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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196457

RESUMO

The immunological responses are a key pathological factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that microglial polarization alters microglia-astrocyte immune interactions in AD. M1 and M2 microglia were isolated from primary rat microglia and were confirmed to secrete pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, respectively. Primary rat astrocytes were co-cultured with M1 or M2 microglial medium. M1 microglial medium increased astrocyte production of pro-inflammatory factors (interleukin [IL]-1ß, tumor necrosis factor α and IL-6), while M2 microglial medium enhanced astrocyte production of anti-inflammatory factors (IL-4 and IL-10). To analyze the crosstalk between microglia and astrocytes after microglial polarization specifically in AD, we co-cultured astrocytes with medium from microglia treated with amyloid-ß (Aß) alone or in combination with other inflammatory substances. Aß alone and Aß combined with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ induced pro-inflammatory activity in M1 microglia and astrocytes, whereas IL-4/IL-13 inhibited Aß-induced pro-inflammatory activity. Nuclear factor κB p65 was upregulated in M1 microglia and pro-inflammatory astrocytes, while Stat6 was upregulated in M2 microglia and anti-inflammatory astrocytes. These results provide direct evidence that microglial polarization governs communication between microglia and astrocytes, and that AD debris alters this crosstalk.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2004059, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174328

RESUMO

The practical utilization of plasmon-based technology relies on the ability to find high-performance plasmonic materials other than noble metals. A key scientific challenge is to significantly increase the intrinsically low concentration of free carriers in metal-oxide materials. Here, a novel electron-proton co-doping strategy is developed to achieve uniform hydrogen doping in metal-oxide MoO3 at mild conditions, which creates a metal-like ultrahigh free-carrier concentration approaching that of noble metals (1021 cm-3 in H1.68 MoO3 versus 1022 cm-3 in Au/Ag). This bestows giant and tunable plasmonic resonances in the visible region to this originally semiconductive material. Using ultrafast spectroscopy characterizations and first-principle simulations, the formation of a quasi-metallic energy band structure that leads to long-lived and strong plasmonic field is revealed. As verified by the surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of rhodamine 6G molecules on Hx MoO3 , the SERS enhancement factor reaches as high as 1.1 × 107 with a detection limit at concentration as low as 1 × 10-9  mol L-1 , representing the best among the hitherto reported non-metal systems. The findings not only provide a set of metal-like semiconductor materials with merits of low cost, tunable electronic structure, and plasmonic resonance, but also a general strategy to induce tunable ultrahigh free-carrier concentration in non-metal systems.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206662

RESUMO

Nowadays, with the significant integration of various renewable energy, hybrid alternating current/ voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (AC/VSC-HVDC) system integrated with doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) has achieved rapidly development in smart grid. A proper control system design for hybrid AC/VSC-HVDC system plays a very crucial role for a reliable and effective power transmission. Hence, this paper designs a novel cooperative beetle antenna search (CBAS) algorithm for optimal coordinated control of hybrid AC/VSC-HVDC system integrated with DFIG. Compared with original beetle antennae search (BAS) algorithm, CBAS algorithm can significantly improve searching efficiency via an efficient cooperation with a group of multiple beetles instead of a single beetle. Particularly, CBAS algorithm can effectively escape from local optimums thanks to its dynamic balance mechanism, which can maintain appropriate trade-off between global exploration and local exploitation. Moreover, three case studies are undertaken to validate the effectiveness and superiorities and effectiveness of CBAS algorithm compared against that of other traditional meta-heuristic algorithms. Especially, the average results of fitness function acquired by CBAS algorithm is merely 46.05%, 41.18%, and 47.82% of that of PSO, GA, and BAS algorithm, respectively.

