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1.
Small ; : e2001070, 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419332

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), connecting different organic units into one system through covalent bonds, are crystalline organic porous materials with 2D or 3D networks. Compared with conventional porous materials such as inorganic zeolite, active carbon, and metal-organic frameworks, COFs are a new type of porous materials with well-designed pore structure, high surface area, outstanding stability, and easy functionalization at the molecular level, which have attracted extensive attention in various fields, such as energy storage, gas separation, sensing, photoluminescence, proton conduction, magnetic properties, drug delivery, and heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, the recent advances in metal-free COFs as a versatile platform for heterogeneous catalysis in a wide range of chemical reactions are presented and the synthetic strategy and promising catalytic applications of COF-based catalysts (including photocatalysis) are summarized. According to the types of catalytic reactions, this review is divided into the following five parts for discussion: achiral organic catalysis, chiral organic conversion, photocatalytic organic reactions, photocatalytic energy conversion (including water splitting and the reduction of carbon dioxide), and photocatalytic pollutant degradation. Furthermore, the remaining challenges and prospects of COFs as heterogeneous catalysts are also presented.

2.
Environ Int ; 140: 105757, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361577

RESUMO

The anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox) are the hidden culprit behind the excessive nitrogen loss under a favorable environment, since their detection and abundance get disturbed by several unknown factors. This study intends to find the gap between actual anammox working capacity under different water conditions and fertilizers in the laboratory. The 15N-isotopic tracer technique was used to measure anammox and denitrification rate, and anammox community structure was analyzed through high-throughput sequencing with cytochrome cd-1 nitrite reductase functional gene (an_nirS gene, initially found in Candidatus Scalindua). The experiment consisted of four treatments, i.e., (I) CK_ Control, (II) UR_Urea, (III) PM_Pig Manure, and (IV) SRF_ Slow release fertilizer, under two water conditions, i.e., (a) Continuous flooding_ CF, (b) Alternate wetting and drying_ AWD. Results showed that anammox under CF decreased over time by -40.24%, and denitrification increased up to 39.25%. However, anammox activity under AWD increased up to 10.62% with the availability of NO2-, and surprisingly accompanied by the reduction in denitrification loss (-31.97%), being the most critical factor. We found that soil nifH and AOB genes were strongly favorable for anammox activity, while we observed the presence of anammox and AOB genes co-existing at the same time in paddy soil. The high-throughput sequencing with an_nirS functional gene showed a much higher diversity of anammox genera ever reported, mostly uncultured and unidentified. We concluded that water management is more prominent than fertilizer for anammox, and the most critical factor is the duration of AWD cycle, because of short term air supply could boost anammox activity and gene abundance, and could reduce denitrifier activity as well as nirK gene abundance.

3.
Nanoscale ; 12(14): 7870-7874, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227017

RESUMO

Finding new organic materials to address several issues (e.g. capacity, stability, and cycle life) in organic potassium-ion batteries (OPIBs) is very important and highly desirable. Here, to directly investigate the redox reaction of organic pyridine dicarboxylate in OPIBs and to avoid the interference from the redox-active metal ions, a non-redox-metal potassium metal-organic framework (K-MOF), [C7H3KNO4]n, based on pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H2PDA), has been successfully synthesized and applied as a promising organic anode for long-cycle life PIBs. The crystal structure of [C7H3KNO4]n was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and FT-IR spectra. Moreover, the potassium-storage mechanism of organic pyridine dicarboxylate ligand was revealed by ex situ FT-IR/XRD characterization and theoretical calculations. The as-synthesized K-MOF resulted in a unique and reversible three-step redox reaction, exhibited superior electrochemical performance with the aid of N-K/O-K coordination bonds, and showed a high average specific capacity of 115 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 for 300 cycles with the capacity retention of 92%.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330019

RESUMO

With the trigonal linker 4,4',4″-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyltribenzoic acid as a building block, porous cobalt metal-organic frameworks (named as PCN) have been successfully prepared and directly utilized as active materials in alkaline battery-type devices. For comparison, their carbon-supported hybrids (CNFs/PCN) have also been employed as battery-type electrodes. We found that the pristine PCN displayed a better performance than the CNFs/PCN composite electrode in electrochemical cells. To further investigate their electrochemical performances, alkaline battery-supercapacitor hybrid (BSH) devices with these materials as positive electrodes and activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode were fabricated. The results indicate that the PCN//AC BSH devices delivered a maximum energy density of 16.0 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 749 W kg-1 within the voltage range of 0-1.5 V, which are much higher than those of CNFs/PCN//AC devices (12.4 Wh kg-1 at 753 W kg-1).

