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1.
Food Microbiol ; 95: 103713, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397627

RESUMO

Higher alcohols are important flavor substance in alcoholic beverages. The content of α-amino nitrogen (α-AN) in the fermentation system affects the formation of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the effect of α-AN concentration on the higher alcohol productivity of yeast was explored, and the mechanism of this effect was investigated through metabolite and transcription sequence analyses. We screened 12 most likely genes and constructed the recombinant strain to evaluate the effect of each gene on high alcohol formation. Results showed that the AGP1, GDH1, and THR6 genes were important regulators of higher alcohol metabolism in S. cerevisiae. This study provided knowledge about the metabolic pathways of higher alcohols and gave an important reference for the breeding of S. cerevisiae with low-yield higher alcohols to deal with the fermentation system with different α-AN concentrations in the brewing industry.

2.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400284

RESUMO

Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PdLFs) are an elongated cell type in the periodontium with matrix and bone regulatory functions which become abnormal in periodontal disease (PD). Here we found that the normally elongated and oriented PdLF nucleus becomes rounded and loses orientation in a mouse model of PD. Using in vitro micropatterning of cultured primary PdLF cell shape, we show that PdLF elongation correlates with nuclear elongation and the presence of thicker, contractile F-actin fibers. The rounded nuclei in mouse PD models in vivo are, therefore, indicative of reduced actomyosin tension. Inhibiting actomyosin contractility by inhibiting myosin light chain kinase, Rho kinase or myosin ATPase activity, in cultured PdLFs each consistently reduced messenger RNA levels of bone regulatory protein osteoprotegerin (OPG). Infection of cultured PdLFs with two different types of periodontal bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum) failed to recapitulate the observed nuclear rounding in vivo, upregulated nonmuscle myosin II phosphorylation and downregulated OPG. Collectively, our results add support to the hypothesis that PdLF contractility becomes decreased and contributes to disease progression in PD.

3.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414518

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal malignancy with few effective options for therapeutic treatment in its advanced stages. While exosomal LINC00161 has been identified as a potential biomarker for HCC, its regulatory function and clinical values remain largely unknown. LINC00161 expressions in serum-derived exosomes from HCC patients and HCC cells were determined by qRT-PCR. The ability of proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in HUVECs was assessed by MTT, Transwell, and tube formation. Luciferase reporter assay and AGO2-RIP assay were conducted to explore the interactions among LINC00161, miR-590-3p, and ROCK2. The level of ROCK signal-related proteins was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. Subcutaneous tumor growth was observed in nude mice, in which in vivo metastasis was observed following tail vein injection of HCC cells. High levels of LINC00161 were detected in both serum-derived exosomes from HCC patients and the supernatants of HCC cell lines and were significantly associated with poor survival. Functional study demonstrated that exosomal LINC00161 derived from HCC-cells were significantly associated with enhanced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in HUVECs in vitro, all of which were effectively inhibited when LINC00161 was sliced with shRNA in HCC-cells. In vivo experiment showed that LINC00161 loss inhibited tumorigenesis and metastasis of HCC. Mechanistic study revealed that exosome-carried LINC00161 directly targeted miR-590-3p and induced its downstream target ROCK2, finally activating growth/metastasis-related signals in HCC. Exosome-carried LINC00161 promotes HCC tumorigenesis through inhibiting miR-590-3p to activate the ROCK2 signaling pathway, suggesting that LINC00161 may be used as potential targets to improve HCC treatment efficiency.

4.
J Virol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408175

RESUMO

Guanylate-binding protein 7 (GBP7) belongs to the GBP family, which plays key roles in mediating innate immune responses to intracellular pathogens. Thus far, GBP7 has been reported to be a critical cellular factor against bacterial infection. However, the relationship between GBP7 and influenza A virus (IAV) replication is unknown. Here, we showed that GBP7 expression was significantly up-regulated in the lungs of mice, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and A549 cells during IAV infection. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system and overexpression approaches, it was found that GBP7 knockout inhibited IAV replication by enhancing the expression of IAV-induced type I interferon (IFN), type III IFN, and proinflammatory cytokines. Conversely, overexpression of GBP7 facilitated IAV replication by suppressing the expression of those factors. Furthermore, GBP7 knockout enhanced IAV-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and phosphorylation of stat1 and stat2, overexpression of GBP7 had the opposite effect. Our data indicated that GBP7 suppresses innate immune responses to IAV infection via NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Taken together, upon IAV infection, the induced GBP7 facilitated IAV replication by suppressing innate immune responses to IAV infection, which suggested that GBP7 might serve as a potential therapeutic target for controlling IAV infection.IMPORTANCE So far, few studies have mentioned the distinct function of guanylate-binding protein 7 (GBP7) on virus infection. Here, we reported that GBP7 expression was significantly up-regulated in the lungs of mice, human PBMCs, and A549 cells during IAV infection. GBP7 facilitated IAV replication by suppressing the expression of type I interferon (IFN), type III IFN, and proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, it was indicated that GBP7 suppresses innate immune responses to IAV infection via NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Taken together, our results elucidate a critical role of GBP7 in host immune system during IAV infection.

