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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3311-3320, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658217

RESUMO

Vertical expansion makes the structure and pattern of the city more complicated. Traditional two-dimensional landscape pattern cannot completely reflect the ecological structure and functional characteristics of urban landscape. In this study, we used the three-dimensional landscape pattern metrics to quantify the regional three-dimensional landscape pattern, and used boosted regression tree (BRT) machine learning algorithms to comprehensively analyze the interaction between social-environmental factors and urban landscape patterns in the central part of Shanghai. Results showed that high building ratio, mean architecture height, and architecture height standard deviation had higher values in the surrounding area of the inner ring. The number of buildings and landscape shape index were higher in the outer ring than those in other area. Building coverage ratio, floor area ratio and Shannon's diversity index had higher values in the central part, with the metrics of Puxi being generally higher than those of Pudong. Population density and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) interacted most significantly with the three-dimensional landscape pattern, with GDP as the least influential factor. Within a certain range, the three-dimensional landscape pattern metrics increased with larger population density in the social factors, and decreased with lower rate of NDVI and water surface ratio in the environmental factors. Our results demonstrated that the BRT method was effective in quantifying the interaction between landscape pattern and social-environmental factors. Our results help improve the understanding of the relationship between ecological environment and human well-being in the central part of Shanghai and provide a scientific basis for the urban three-dimensional expansion planning.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Ecossistema , China , Cidades , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 498, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency that has caused worldwide concern. The mental health of medical students under the COVID-19 epidemic has attracted much attention. This study aims to identify subgroups of medical students based on depression and anxiety and explore the influencing factors during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. METHODS: A total of 29,663 medical students were recruited during the epidemic of COVID-19 in China. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD7) respectively. Latent class analysis was performed based on depression and anxiety symptoms in medical students. The latent class subtypes were compared using the chi-square test. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between identified classes and related factors. RESULTS: In this study, three distinct subgroups were identified, namely, the poor mental health group, the mild mental health group and the low symptoms group. The number of medical students in each class is 4325, 9321 and 16,017 respectively. The multinomial logistic regression results showed that compared with the low symptoms group, the factors influencing depression and anxiety in the poor mental health group and mild mental health group were sex, educational level, drinking, individual psychiatric disorders, family psychiatric disorders, knowledge of COVID-19, fear of being infected, and participate in mental health education on COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that latent class analysis can be used to categorize different medical students according to their depression and anxiety symptoms during the outbreak of COVID-19. The main factors influencing the poor mental health group and the mild mental health group are basic demographic characteristics, disease history, COVID-19 related factors and behavioural lifestyle. School administrative departments can carry out targeted psychological counseling according to different subgroups to promote the physical and mental health of medical students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Estudantes de Medicina , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634902

RESUMO

Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) have recently emerged as natural products with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential. Here, we compared the structure of LCCs from ginkgo (GK, gymnosperms), wheat straw (WST, monocotyledons), and aspen white poplar (AW, dicotyledons). We also investigated the biotransformation of LCCs by intestinal microbiota in vitro. We found that human intestinal microbiota could use LCCs as a carbon source for growth, breaking resistant cross-linkages in LCCs to generate a plethora of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and aromatic compounds with putative beneficial effects on human health. The yield of SCFAs reached 1837.8 ± 44.1 µmol/g using AW LCCs as a carbon source. The biomass of intestinal microbiota increased the fastest using GK LCCs. The greatest amounts of phenolics were present at 4 h in a WST LCCs fermentation system. Many phenolic acids with potential bioactivity were obtained after 24 h fermentation using each LCCs, such as ferulic acid.

4.
Front Neurol ; 12: 743110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675874

RESUMO

Objective: We conducted a survey to assess vaccination coverage, vaccination willingness, and variables associated with vaccination hesitancy to provide evidence on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination strategies. Methods: This anonymous questionnaire study conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional survey of outpatients and inpatients with epilepsy (PWE) registered in epilepsy clinics, in 2021, in 10 hospitals in seven cities of Shandong Province. Results: A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed, and 557 valid questionnaires were returned. A total of 130 people were vaccinated against COVID-19. Among 427 unvaccinated participants, 69.32% (296/427) were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine in the future, and the remaining 30.68% (131/427) were unwilling to receive vaccination. Most (89.9%) of the participants believed that the role of vaccination was crucial in response to the spread of COVID-19. A significant association was found between willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine and the following variables: age, marital status, level of education, occupation, residence, seizure type, and seizure control after antiepileptic drug therapy. It is noteworthy that education level, living in urban areas, and seizure freedom were significantly related to willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusions: Vaccination is a key measure for the prevention and control of COVID-19, and most PWE are willing to be vaccinated. Vaccine safety, effectiveness, and accessibility are essential in combatting vaccine hesitation and increasing vaccination rates.