5.
Org Lett ; 22(10): 3739-3743, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186890

RESUMO

A novel 6/6/5/6 tetracyclic polyketide named chartspiroton (1) was isolated from a medicinal plant endophytic Streptomyces in Dendrobium officinale. The complete structure assignment with absolute stereochemistry was elucidated through spectroscopic data, computational calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Chartspiroton features an unprecedented naphthoquinone derivative spiro-fused with a benzofuran lactone moiety. A plausible polyketide biosynthetic pathway for 1 suggested intriguing oxidative rearrangement steps to form the five-membered lactone ring.

6.
Mol Pharm ; 17(5): 1596-1607, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142292

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a kind of interstitial lung disease with the features of progressive and often fatal dyspnea. Tetrandrine (TET) is the major active constituent of Chinese herbal Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, which has already applied clinically to treat rheumatism, lung cancer, and silicosis. In this work, a tetrandrine-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin inclusion compound (TET-HP-ß-CD) was developed for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis via inhalation administration. TET-HP-ß-CD was prepared by the freeze-drying method and identified using the cascade impactor, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR). A bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis rat model was used to assess the effects of inhaled TET and TET-HP-ß-CD. Animal survival, hydroxyproline content in the lungs, and lung histology were detected. The results showed that inhalation of TET-HP-ß-CD alleviated inflammation and fibrosis, limited the accumulation of hydroxyproline in the lungs, regulated protein expression in PF development, and improved postoperative survival. Moreover, nebulized delivery of TET-HP-ß-CD accumulated chiefly in the lungs and limited systemic distribution compared with intravenous administration. The present results indicated that inhalation of TET-HP-ß-CD is an attractive candidate for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

7.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207232

RESUMO

Searching new light-absorbing materials to replace toxic lead halide in solar cells is very important and highly desirable. In this research, we firstly demonstrated that tellurium iodide (TeI4 ) could be used as a light-absorbing material in solar cells due to its suitable optical band gap and the active lone-pair electron orbital in Te4+ . The best power conversion efficiency (PCE=3.56%) was achieved with a concentration of 0.9 M TeI4 in DMF:DMSO (4 : 1, v,v) without any heat treatment or antisolvent dripping. Our study indicates the promising potential of TeI4 for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications.

8.
Chemistry ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017260

RESUMO

A series of imide-fused diazatetracenes were synthesized via Buchwald-Hartwig C-N coupling with a highly active palladium source. The introduction of an imide segment effectively lowers the LUMO levels compared with that of unsubstituted diazatetracene. By adjusting the alkyl chains of the diazatetracenes, different solid-state packings were achieved, resulting in distinct photoluminescent behaviors. Their electron-transporting properties were demonstrated in the proof-of-concept Perovskite solar cells as electron transporting layers.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977199

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of a supramolecular square composed of polyoxometalate-based hybrid donors and ethylenediamine palladium(II) nodes are reported. The structure of the metallomacrocycle scaffold was inferred by diffusion NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and molecular modeling. The metallomacrocycle scaffold that contains negatively and positively charged subunits can further self-assemble owing to a competition between the solvation energy of the discrete species and intermolecular electrostatic interactions. When the dissociating character of the solvent was lowered or when in the presence of a protic solvent, different types of multiscale organizations (vesicles and pseudo-1D structures) were selectively formed and were characterized by SAXS and transmission electron microscopy.