5.
Exp Mol Pathol ; : 104603, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422488

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the association between NF1 and PTEN gene polymorphisms and the risk of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). This case-control study collected peripheral blood from 136 patients with STSs and 124 healthy controls. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NF1 gene and five SNPs of the PTEN gene were investigated and genotyped using the SNaPshot assay. The association between the polymorphisms and the risk of STSs was estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. The results showed that individuals with the TC/CC genotype for NF1 rs2905789 displayed a significantly increased risk of STSs compared with individuals with wild-type TT (OR = 1.702, 95% CI = 1.002-2.890, P = 0.049). There were no significant differences in the distribution of the genotype or the allele frequencies of the polymorphisms of the NF1 and PTEN genes between the STSs patients and the controls in a Chinese population. Therefore, this study's results suggest that individuals carrying the TC/CC genotype for NF1 rs2905789 may be susceptible to STSs.

6.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 3, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Association of arterial stiffness and osteoporosis has been well documented in elderly population. However, it is not clear whether they co-progress from the early stages through common mechanisms. The object of this study was to evaluate possible associations between arterial stiffness and osteoporosis by measuring brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asia (OSTA) index among a healthy population of Chinese aged 40 years and older. Whether baPWV can be used as a predictor of osteoporosis on OSTA was further assessed. METHODS: This study was cross-sectional in design. Of 3984 adults aged 40 years and older in the Yunyan district of Guiyang (Guizhou, China) who underwent both OSTA and baPWV measurements within 1 month, 1407 were deemed eligible for inclusion (women, 1088; men, 319). RESULTS: The mean baPWV was 1475 ± 302 cm/s (range,766-3459 cm/s). baPWV in 110 individuals with high risk of osteoporosis (OSTA index < - 4) was higher than that of individuals with non-high risk (1733 ± 461 cm/s vs. 1447 ± 304 cm/s, P < 0.001). OSTA index was negatively correlated with baPWV(ρ = - 0.296, P < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and creatinine clearance rate. baPWV was an independent predictor for the presence of high risk of osteoporosis (ß = - 0.001, P < 0.001) and was consistent across age and sex subgroups, and the optimal baPWV cutoff value for predicting the presence of high risk of osteoporosis and fracture was 1693 cm/s. The AUC was 0.722 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.667-0.777; P < 0.001, sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 83.6%). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that arterial stiffness measured by baPWV is well correlated with the severity of osteoporosis evaluated by OSTA. baPWV index may be a valuable tool for identifying individuals with risk of developing osteoporosis.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433989

RESUMO

One of the main challenges of all-inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) in photocatalysis is their poor stability in hostile environments such as polar solvents. Herein, we report highly stable CsPbBr3 colloidal nanocrystal clusters (CNCs) with uniform morphology and size prepared by using a PVP-assisted reprecipitation method. A possible formation process through a self-assembly avenue is proposed. These CsPbBr3 CNCs exhibit much enhanced resistance against a variety of polar solvents in comparison with CsPbBr3 NCs obtained from the commonly used hot-injection method. In addition, this method can be generalized to the synthesis of lead-free perovskites CNCs. The as-prepared CsPbBr3 CNCs display good reactivity and high durability in photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in alcoholic systems. This work will shed some light on the stabilization of perovskite NCs in polar solvents and perovskite NC-based photocatalysts.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853717