4.
Plant Signal Behav ; : 1845048, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164676

RESUMO

Aminoalcoholphosphotransferase (AAPT) utilizes diacylglycerols and cytidine diphosphate-choline/ethanolamine as substrates for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Plant AAPTs involved in phospholipid metabolism mediate diverse physiological processes; however, little is known about their functions in triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism and seed germination. In the present study, we isolated and characterized two AAPTs, GmAAPT1 and GmAAPT2, from soybean (Glycine max). GmAAPT1 and GmAAPT2 exhibited strong similarity in their amino acid contents and expression patterns, and both were found to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. In vitro enzymatic analyses showed that GmAAPT1 and GmAAPT2 contributed to PC and PE synthesis and exhibited choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase-like enzymatic properties. The overexpression of GmAAPT1 and GmAAPT2 in Arabidopsis led to reduced levels of seed TAG and polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased seed germination under freezing stress. Together, these findings suggest that GmAAPTs mediate TAG metabolism and negatively regulate seed freezing tolerance.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 9371-9378, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095581

RESUMO

All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite colloidal nanocrystals are attractive for next-generation light-emitting diodes because of their high color purity, but the nonradiative Auger recombination in perovskite nanocrystal film limits the efficiency and brightness of the fabricated devices. Here, we introduce a surface-engineering process to exchange the original long-chain oleic acid/oleylamine ligands by the cerium-tributylphosphine oxide hybrid ligands to suppress nonradiative Auger recombination in CsPbBr3 NC film for bright and low-efficiency roll-off light-emitting diodes. Using ultrafast transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the hybrid ligand passivation can efficiently remove surface trap states to enhance radiative recombination and homogenize the exciton concentration to suppress nonradiative Auger recombination in the CsPbBr3 nanocrystal thin film. Consequently, we fabricate a light-emitting diode with efficient charge injection into the CsPbBr3 nanocrystal emitting layer, achieving a pronounced improvement of electroluminescence with an external quantum efficiency from 5.5% to 9.1%. More importantly, the efficiency roll-off characteristics of high-brightness light-emitting diodes is effectively mitigated. Our reported hybrid ligand passivation suppressed Auger recombination strategy shows a great potential for fabricating high-brightness cesium lead halide perovskite light-emitting diodes.

6.
J Food Biochem ; 44(10): e13431, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090543

RESUMO

The biochemical properties and thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from three main planted lily cultivars in China, namely, Lilium lancifolium Thunb, Lilium brownie var. viridulum, and Lilium davidii var. unicolor cotton were evaluated. Data indicate that the PPO from three cultivars showed two optimum pH levels of 4.0 and 6.5-7.0 and temperature of 15°C and exhibited the highest affinity toward 4-methylcatechol. However, this enzyme did not exhibit monophenolase activity. Thiourea and L-cysteine were more effective than other inhibitors. The enzymatic activity of L. lancifolium Thunb PPO crude extract was higher than that of L. brownie var. viridulum and L. davidii var. unicolor cotton. For thermal inactivation, L. davidii var. unicolor cotton PPO showed the best thermal resistance at 65-75°C, and L. lancifolium Thunb showed stability at 45°C. The deactivation of the three types of PPO followed the first-order reaction kinetics, and the activation energy (Ea) was 144.28, 138.00, and 107.12 kJ/mol for L. lancifolium Thunb PPO, L. brownie var. viridulum PPO, and L. davidii var. unicolor cotton PPO, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Lilium is an ornamental and edible plant typically used for food and traditional Chinese medicine. Its flowers are used for decoration, and its underground bulbs are rich in various bioactive substances. Fresh lily bulbs easily turn brown and lose economic value during storage and processing. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a crucial molecule involved in the enzymatic browning of fruit and vegetables. In this study, PPO was extracted from three main planted lily cultivars in China. Namely, Lilium lancifolium Thunb, Lilium brownie var. viridulum, Lilium davidii var. unicolor cotton and was partially characterized. The results are of considerable importance to further understand the PPO of lily bulbs and provide guidance for the inactivation of enzymes and the processing of lily bulb juice.