10.
Nanoscale ; 12(5): 3058-3067, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971199

RESUMO

A material with diverse self-assembled morphologies is extremely important and highly desirable because such samples can provide tunable optical and electronic properties, which are critical in applications such as organic photovoltaics, microelectronics and bio-imaging. Moreover, the synthesis and controllable self-assembly of H-shaped bichromophoric perylenediimides (PDIs) are needed to advance these materials in organic photovoltaics, microelectronics and bio-imaging; however, this has remained a great challenge thus far. Here, we successfully synthesize a novel H-shaped bichromophoric PDI Gemini through the palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction. The as-prepared PDI Gemini exhibited unprecedented tunable self-assembly behavior in solution, yielding diverse low-dimensional superstructures, such as one-dimensional (1D) helices, two-dimensional (2D) rectangular nanocrystals, pyramid-shaped parallelograms, ultralarge micro-sheets, and uniform nanospheres, under different self-assembly conditions. Of particular interest, the 2D hierarchical superstructures along with their formation mechanisms represent the first finding in the self-assembly of PDI-based molecules. This study opens a new avenue for tunable self-assembly of conjugated molecules and affords opportunities for the fabrication of novel self-assembled optical and electronic materials based on PDI molecules.

11.
J Org Chem ; 85(1): 291-295, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797673

RESUMO

The synthesis and properties of a series of U-shaped helical azaarenes are reported. Crystal structures of these helical azaarenes were obtained, and the solid-state structures unequivocally exhibited their helicity.

12.
J Org Chem ; 85(1): 101-107, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650830

RESUMO

The unexpected synthesis and characterization of imidazole-fused azaacenes are presented. Their optical and electrochemical properties have been investigated and compared with these of previously reported imidazole-fused azaacenes. Application of these two imidazole-fused azaacenes in memory devices showed distinctly different resistive behaviors.

13.
Chem Asian J ; 15(1): 112-121, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730261

RESUMO

One of key factors to design applicable electron transport layers (ETLs) for perovskite solar cells is the morphology of ETLs since a good morphology would help to facilitate the carrier transport at two interfaces (perovskite\ETL and ETL\cathode). However, one drawback of most organic ETL small molecules is the internal undesired accumulation, which would cause the formation of inappropriate morphology and rough ETL surface. Here, by elaborately designing the side chains of NDI derivatives, the molecular interaction could be modified to achieve the aggregation in different degrees, which would eventually affect the accumulation of molecules and surface qualities of ETLs. By speculating from the comparison between the absorption spectra of solutions and films, the sequence of extent of molecule interaction and aggregation was built among three NDI derivatives, which is further confirmed by direct evidence of atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Then, carrier exaction abilities are simply studied by steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy. The carrier transport process is also discussed based on cyclic voltammetry, time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and mobility. NDIF1 are proven to have the appropriate internal aggregation to smooth the contact with cathode and low series resistance, and a device performance of 15.6 % is achieved. With the ability of preventing the thermal diffusion of Ag towards the perovskite surface due to the strong interaction between molecules, NDIF2 at high concentration shows the highest fill factor (80 %).

14.
Dalton Trans ; 49(2): 411-417, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833493

RESUMO

Two novel interpenetrated 2-fold Mn-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (SC-7 and SC-8), assembled from the rigid ligand H3TATB (4,4',4''-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyl-tribenzoic acid) and Mn ions with the assistance of the flexible N-donor linker BIB (bis((1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene) or TIPA (tris(4-imidazolylphenyl)amine), have been successfully prepared. The as-obtained MOFs show two distinct topological structures with the symbols 44·62 and (52·6)(53·6·73·82·9) due to discrepancies between the flexibilities of the bi-imidazole and tri-imidazole linkers. The electrodes based on the as-prepared bulk Mn-MOFs behave as alkaline batteries in electrochemical cells and deliver high capacities (279 and 172 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1 for SC-7 and SC-8, respectively). Theoretical mechanism analyses indicate that the surface-controlled (k1v) process can be transformed into a diffusion-dominated (k2v1/2) process when the charging time exceeds 30 seconds in the MOF-based systems. Our research provides a new strategy to construct an increasing number of stable redox sites in MOFs for application to battery-capacitor hybrid devices.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 136003, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846813