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetics plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Here, we performed a methylome-wide association study (MWAS) of first-onset schizophrenia patients and controls from the Han Chinese population using microarray technology. The DNA methylation profiles revealed 4494 differentially methylated CpG sites. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the functions of differentially methylated genes were primarily involved in enzymatic activity, cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesion, and the TNIK (encoding TRAF2- and NCK-interacting kinase) gene was enriched in most of these terms. By combining the MWAS results with those of previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we identified 72 candidate genes located in 49 human genome loci. Among the overlapping genes, the most significantly methylated CpG sites were in the transcriptional start site (TSS) 200 region (cg21413905, Punadjusted = 3.20 × 10-5) of TNIK. TNIK was listed in the top 50 differentially methylated loci. The results of pyrosequencing and TNIK mRNA expression were consistent with those of the microarray study. Bioinformatics analyses, dual-luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies showed that TNIK interacted with genes associated with schizophrenia and NRF1 was identified as a novel transcription factor (TF) that binds to TNIK in its TSS200 region. Thus, the regulatory function of NRF1 may be influenced by the status of the methylated CpG site in this region. In summary, our study provides new insights into the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate schizophrenia. Studies of the functions of TNIK methylation should be performed in vitro and in vivo to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113489, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091498

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euphorbia kansui (EK) is the dried root of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho. Clinically, processing with vinegar is for reducing toxicity of EK, and EK stir-fried with vinegar (VEK) is used to treat ascites and edema. VEK has been confirmed to reduce ascites by accelerating the promotion of intestinal contents. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to investigate whether gut microbiota could affect the expelling water retention effects and the intestinal oxidative damage of EK and VEK on malignant ascites effusion (MAE) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pseudo-germ-free (PGF) MAE rats or probiotic intervented MAE rats were treated with EK/VEK. Related indicators such as serum, ascites, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tissues were analyzed, and the structure of the gut microbiota were also studied. The relationship between gut microbiota and the expelling water retention effects of EK/VEK where then further investigated. RESULTS: VEK reduce the volume of ascites by promoting urine and feces excretion, AQP8 protein and mRNA expression, when comparing with the MAE rats, also VEK could regulate the disordered gut microbiota in MAE rats. Mixed antibiotics could diminish VEK's expelling water retention effects in MAE rats, but increased oxidative damage in intestine. While existence of gut microbiota (especially probiotics) played an important role in the protection of intestines in VEK treated MAE rats. CONCLUSION: VEK had obvious pharmacological effect on MAE and could regulate gut microbiota, but gut microbiota was not a necessary condition for its pharmacological effects. The probiotics played a synergistic role with VEK in the effects of expelling water retention and intestinal protection.

10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113507, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098970

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Malignant ascites (MA) effusion is mainly caused by hepatocellular, ovarian, and breast cancer etc. It has been reported that Euphorbia kansui (EK), the root of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho, possessing a therapeutic effect on MA. However, the clinical applications of EK are seriously restricted for its severe toxicity. Although studies demonstrated that vinegar-processing can reduce the toxicity and retain the water expelling effect of EK, its specific mechanism remains unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of toxicity reduction without compromising the pharmacological effects of EK stir-fried with vinegar (VEK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (3-O-EZ), a major diterpenoid of EK, could convert into ingenol after processing EK with vinegar. The H22 mouse hepatoma ascites model was replicated, and were given 3-O-EZ and ingenol seven days (110.14, 50.07 and 27.54 mg/kg). The histopathological observation, serum liver enzymes, serum Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) levels, ascites volumes, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and H22 cells apoptosis in ascites were examined. Then the intestine (Aquaporin 8, AQP8) and kidney (Aquaporin 2, AQP2; Vasopressin type 2 receptor, V2R) protein expression were detected, as well as the metabolomics of serum were analyzed. Finally, the content of 3-O-EZ and ingenol in EK and VEK were investigated. RESULTS: 3-O-EZ and ingenol can relieve hepatic and gastrointestinal injuries, reduce ascites volumes, enhance the H22 cells apoptosis, ameliorate abnormal pro-inflammatory cytokines and RAAS levels, and down-regulate the expression of AQP8, AQP2, V2R. The involved metabolic pathways mainly included glycerophospholipid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. And the decreasing rate of 3-O-EZ in VEK was 19.14%, the increasing rate of ingenol in VEK was 92.31%. CONCLUSION: 3-O-EZ and ingenol possess significant effect in treating MA effusion, while ingenol has lower toxicity compared with 3-O-EZ. And provide evidence for the mechanism of attenuation in toxicity without compromising the pharmacological effects of VEK.