5.
Appl Opt ; 60(27): 8419-8425, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612941

RESUMO

Underwater imaging faces challenges due to complex optical properties in water. Our purpose is to explore the application of polarimetric imaging in image recovery under turbid water based on deep learning. A polarization camera is used to capture the polarization images of objects under water as datasets. The method used in our study aims to explore a structure and loss function that is suitable for the model. In terms of the model structure, four pairs of models consisting of polarized version and gray version based on the idea of dense U-Net and information flow were proposed. In the aspect of loss function, the method of combining weighted mean squared error with perceptual loss was proposed and a proper set of loss weights was selected through comparison experiments. Comparing the model outputs, it is found that adding polarized information along with the light intensity information to the model at the very front of the model structure brings about better recovering image. The model structure proposed can be used for image recovery in turbid water or other scattering environments. Since the polarization characteristics are considered, the recovered image has more detailed features than that where only intensity is considered. The results of comparison with other methods show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051892, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667009

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are more sensitive to postanaesthesia respiratory depression. Whether different anaesthetic regimens (intravenous-based or inhalational-based general anaesthesia) affect the postanaesthesia respiratory depression is controversial. Although desflurane has been reported that presents favourable rapid recovery profile in special patients including whom with OSA, the strong clinical evidence of the benefit on postanaesthesia respiratory depression is far from being revealed. This study aims to fill this knowledge gap by investigating the postanaesthesia respiratory depression in postanaesthesia care unit (PACU) in patients with OSA after major abdominal surgery, followed by desflurane-based anaesthesia compared with propofol-based anaesthesia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Eight hundred and fifty-four patients with OSA scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery will be randomly 1:1 assigned to desflurane-based (n=427) or propofol-based anaesthesia (n=427) using a computer-generated randomisation scheme with permuted block size maintained by a centralised randomisation centre. Patients will be assessed before and a consecutive 3 days after their surgery according to the standardised tasks. Demographic data as well as surgical and anaesthesia information will be collected for the duration of the procedure. Incidence of postanaesthesia respiratory depression in PACU as well as anaesthesia recovery, emergence delirium, postoperative nausea and vomiting, rescue analgesia, duration of PACU and hospital stay, and any other adverse events will be assessed at the given study time point. Investigators performing postoperative follow-up are not involved in both anaesthesia implementation and postoperative care. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol has been approved by the ethics board at Xiang'an Hospital of Xiamen University (XAHLL2019003). The results of this study will be published in a peer-review journal and presented at national conferences as poster or oral presentations. Participants wishing to know the results of this study will be contacted directly on data publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2000031087.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126258, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492995

RESUMO

Ball milling (BM) as a solvent-free technology has been widely used to tailor the biochar-based adsorbents with high porosity and well dispersion for enhancing their environmental applications. In this study, the ball-milled layered double hydroxides (LDHs) biochar composite (B-LDHs-BC) was successfully fabricated with BM method for Cd(II) adsorption and the BM effects on the LDHs-BC structure-performance relationships were investigated. The solid-state characterization demonstrated the LDHs were successfully exfoliated by BM on the B-LDHs-BC surface which was identified by the enlarged basal spacing and reduced crystallite size of the LDHs. Although the BET surface area of B-LDHs-BC (226 m2/g) was slightly lower than the ball-milled BC, the B-LDHs-BC had more O-containing functional groups and higher adsorption capacity (119 mg/g). The kinetics experiments indicated that the Cd(II) removal by B-LDHs-BC was through both the physical and chemical adsorption processes, and the liquid membrane diffusion was the rate-controlling step. The positive BM effects mainly induced more abundant acidic functional groups and active adsorption sites, and thus enhanced Cd(II) performance of B-LDHs-BC. This work demonstrated a facile solvent-free method for production of the exfoliated LDHs modified BC composite, and also well illustrated the BM effects which can extend their practical use in environment.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Hidróxidos , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 720847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504798

RESUMO

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been increasingly regarded as a reasonable option for early-stage lung cancer patients without pretreatment pathologic results, but the efficacy and safety in a Chinese population remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare survival outcomes and toxicities between patients with clinically diagnosed early-stage lung cancer or biopsy-proven early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and to demonstrate the rationality of this treatment. Material and Methods: From May 2012 to December 2018, 56 patients with clinically diagnosed early-stage lung cancer and 60 patients with early-stage biopsy-proven were selected into non-pathological group and pathological group, respectively. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to reduce patient selection bias. Survival analysis with log-rank test was used to assess the differences of treatment outcomes, which included local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: The median age was 76 (range 47-93) years, and the median follow-up time was 58.3 (range 4.3-95.1) months in the cohort without pathologic results. The median age was 74 (range 57-88) years, and the median follow-up time was 56.3 (range 2.6-94) months in the cohort with pathologic results. 45 matched-pair were analyzed. The 5-year LC, PFS, and OS rates in matched-pair patients with or without pathologic biopsy were 85.5% and 89.8%, 40.6% and 70.9%, and 63.2% and 76.1%, respectively. On Kaplan-Meier survival analysis after PSM analysis, there was no significant difference between patients with pathologic results versus patients with no pathologic results in terms of LC (P= 0.498) and OS (P=0.141). Of the matched-pair patients treated with SBRT, only 1 patient experienced grade 3 or above radiation pneumonitis. Conclusion: For early-stage lung cancer patients with medically inoperable or not suitable for invasive diagnosis, SBRT may be a good local treatment.