7.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20001, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016624

RESUMO

African wild rice Oryza longistaminata, one of the eight AA- genome species in the genus Oryza, possesses highly valued traits, such as the rhizomatousness for perennial rice breeding, strong tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and high biomass production on poor soils. To obtain the high-quality reference genome for O. longistaminata we employed a hybrid assembly approach through incorporating Illumina and PacBio sequencing datasets. The final genome assembly comprised only 107 scaffolds and was approximately ∼363.5 Mb, representing ∼92.7% of the estimated African wild rice genome (∼392 Mb). The N50 lengths of the assembled contigs and scaffolds were ∼46.49 Kb and ∼6.83 Mb, indicating ∼3.72-fold and ∼18.8-fold improvement in length compared to the earlier released assembly (∼12.5 Kb and 364 Kb, respectively). Aided with Hi-C data and syntenic relationship with O. sativa, these assembled scaffolds were anchored into 12 pseudo-chromosomes. Genome annotation and comparative genomic analysis reveal that lineage-specific expansion of gene families that respond to biotic- and abiotic stresses are of great potential for mining novel alleles to overcome major diseases and abiotic adaptation in rice breeding programs. This reference genome of African wild rice will greatly enlarge the existing database of rice genome resources and unquestionably form a solid base to understand genomic basis underlying highly valued phenotypic traits and search for novel gene sources in O. longistaminata for the future rice breeding programs.


Assuntos
Oryza , Genoma , Genômica , Oryza/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 218, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) is a reliable predictor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Its association with the severity of hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis in NAFLD is poorly understood. This study evaluated the relationship between these factors in NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 4784 participants who underwent ultrasonography were enrolled. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were assessed. Participants with NAFLD were diagnosed by ultrasound. The degree of hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness was evaluated with transient elastography. RESULTS: The TyG index was significantly correlated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and the presence of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. TyG quartile values correlated with increasing prevalence of NAFLD (Q1 30.9%, Q2 53.3%, Q3 71.7%, and Q4 86.4%, P < 0.001) and with the presence of liver fibrosis (Q1 13.5%, Q2 17.6%, Q3 18.8%, and Q4 26.1%, P < 0.001). The AUROC for the TyG index to predict NAFLD was 0.761, resulting in a cut-off value of 8.7. However, the AUC value of the TyG index was 0.589 for liver fibrosis, which was insufficient to predict this condition. The adjusted odds of having hepatic steatosis or liver fibrosis were more strongly associated with TyG values compared with HOMA-IR. CONCLUSION: The TyG index is positively related to the severity of hepatic steatosis and the presence of liver fibrosis in NAFLD. The index also performed better than HOMA-IR.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 9579-9586, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119324

RESUMO

It is still a grand challenge to exploit efficient catalysts to achieve sustainable photocatalytic N2 reduction under ambient conditions. Here, we developed a ruthenium-based single-atom catalyst anchored on defect-rich TiO2 nanotubes (denoted Ru-SAs/Def-TNs) as a model system for N2 fixation. The constructed Ru-SAs/Def-TNs exhibited a catalytic efficiency of 125.2 µmol g-1 h-1, roughly 6 and 13 times higher than those of the supported Ru nanoparticles and Def-TNs, respectively. Through ultrafast transient absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we revealed the relationship between catalytic activity and photoexcited electron dynamics in such a model SA catalytic system. The unique ligand-to-metal charge-transfer state formed in Ru-SAs/Def-TNs was found to be responsible for its high catalytic activity because it can greatly promote the transfer of photoelectrons from Def-TNs to the Ru-SAs center and the subsequent capture by Ru-SAs. This work sheds light on the origin of the high performance of SA catalysts from the perspective of photoexcited electron dynamics and hence enriches the mechanistic understanding of SA catalysis.