11.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258607

RESUMO

Although lead halide perovskites are demonstrated to be promising photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from hydrogen halide splitting, it still remains challenging to fabricate efficient and stable catalysts. Here MoS2 nanoflowers with abundant active sites are assembled with methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) microcrystals to form a new heterostructure. Its hydrogen evolution rate can reach up to about 30 000 µmol g-1 h-1, which is more than 1000-fold higher than pristine MAPbI3 under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). Importantly, the solar HI splitting efficiency reaches 7.35%, one of the highest efficiencies so far. The introduction of MoS2 with proper band alignment and unsaturated species can efficiently promote the charge separation and afford more active sites for H2 production. This finding not only provides a highly efficient and stable photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution but also offers a useful modification strategy on lead halide perovskites.

12.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(6): 1923-1932, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical value of serum amyloid A (SAA1/2) and misfolded transthyretin (TTR) for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (R/R DLBCL) patients. METHODS: 30 R/R DLBCL patients were enrolled as observation group, 20 remission/stabilization DLBCL and 10 chronic lymphadenitis patients were enrolled as control group. SELDI technique, Tris-Tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis, the shotgun-LTQ-MS method, and bioinformatics technique were used to detected and analyzed SAA and TTR in R/R DLBCL patients. SPSS 21.0 software was used to analyze the relationship between the high expression of SAA, misfolded TTR in serum and the clinicopathological features, survival time of R/R DLBCL. patients Chi-square test was used to analyze clinical count data, Kaplan-Meier curve was used for survival analysis, and Log-Rank test was used to compare single-factor survival differences. RESULTS: The high expression of SAA and TTR (SAA+TTR+) was significantly associated with extranodal lesion, high level of LDH, and NCCN-IPI scores, and also correlated with non-GCB type. TTR+ was correlated with C-MYC in pathological tissue, while SAA+ was also associated with B-symptoms. The survival time of patients in SAA+, TTR+, and SAA+TTR+ group were shorter than that in control group. CONCLUSION: Both SAA and misfolded TTR are poor prognosis factors of R/R DLBCL patients.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Pré-Albumina , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes , Pré-Albumina/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica
13.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; : 1-14, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327812

RESUMO

Introduction: Seasonal influenza vaccination, together with FDA-approved neuraminidase (NA) and polymerase acidic (PA) inhibitors, is the most effective way for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza infections. However, the low efficacy of prevailing vaccines to newly emerging influenza strains and increasing resistance to available drugs drives intense research to explore more effective inhibitors. Hemagglutinin (HA), one of the major surface proteins of influenza strains, represents an attractive therapeutic target to develop such new inhibitors. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current progress of HA-based influenza virus inhibitors and their mechanisms of action, which may facilitate further research in developing novel antiviral inhibitors for controlling influenza infections. Expert opinion: HA-mediated entry of influenza virus is an essential step for successful infection of the host, which makes HA a promising target for the development of antiviral drugs. Recent progress in delineating the crystal structures of HA, especially HA-inhibitors complexes, has revealed a number of key residues and conserved binding pockets within HA. This has opened up important insights for developing HA-based antiviral inhibitors that have a high resistance barrier and broad-spectrum activities.

14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; : 113828, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349474

RESUMO

The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui (EK) are especially beneficial for the treatment of edema, but the severe toxicity limits their clinical applications. Euphorbia kansui stir-fried with vinegar (VEK) is traditionally employed to reduce the toxicity of EK. However, the material basis for the toxicity reduction with effectivity conservation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable ultra-fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was firstly established to simultaneously determine six ingenane-type diterpenoids, i.e. kansuiphorin C (1), 5-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol (2), 20-deoxyingenol (3), 3-O-(2'E,4'E-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (4), 20-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)ingenol (5), and ingenol (6), in EK and VEK based on the processing conversion. Then, the toxicity evaluation on zebrafish embryos and modulation of the expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3) proteins in HT-29 cells were employed to investigate the toxicity-activity of six compounds. Chromatographic separation was obtained on Waters BEH RP18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 2.5 µm) with the mobile phase composed of 0.1 % formic acid in acetonitrile and water, respectively. The column temperature was 35 ℃ at a flow rate of 0.4 mL min-1. Multiple reaction monitoring was conducted in both positive and negative modes for quantitative analysis. The method was then successfully used for the determination of six compounds in EK and VEK. In addition, 1, 2, 4, and 5 had evident cardiotoxicity, intestinal irritation and nutrient absorption disorders on zebrafish larvae, while no in-vivo toxicity was seen for groups given 3 and 6 (LC50 > 200 µM). Meanwhile, 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 significantly increased the expression of AQP3 protein (p < 0.05) to promote the excretion of water in the colon. This study demonstrated that toxic ingenane-type diterpenoids converted into the less toxic compounds with the same core structure through the breakage of multiple ester bonds in the side chain. At the same time, the laxative effect was retained, providing useful information for the optimization of the process of EK and quality evaluation of other similar toxic Chinese herbal medicines.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269996