9.
Cell Prolif ; : e13133, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Maternal factors that are enriched in oocytes have attracted great interest as possible key factors in somatic cell reprogramming. We found that surfeit locus protein 4 (Surf4), a maternal factor, can facilitate the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) previously, but the mechanism remains elusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the function and mechanism of Surf4 in somatic cell reprogramming using a secondary reprogramming system. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining, qPCR and immunofluorescence (IF) staining of expression of related markers were used to evaluate efficiency of iPSCs derived from mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Embryoid body and teratoma formation assays were performed to evaluate the differentiation ability of the iPSC lines. RNA-seq, qPCR and western blot analysis were applied to validate the downstream targets of Surf4. RESULTS: Surf4 can significantly facilitate the generation of iPSCs in a proliferation-independent manner. When co-expressed with Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (OSKM), Surf4 can activate the response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress at the early stage of reprogramming. We further demonstrated that Hspa5, a major ER chaperone, and the active spliced form of Xbp1 (sXbp1), a major mediator of ER stress, can mimic the effects of Surf4 on somatic cell reprogramming. Concordantly, blocking the unfolded protein response compromises the effect of Surf4 on reprogramming. CONCLUSIONS: Surf4 promotes somatic cell reprogramming by activating the response to ER stress.

10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 726341, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513960

RESUMO

Background: Anti-inflammatory therapy has been proposed as a promising treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD) that could reduce residual inflammation risk (RIR) and therefore major adverse cardiovascular events. We implemented a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the clinical benefits of anti-inflammatory agents in patients with CHD based on secondary cardiovascular prevention. Methods: We systemically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for RCTs (published between Jan 1, 1950, and June 1, 2021; no language restrictions) that focused on anti-inflammatory therapy for coronary heart disease. Our primary end points of interest were a composite of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction and stroke. We processed pooled data using a random-effects model. Results: Of 1497 selected studies, 18 studies with 67,449 participants met our inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. Comparing anti-inflammatory agents with placebo, there was no significant decrease in risk of primary end points, secondary end points, all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke or revascularization. Further subgroup analysis indicated that anti-inflammatory agents led to a significant reduction in secondary end points (OR 0.87, CI 0.77-0.99; P = 0.03), recurrent myocardial infarction (OR 0.86, CI 0.78-0.95; P = 0.003) and revascularization (OR 0.81, CI 0.70-0.92; P = 0.001) in patients with stable CHD compared with placebo. Moreover, stable CHD patients had a lower propensity for recurrent myocardial infarction than acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients when using anti-inflammatory agents (P = 0.03). The colchicine subgroup analysis showed that colchicine yielded a promising reduction in the primary end points (OR 0.81, CI 0.70-0.95; P = 0.009) compared with placebo. Anti-inflammatory agents were associated with a higher risk of infection (OR 1.13, CI 1.03-1.23; P = 0.007) and negligible effects on cancers (OR 0.98, CI 0.90-1.06; P = 0.61). Conclusion: Anti-inflammatory agents appear to have beneficial effects in reducing the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in patients with stable CHD, albeit at the cost of increased infection. Notably, colchicine demonstrates a promising cardioprotective effect with a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events and thus is a potential therapeutic strategy for stable CHD patients. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO, identifier CRD42021245514.