10.
Inf Sci (N Y) ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106709

RESUMO

The recent availability of enormous amounts of both data and computing power has created new opportunities for predictive modeling. This paper compiles an analytical framework based on multiple sources of data including daily trading data, online news, derivative technical indicators, and time-frequency features decomposed from closing prices. We also provide a real-life demonstration of how to combine and capitalize on all available information to predict the stock price of BGI Genomics. Moreover, we apply a long short-term memory (LSTM) network equipped with an attention mechanism to identify long-term temporal dependencies and adaptively highlight key features. We further examine the learning capabilities of the network for specific tasks, including forecasting the next day's price direction and closing price and developing trading strategies, comparing its statistical accuracy and trading performance with those of methods based on logistic regression, support vector machine,gradient boosting decision trees, and the original LSTM model. The experimental results for BGI Genomics demonstrate that the attention enhanced LSTM model remarkably improves prediction performance through multi-source heterogeneous information fusion, highlighting the significance of online news and time-frequency features, as well as exemplifying and validating our proposed framework.

11.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether adjuvant Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) to standard treatment could reduce recurrent bleeding after variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This study retrospectively collected 555 consecutive patients who recovered from variceal bleeding. A population-based cohort study was established depending on if adjuvant CPMs were administered to prevent rebleeding. A total of 139 patients who had taken ⩾28 cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs) of CPMs were included in the CPMs cohort, and 416 patients who used <28 cDDDs of CPMs were enrolled in the non-CPMs cohort. On evaluation of rebleeding incidence, 1:2 propensity score matched was used to estimate for reducing bias. Patients were followed for at least 12 months. The end-point of this study was clinically significant esophagogastric variceal rebleeding. RESULTS: Following multivariate analysis, CPMs therapy was an independent factor for variceal rebleeding [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.657; 95% confidence interval=0.497-0.868; P=0.003]. After the 1:2 propensity score matching, a significant reduction (23.5%) in the incidence of variceal rebleeding in patients was observed, from 58.3% in the non-CPMs cohort to 44.6% in the CPMs cohort (modified log-rank test, P=0.002) within a year. The AHRs for rebleeding were 0.928, 0.553, and 0.105, for 28-90 cDDDs, 91-180 cDDDs, and >180 cDDDs of CPMs, respectively. The median rebleeding interval in the CPMs cohort was significantly larger compared with the non-CPMs cohort (113.5 vs. 93.0 days; P=0.008). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant CPMs to standard therapy can significantly reduce the incidence of variceal rebleeding and delay the time to rebleeding.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902532

RESUMO

Negative thermal quenching (NTQ), an abnormal phenomenon that the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) increases with increasing temperature, has essentially been restricted to either bulk semiconductors or very low temperatures. Here, we report a delayed fluorescence copper-organic framework exhibiting negative thermal quenching (NTQ) of photoluminescence, which is driven by the fluctuation between the localized and delocalized form of its imidazole ligand. The process is completely reversible on cooling/heating cycles. This study opens a new avenue to explore the electronically switchable NTQ effect in coordination networks and further to develop the NTQ-based light-emitting diodes.

13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(20): 8735-8745, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xylanase with high specific activity plays a crucial role in hemicellulose biodegradation and has important industrial application. The amino acids located in the active site determine the enzyme biological characterization. In this study, structure bioinformatics analysis and alanine screening experiments were performed to explore the roles of amino acids at each subsite of the GH11 xylanase active site. RESULTS: There are highly conserved amino acids at - 2 to + 1 subsites, and the network of the interactions is concentrated near the catalytic sites (E86, E178). However, the amino acids at relatively distal subsites, especially at the + 2 and + 3 subsites, are few but diverse. Alanine substitution of amino acids in the active site architecture exerted different impacts on catalytic efficiency. Interestingly, mutants Y180A at the + 2 subsite and Y96A at the + 3 subsite had reduced enzymatic activities by almost 95%, which indicate that these two aromatic residues are necessary for the catalysis of substrates in addition to the highly conserved residues at the - 2 and + 1 subsites. Moreover, in these two subsites, aromatic amino acids with different side-chain properties also affected enzyme activity. The mutants Y180W and Y96W showed 6.2% and 12.8% increase in specific activities by comparison with wild-type enzyme at 50 °C, respectively. CONCLUSION: We elucidated the interaction between amino acids and substrates in the active site, which will aid understanding of the protein-ligand interaction in enzyme engineering. KEY POINTS: • Xylanase of GH11 family is a good industrial candidate. • The roles of residues at each subsite of GH11 xylanase active site are explored. • The two aromatic residues at the + 2 and + 3 subsites are necessary for the catalysis. • Y180W and Y96W increased the enzymatic activity by 6.2% and 12.8% at low temperature.

