following effects in different tissues were evaluated. The results showed that the levels of Se in the gills and intestine were significantly elevated with a seemingly concentration-dependent pattern in the Se(IV) treatment, with respectively 173.3% and 57.2% increase after 28 days of exposure, relative to that of Se(VI) treatment. Additionally, significant accumulation of Se was also observed in the muscle of Se(IV) treated fish. Se exposure increased the MDA levels in the brain and gills in the Se(IV) treatment, but less apparent in the Se(VI) treatment. Meanwhile, Se exposure lowered (at least 56%) the activity of GST in the gills, but increased the activity of AChE in the muscle (~69%) and brain (~50%) after 28 d. Most importantly, after 28 d of exposure, Se exposure caused significant decrease in GSH levels in the gills (at least 35%) and in all tissues examined at the highest test concentration. In general, the results showed that Se(IV) led to faster accumulation of Se than Se(VI) in P. parva, and the resulted lipid peroxidation was closely related to the levels of antioxidants, especially GSH. Our results suggest that the ecotoxicological effects of waterborne selenite and selenate differ in this freshwater species in the field.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
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