RESUMO

A novel actinobacterium, designated TRM 44567T, was isolated from cotton soil in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwest PR China. Growth occurred at 16-45 °C, pH 5.0-9.0, and 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth at 37 °C, pH 7.0-8.0 and 1 % (w/v) NaCl, respectively. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain TRM 44567T was phylogenetically most closely related to Streptomyces chromofuscus NBRC 12851T (98.48 % sequence similarity); however, the average nucleotide identity between strain TRM 44567T and S. chromofuscus NBRC 12851T was only 83.77 %. Strain TRM 44567T possessed ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H10), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 70.8 mol%. Strain TRM 44567T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces gossypiisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 44567T (=KCTC 39957 T=CCTCC AA 2017011T).

16.
Cell Reprogram ; 22(6): 328-336, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270501

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of miR-142-5p and Yin Yang 1 (YY1) on regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cell metastasis. The expressions of YY1 and miR-142-5p in different lung cancer cell lines were negatively correlated. The results of the dual-luciferase reporter assay further validated that miR-142-5p directly targeted YY1. Subsequently, transwell assays, wound-healing assay, and transplantation tumor model in nude mice proved that YY1 could promote the metastasis of lung cancer cells, whereas miR-142-5p impaired the stimulating effect of YY1 on the metastasis ability of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of the EMT-related proteins indicated that YY1 could enhance the metastasis ability of lung cancer cells by promoting EMT. On the contrary, miR-142-5p constrained the expression of mesenchymal markers by targeting YY1, reversed the differentiation of cells into mesenchymal cells, and weakened the metastasis ability of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In summary, miR-142-5p may regulate the expressions of EMT-related proteins by targeting YY1, thereby inhibiting lung cancer metastasis, which provides a promising therapeutic target for lung cancer.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284596

RESUMO

The production of CO from the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) is of great interest in the renewable energy storage and conversion, the neutral carbon emission, and carbon recycle utilization. Silver (Ag) is one of the catalytic metals that are active for electrochemical CO2 reduction into CO, but the catalysis requires a large overpotential to achieve higher selectivity. Constructing a metal-oxide interface could be an effective strategy to boost both activity and selectivity of the catalysis. Herein, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were first conducted to reveal the chemical insights of the catalytic performance on the interface between metal oxide and Ag(111) (MOx/Ag(111)). The results show that the *COOH intermediates can be more stabilized on the surfaces of MOx/Ag(111) than pure Ag(111). The hydrogen evolution reaction on MOx/Ag(111) can be suppressed due to the significantly higher Gibbs free energy for hydrogen adsorption (ΔGH*), thereby enhancing the selectivity toward CO2RR. A series of MOx/Ag composites with the unique interface based on the DFT results were then introduced though a two-step approach. The as-obtained MOx/Ag catalysts boosted both the CO activity and selectivity at a relatively positive potential range, especially in the case of MnO2/Ag. The reduction current density on the MnO2/Ag catalyst can reach 4.3 mA cm-2 at -0.7 V (vs RHE), which is 21.5 times higher than that on pure Ag, and the overpotential of CO2 to CO (390 mV) possesses is much lower than that on pure Ag NPs (690 mV). This study proposes an effective design strategy to construct a metal-oxide interface for CO2RR based on the synergistic effect between metals and MOx.