14.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 407, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, significant progress has been made in developing highly complex tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESSs) for wound healing. However, the lack of skin appendages, such as hair follicles and sweat glands, and the time required, are two major limitations that hinder its broad application in the clinic. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a competent TESS in a short time to meet the needs for clinical applications. METHODS: Adult scalp dermal progenitor cells and epidermal stem cells together with type I collagen as a scaffold material were used to reconstitute bilayer TESSs in vitro. TESSs at 4 different culture times (5, 9, 14, and 21 days) were collected and then grafted onto full-thickness wounds created in the dorsal skin of athymic nude/nude mice. The skin specimens formed from grafted TESSs were collected 4 and 8 weeks later and then evaluated for their structure, cell organization, differentiation status, vascularization, and formation of appendages by histological analysis, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: Early-stage bilayer TESSs after transplantation had a better efficiency of grafting. A normal structure of stratified epidermis containing multiple differentiated layers of keratinocytes was formed in all grafts from both early-stage and late-stage TESSs, but higher levels of the proliferation marker Ki-67 and the epidermal progenitor marker p63 were found in the epidermis formed from early-stage TESSs. Interestingly, the transplantation of early-stage TESSs produced a thicker dermis that contained more vimentin- and CD31-positive cells, and importantly, hair follicle formation was only observed in the skin grafted from early-stage TESSs. Finally, early-stage TESSs expressed high levels of p63 but had low expression levels of genes involved in the activation of the apoptotic pathway compared to the late-stage TESSs in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Early-stage bilayer TESSs reconstituted from skin progenitor cells contained more competent cells with less activation of the apoptotic pathway and produced a better skin structure, including hair follicles associated with sebaceous glands, after transplantation, which should potentially provide better wound healing when applied in the clinic in the future.

15.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(12): 107725, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981813

RESUMO

AIMS: The association between circulating miR-146a and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between plasma miR-146a levels and subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. METHODS: We studied 100 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a thickened CIMT (≥1.0 mm) and high baPWV defined as a value greater than the 75th percentile. Plasma miR-146a levels and metabolic parameters were measured. RESULTS: Patients with thickened CIMT had higher plasma miR-146a levels than those without thickened CIMT (3.36 ±â€¯1.32 vs 1.38 ±â€¯1.11, P < 0.001). Patients in the high baPWV group had higher plasma miR-146a levels than those in the normal baPWV group (3.43 ±â€¯1.32 vs 1.98 ±â€¯1.48, P < 0.001). Both CIMT (ß = 0.569, P < 0.001) and baPWV (ß = 0.274, P = 0.001) positively correlated with plasma miR-146a levels after adjustment for confounding factors by multiple stepwise regression. On binary logistic regression, plasma miR-146a level was an independent risk factor for thickened CIMT (OR = 3.890, 95% CI 1.415-7.698, P = 0.008) and high baPWV (OR = 1.954, 95% CI 1.256-3.040, P = 0.002) after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of plasma miR-146a level for predicting thickened CIMT was 0.795 (95%CI 0.708-0.883, P < 0.001) and for predicting high baPWV was 0.773 (95%CI 0.679-0.867, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Plasma miR-146a levels correlate with CIMT and baPWV and could act as a biomarker for early diagnosis and as a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis in T2DM.