RESUMO

Chitin amendment is a promising agricultural management strategy to control fungal and nematodal plant diseases and to improve crop yield. Chitin degradation in the soil contributes significantly to carbon and nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about chitin degradation and bacterial chitinolytic communities in agricultural soil under different fertilization regimes. Thus, in the present study, a 42-day soil incubation experiment was conducted, in which soil under four fertilization regimes (i.e., no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilizer (CF), pig manure plus 50% chemical fertilizer (PMCF), and rice straw plus 100% chemical fertilizer (SRCF)) were amended or not with chitin or its monomer, N-acetylglucosamine (NAG). Different nitrogen forms and CO2 and N2O emission were measured to evaluate chitin degradation and its environmental implications. SRCF soil had the highest CO2 emission, chitin N mineralization, and fungal abundance. NAG and chitin were enriched to exploit the chitin degraders. High-throughput sequencing analyses reveled that Streptomycetaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Gemmatimonadaceae, and Acidobacteria were generally increased upon chitin amendment in CK, CF, and PMCF soil, whereas Streptomycetaceae dominated chitin-amended SRCF soil. Herpetosiphonaceae was enriched only in chitin-amended CK soil. LEfSe and network analysis were used to predict chitinolytic and opportunistic species, and revealed that most previously reported chitinolytic bacteria were detected in the present study and new potential chitin degraders, including unidentified_Solibacterales, Gemmatimonadaceae, and Herpetosiphonaceae, were identified. Some members of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria, including Bacillus, and Kitasatospora, were speculated to be opportunistic species. The findings improve our understanding of the effects of chitin degradation on carbon and nitrogen cycling in agricultural soil under different fertilization regimes and help to identify chitinolytic bacteria.


Assuntos
Solo , Animais , Bactérias , Quitina , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes , Microbiologia do Solo , Suínos
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112154, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415848

RESUMO

Treating ventricular remodeling continues to be a clinical challenge. Studies have shown that hypertension is one of the most common causes of ventricular remodeling, and is a major cause of cardiovascular risk in adults. Here, we report that Tongsaimai (TSM), a Chinese traditional medicine, could inhibit arterial pressure and left ventricular pressure to improve hemodynamic abnormalities in rats impaired by abdominal aortic constriction (AAC). Administration of TSM significantly reduced the heart mass index and the left ventricular mass index significantly in AAC rats. TSM could also markedly ameliorate cardiac collagen deposition and reduce the concentration of hydroxyproline in the heart of AAC rats. Moreover, TSM alleviated cardiac histomorphology injury resulting from AAC, including reducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrous connective tissue hyperplasia, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, replacement fibrosis and the disorders of myocardial myofibrils, intercalated discs, mitochondria and mitochondrial crista. In addition, the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF) - ß and inflammation-related molecules including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which were over-expressed with AAC, were decreased by STM. In conclusion, STM could reverse the hypertension and left ventricular remolding caused by abdominal aortic constriction in rats.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Aorta Abdominal , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Constrição , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112326, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639486

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves have been widely applied to controlling blood glucose as a efficacious traditional Chinese medicine or salutary medical supplement. The extracts of mulberry leaf suppress inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress, protect the pancreatic ß-cells and modulate glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Our previous studies and others have shown that mulberry leaf extract has excellent therapeutic effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however, the underlying mechanism remains to be studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: Skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Mulberry leaf flavonoids (MLF) in L6 skeletal muscle cells and db/db mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: L6 skeletal muscle cells were cultured and treated with/without MLF for in vitro studies. For in vivo studies, the db/db mice with/without MLF therapy were used. Coomassie brilliant blue staining and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining were used to identify the differentiated L6 cells. Glucose level and ATP level of L6 myotubes were performed by optical density detection and cell viability was performed by MTT method. Mitochondrial membrane potential of L6 myotubes was detected by JC-1 fluorescent staining. ROS level of L6 myotubes was detected by DCFH-DA fluorescent staining. The body weight, food intake, and blood glucose of the mice were measured in different treatment days. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), starch glucose tolerance test (STT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed in mice. Glycated hemoglobin, glycated serum protein, insulin, liver and muscle glycogen, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) of the mice were detected by corresponding kit. The pathologic change of pancreas and skeletal muscle of mice were performed by H & E staining. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to detect the GLUT4 and p-AMPK expressions in skeletal muscle in mice. GLUT4, CPT-1, NRF1, COXIV, PGC-1α, and p-AMPK expression levels in L6 cells and mice were detected by western bolt assay. RESULTS: MLF and metformin significantly ameliorated muscle glucose uptake and mitochondrial function in L6 muscle cells. MLF also increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and the expression of PGC-1α, and up-regulated the protein levels of m-GLUT4 and T-GLUT4. These effects were reversed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. In db/db mice, MLF improve diabetes symptoms and insulin resistance. Moreover, MLF elevated the levels of p-AMPK and PGC-1α, raised m-GLUT4 and T-GLUT4 protein expression, and ameliorated mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of db/db mice. CONCLUSIONS: MLF significantly improved skeletal muscle insulin resistance and mitochondrial function in db/db mice and L6 myocytes through AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathway, and our findings support the therapeutic effects of MLF on type 2 diabetes.