18.
Thyroid ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138723

RESUMO

Background: Malnutrition in early life may permanently change the structure and function of the body, which lead to a number of diseases in adulthood. The effect of famine exposure during the early life on thyroid function and disorders remains unclear. This study investigated the association between exposure to the Great Chinese Famine (1959-1961) in early life and thyroid function and disorders in adulthood. Methods: Nine thousand eight hundred eighty-one subjects with appropriate birth dates derived from the Thyroid disorders, Iodine status, and Diabetes Epidemiological survey were included. Thyroid function and disorders were defined by the test results of blood sample and ultrasonography of all participants. Associations between famine exposure in early life and thyroid function and disorders in adulthood were assessed with binary logistic regression and linear regression. Results: Participants exposed to the Great Chinese Famine during the fetal stage was associated with a higher thyrotropin (TSH) level in adulthood (ß = 0.024; p = 0.038), compared with the nonexposed participants. The association was significant among rural participants (ß = 0.039; p = 0.02) but not in urban participants (ß = 0.005; p = 0.77). Fetal-exposed group did not show a higher risk of thyroid disorders than the age-matched balanced control group, including overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, and thyroid nodules (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Famine exposure during the fetal stage was associated with a higher TSH level in adulthood. The fetal stage could be the critical period for programming the pituitary-thyroid axis.

19.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205947

RESUMO

The recent advancements in interfacial evaporation of salty water using renewable solar energy provide one of the promising pathways to solve worldwide water scarcity. Pursuing a stable evaporation rate of water has been the central focus of this field, as it is directly related to the throughput, while salt deposition on the evaporator becomes a critical issue. Although Janus-structured evaporators with an upper hydrophobic layer and a bottom hydrophilic layer have been demonstrated as an effective way to suppress the salt precipitation, the hydrophobic upper layer, achieved usually by some special organic groups, suffers from a photochemical oxidation when exposed to oxidative chemicals in water and high-energy light, resulting in a deteriorated surface hydrophobicity. Here, we report our design of an efficient salt-rejecting Janus evaporator by taking advantage of the self-recovering surface hydrophobicity of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) against photochemical damages, which ensures a long-term surface hydrophobicity. With its upper layer partially covered with PDMS, the Janus evaporator demonstrates an excellent salt rejection capability and exhibits a stable evaporation rate of 1.38 kg·m-2·h-1 under 1 sun illumination for 400 min of continuous operation, or 90 d of intermittent work. By combining the advantages of high structural integration, long-term salt-rejection, and efficient evaporation, our Janus evaporator holds great promise for the stable production of clean water from seawater.

20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113583, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189845

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shizaotang (SZT), consisted of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho (EK), Euphorbia pekinensis Rupr. (EP), Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc. (DG,fried) and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (ZJ), is usually used for treating malignant pleural effusions (MPE), but the toxicity of EK and EP limits its clinical safe application. It was reported that vinegar processing can reduce the toxicity of EK and EP. Whether EK and EP processing with vinegar can cause the reduced toxicity and retained pharmacological effects of SZT, it still remains unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to evaluate whether using vinegar processed EK and EP would reduce toxicity and preserve water expelling effect of SZT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Network pharmacology and qualitative analysis of SZT/VSZT were used to construct compound-target-pathway network of their effects and toxicity. Pleural fluid weight, urine volume, uric electrolyte, pH, pro-inflammatory cytokines in pleural fluid, serum Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS), anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and intestinal aquaporin 8 (AQP8) protein were used to evaluate the effect mechanisms involved in rats experiments. And liver damage, oxidative damage and HE staining (liver, stomach, and intestine) were used to determine the toxicity. RESULTS: Network pharmacology analysis reviewed inflammation-related pathways of the effect and toxicity of SZT/VSZT: VEGF-PI3K-AKT pathway inhibited MPE by changing the vasopermeability; PI3K-Akt/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/TNF-NF-κB signaling pathway inhibited MPE by up-regulating expression of AQP8 protein. In vivo experiments displayed that SZT/VSZT could reduce pleural fluid, increase urine volume, lower pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and up-regulate AQP8 protein expression significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In addition, disorders on electrolyte (Na+, K+ and Cl-) and pH were ameliorated (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The levels of RAAS and ADH were significantly dose-dependently called back (P < 0.01). These findings were partly consistent with the results of network pharmacology analysis. Results of toxicity experiments demonstrated that SZT and VSZT exhibited certain toxicity on normal rats, and VSZT had lower toxicity than that of SZT. Interestingly, SZT and VSZT exerted alleviation effect to the liver damage and oxidative damage on model rats. CONCLUSION: SZT/VSZT improved MPE by regulating associated inflammation pathways. Besides, compared to SZT, VSZT showed lower toxicity and equivalent expelling MPE effect. This study may provide scientific basis for guiding the clinical application of SZT.

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