16.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 988-994, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the anti- fibrotic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (hUCMSC-EXOs) and explore the mechanism. METHODS: Twenty-four C57 BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups (n=6), including the control group treated with intratracheal injection of saline (3 mg/kg); lung fibrosis model group with intratracheal injection of 1.5 mg/mL bleomycin solution (prepared with saline, 3 mg/kg); EXOs1 group with intratracheal injection of 1.5 mg/mL bleomycin solution (3 mg/kg) and hUCMSC-EXOs (100 µg/250 µL, given by tail vein injection on the next day after modeling); and EXOs2 group with intratracheal injection of 1.5 mg/mL bleomycin solution (3 mg/kg) and hUCMSC-EXOs (100 µg/250 µL, given by tail vein injection on the 10th day after modeling). At 21 days after modeling, pulmonary index, lung tissue pathology and collagen deposition in the mice were assessed using HE staining and Masson staining. The expression level of TGF-ß1 was detected using ELISA, and vimentin, E-cadherin and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) were detected using immunohistochemical staining. CCK8 assay was used to evaluate the effect of hUCMSCEXOs on the viability of A549 cells, and Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of p-Smad2/3, vimentin, and E-cadherin in the cells. RESULTS: Compared with those in the model group, the mice treated with hUCMSC-EXOs showed significantly reduced the pulmonary index (P < 0.05), collagen deposition, lung tissue pathologies, lowered expressions of TGF-ß1 (P < 0.05), vimentin, and p-Smad2/3 and increased expression of E-cadherin. hUCMSC-EXOs given on the second day produced more pronounced effect than that given on the 11th day (P < 0.05). CCK8 assay results showed that hUCMSC-EXOs had no toxic effects on A549 cells (P > 0.05). Western blotting results showed that hUCMSC-EXOs treatment significantly increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expressions of p-Smad2/3 and vimentin in the cells. CONCLUSIONS: hUCMSC-EXOs can alleviate pulmonary fibrosis in mice by inhibiting epithelialmesenchymal transition activated by the TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway, and the inhibitory effect is more obvious when it is administered on the second day after modeling.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Fibrose Pulmonar , Animais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Camundongos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Cordão Umbilical
17.
Biosci Rep ; 40(9)2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880385

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumour metabolism has become a novel factor targeted by personalised cancer drugs. This research evaluated the prognostic significance of metabolism-related genes (MRGs) in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OSC). METHODS: MRGs in 379 women surviving OSC were obtained using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Then, several biomedical computational algorithms were employed to identify eight hub prognostic MRGs that were significantly relevant to OSC survival. These eight genes have important clinical significance and prognostic value in OSC. Subsequently, a prognostic index was constructed. Drug sensitivity analysis was used to screen the key genes in eight MRGs. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining confirmed the expression levels of key genes and their correlations with clinical parameters and prognosis for patients. RESULTS: A total of 701 differentially expressed MRGs were confirmed in women with OSC by the TCGA database. The random walking with restart (RWR) algorithm and the univariate Cox and lasso regression analyses indicated a prognostic signature based on eight MRGs (i.e., ENPP1, FH, CYP2E1, HPGDS, ADCY9, NDUFA5, ADH1B and PYGB), which performed moderately well in prognostic predictions. Drug sensitivity analysis indicated that PYGB played a key role in the progression of OSC. Also, IHC staining confirmed that PYGB has a close correlation with clinical parameters and poor prognosis in OSC. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study may help to establish a foundation for future research attempting to predict the prognosis of OSC patients and to characterise OSC metabolism.