18.
ChemSusChem ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782976

RESUMO

Searching new organic cathode materials to address the issues of poor cycle stability and low capacity in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is very important and highly desirable. In this research, a 2D boroxine-linked chemically-active pyrene-4,5,9,10-tetraone (PTO) covalent organic framework (2D PPTODB COFs) was synthesized as an organic cathode material with remarkable electrochemical properties, including high electrochemical activity (four redox electrons), safe oxidation potential window (between 2.3 and 3.08 V vs. Li/Li+ ), superb structural/chemical stability, and strong adhesiveness. A binder-free cathode was obtained by mixing 70 wt % PPTODB and 30 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a conductive additive. Promoted by the fast kinetics of electrons/ions, high electrochemical activity, and effective π-π interaction between PPTODB and CNTs, LIBs with the as-prepared cathode exhibited excellent electrochemical performance: a high specific capacity of 198 mAh g-1 , a superb rate ability (the capacity at 1000 mA g-1 can reach 76 % of the corresponding value at 100 mA g-1 ), and a stable coulombic efficiency (≈99.6 % at the 150th cycle). This work suggests that the concept of binder-free 2D electroactive materials could be a promising strategy to approach energy storage with high energy density.

19.
Chemistry ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774587

RESUMO

Although cocrystallization has provided a promising platform to develop new organic optoelectronic materials, it is still a big challenge to purposely design and achieve specific optoelectronic properties. Herein, a series of mixed-stacking cocrystals (TMFA, TMCA, and TMTQ) were designed and synthesized, and the regulatory effects of the acceptors on the co-assembly behavior, charge-transfer nature, energy-level structures, and optoelectronic characteristics were systematically investigated. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to achieve effective charge-transport tuning and photoresponse switching by carefully regulating the intermolecular charge transfer and energy orbitals. The inherent mechanisms underlying the change in these optoelectronic behaviors were analyzed in depth and elucidated to provide clear guidelines for future development of new optoelectronic materials. In addition, due to the excellent photoresponsive characteristics of TMCA, TMCA-based phototransistors were investigated with varying light wavelength and optical power, and TMCA shows the best performance among all reported cocrystals under UV illumination.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(47): 44487-44500, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692320

RESUMO

Developing air-stable high-performance small organic molecule-based n-type and ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is very important and highly desirable. In this investigation, we designed and synthesized two naphthalenediimide (NDI) derivatives (NDI-BTH1 and NDI-BTH2) and found that introduction of 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl) acetonitrile groups at the NDI core position gave the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO; -4.326 eV) and displayed strong electron affinities, suggesting that NDI-BTH1 might be a promising electron-transporting material (i.e., n-type semiconductor), whereas NDI-BTH2 bearing bis(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methane at the NDI core with a LUMO of -4.243 eV was demonstrated to be an ambipolar material. OFETs based on NDI-BTH1 and NDI-BTH2 have been fabricated, and the electron mobilities of NDI-BTH1 and NDI-BTH2 are 14.00 × 10-5 and 8.64 × 10-4 cm2/V·s, respectively, and the hole mobility of NDI-BTH2 is 1.68 × 10-4 cm2/V·s. Moreover, a difference in NDI-core substituent moieties significantly alters the UV-vis absorption and cyclic voltammetry properties. Thus, we further successfully employed NDI-BTH1 and NDI-BTH2 as electron transport layer (ETL) materials in inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The PSC performance exhibits that NDI-BTH2 as the ETL material gave higher power conversion efficiency as compared to NDI-BTH1, that is, NDI-BTH2 produces 15.4%, while NDI-BTH1 gives 13.7%. The PSC performance is comparable with the results obtained from OFETs. We presume that improvement in solar cell efficiency of NDI-BTH2-based PSCs is due to the well-matched LUMO of NDI-BTH2 toward the conduction band of the perovskite layer, which in turn increase electron extraction and transportation.

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