18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110611, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890966

RESUMO

Hypertrophic scars often cause great pain to patients. It is generally believed that anti-inflammatory scar therapies are the best strategies for treatment because excessive inflammation is observed in hypertrophic scar tissue. However, the results of such treatment are unsatisfactory. In recent studies, immune stimulatory therapies have been suggested to be a preferable method for ameliorating hypertrophic scars. In this study, the expression of the human-specific gene CHRFAM7A, which has been reported to be a promoter of inflammation, was found to be lower in human hypertrophic scars than in normotrophic scars. The CHRFAM7A gene was overexpressed in a hypertrophic scar mouse model using a lentivirus system. Scar fibrosis decreased in the CHRFAM7A transfection group compared to the control group, and the proportion of M2 macrophages decreased at 4 and 8 weeks after establishing the model. We also found that CHRFAM7A increased the activation of the Notch pathway, which eventually attenuated M2 polarization. In the CHRFAM7A-transfected hypertrophic scar mouse group, the number of M1 macrophages increased dramatically in the initial period. Moreover, the expression of the inflammatory gene TNFα was also increased in transfected mice. Our results demonstrate that CHRFAM7A can effectively ameliorate hypertrophic scar formation via regulation of macrophage phenotypic transition. CHRFAM7A might be a therapeutic target for hypertrophic scars.

19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e924040, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Probiotic therapy has been shown to be beneficial against some liver diseases. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the clinical efficacy of probiotics for the treatment of variceal rebleeding. This research explored the efficacy of probiotics in variceal rebleeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study of 704 consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis who recovered from esophagogastric variceal bleeding after endoscopic treatment. Patients were subdivided into a probiotics cohort (n=214) and a non-probiotics cohort (n=490) based on the cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD) of probiotics received during follow-up. Propensity score matching was utilized to obtain a relatively balanced cohort of 200 patients per group for the analysis. Patients were monitored for rebleeding during the one-year follow-up. RESULTS Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that probiotic therapy (≥28cDDD) was an independent protector against rebleeding (AHR=0.623; 95% CI=0.488-0.795; P<0.001). After propensity score matching, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the rebleeding rate was higher in the non-probiotics cohort (n=200) than in the probiotics cohort (n=200) (56.0% vs. 44.0%, P=0.002). The incidence of rebleeding decreased with increased probiotic dosage (56.0%, 48.5%, 43.3%, and 38.1% in <28 cDDD, 28-60 cDDD, 61-90 cDDD, and >90 cDDD groups, respectively; P=0.011). The median rebleeding interval in the probiotics cohort (n=95) was significantly longer than that in the non-probiotics cohort (n=261) (147.0 vs. 91.0 days; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Adjuvant probiotic therapy significantly reduced the incidence of variceal rebleeding and delayed rebleeding after endotherapy in patients with cirrhosis.

20.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790335

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskites hold promise for photovoltaics, lasers, and light-emitting diode (LED) applications, being known as light-harvesting or -emitting materials. Here we show that colloidal lead halide CsPbCl3 perovskite quantum dots (PQDs), when incorporating divalent manganese (Mn2+) ions, are able to produce spin-paired singlet oxygen molecules with over-unit quantum yield (∼1.08) in air conditions. Our mechanistic studies and atomic-level density functional theory calculations endorse an energy-migration-mediated quantum cutting process favoring multiple singlet oxygen generation (MSOG), in which one exciton-activated bulk Mn2+ ion (∼2.0 eV) inside the nanocrystal migrates its energy among the Mn2+ sublattice to two surface Mn2+ defect states (∼1.0 eV), followed by nonradiative energy transfers to two surrounding oxygen molecules. Moreover, superhydrophobicization of MSOG PQDs through silica-mediated polystyrene encapsulation prevents them from disintegrating in aqueous medium, enabling photodegradation of methyl orange at a rate even higher than that of the canonical titanium oxide photocatalyst. The observation of ultraefficient singlet oxygen generation in PQDs has implications for fields ranging from photodynamic therapy to photocatalytic applications.

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