11.
Nanoscale ; 13(37): 15937-15951, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523658

RESUMO

Vascular dysfunction and bacterial infection are key factors for the non-healing of diabetic ulcers. Growth factors and antibiotics seem to effectively target both issues. However, the short half-life and high cost of growth factors and the antibiotics resistance of bacteria greatly limit their further widespread applications. Novel strategies or agents with both angiogenic and antibacterial activities are urgently desirable. Copper peroxide (CuO2) nanodots were reported to be decomposed into Cu2+ and H2O2 under mild acid conditions (pH 5.5). Considering that both decomposed products are acknowledged antibacterial agents (Cu2+, H2O2) and angiogenesis activator (Cu2+), we believe that CuO2 nanodots are suitable for diabetic ulcer treatment because the pathological environment of infected chronic wounds is mildly acidic with pH 5.5-5.6. As expected, in vitro experiments showed that CuO2 nanodots possessed excellent bactericidal properties against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and even methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). CuO2 nanodots induced the high expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), subsequently promoting the cell migration and tube formation for angiogenesis. In particular, CuO2 nanodots exhibited good dispersibility and sprayable behavior in water. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the spayed CuO2 nanodots in the wound area could effectively combat MRSA, reduce inflammation, promote angiogenesis, and consequently accelerate wound healing. Moreover, the sprayed CuO2 nanodots in the wound sites caused negligible system toxicity. This study provides proof-of-principle evidence for applying the sprayed CuO2 nanodots for infected diabetic ulcer treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Cobre , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Peróxidos , Úlcera , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Cicatrização
12.
Neurol Res ; : 1-6, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors play an important role in the onset of epilepsy, and the involvement of the RELN gene was recently discovered. This paper reports a family with a history of epilepsy caused by a heterozygous missense mutation in the RELN gene. METHODS: After a clear diagnosis was made in the proband with a family history of epilepsy, gene sequencing was performed on the proband and his family members. RESULTS: The proband was a 19-year-old male who presented with general convulsions during sleep lasting for about 1 min and was relieved spontaneously. His father and grandmother also experienced seizures. The gene sequencing results of the proband, his mother, and his grandmother showed that both the proband and his grandmother carried the same heterozygous missense mutation in the RELN gene (c.7909 C > T), unlike the proband's mother. DISCUSSION: Mutations in the RELN gene can lead to the occurrence of benign epilepsy, though the specific type of seizures that it can cause is still unclear, and may increase the susceptibility to epilepsy. In addition, it may have potential anticancer effects.

13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569961

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a central neurodegenerative disease generally among the elderly; it accounts for approximately 50-75%of total cases of dementia patients and poses a serious threat to physical and mental health. Currently available treatments for AD mainly relieves its symptoms, and effective therapy is urgently needed. Deposition of amyloid-ß protein in the brain is an early and invariant neuropathological feature of AD. Currently the main efforts in developing anti-AD drugs focus on anti-amyloidogenic therapeutics that prevent amyloid-ß production or aggregation and decrease the occurrence of neurotoxic events. The results of an increasing number of studies suggest that natural extracts and phytochemicals have a positive impact on brain aging. Flavonoids belong to the broad group of polyphenols and recent data indicate a favorable effect of flavonoids on brain aging. In this review, we collect relevant discoveries from 1999 to 2021, discuss 75 flavonoids that effectively influence AD pathogenesis, and summarize their functional mechanisms in detail. The data we have reviewed show that, these flavonoids belong to various subclasses, including flavone, flavanone, biflavone, etc. Our results provide a reference for further study of the effects of flavonoids on AD and the progress of anti-AD therapy.

14.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(5): E506-E515, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467747

RESUMO

Background: Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are increasingly being conceptualized as a transdiagnostic continuum. Disruption of white matter is a common alteration in these psychiatric disorders, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the disruption remain unclear. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is genetically linked with susceptibility to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, and it is also related to white matter. Methods: Using a transdiagnostic approach, we aimed to identify white matter differences associated with NRG1 and their relationship to transdiagnostic symptoms and cognitive function. We examined the white matter of 1051 participants (318 healthy controls and 733 patients with major psychiatric disorders: 254 with schizophrenia, 212 with bipolar disorder and 267 with major depressive disorder) who underwent diffusion tensor imaging. We measured the plasma NRG1-ß1 levels of 331 participants. We also evaluated clinical symptoms and cognitive function. Results: In the patient group, abnormal white matter was negatively associated with NRG1-ß1 levels in the genu of the corpus callosum, right uncinate fasciculus, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, right external capsule, fornix, right optic tract, left straight gyrus white matter and left olfactory radiation. These NRG1-associated white matter abnormalities were also associated with depression and anxiety symptoms and executive function in patients with a major psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, across the 3 disorders we observed analogous alterations in white matter, NRG1-ß1 levels and clinical manifestations. Limitations: Medication status, the wide age range and our cross-sectional findings were limitations of this study. Conclusion: This study is the first to provide evidence for an association between NRG1, white matter abnormalities, clinical symptoms and cognition in a transdiagnostic psychiatric cohort. These findings provide further support for an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the neuroimaging substrates of major psychiatric disorders and their clinical implications.

15.
Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 11(4): 327-331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513286

RESUMO

This perspective briefly reviewed the applications of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the clinical management of lymphoma and the need for lesion segmentation in those applications. It discussed the limitations of existing segmentation technologies and the great potential of using deep learning convolutional neural network (DLCNN) to accomplish automatic lymphoma segmentation and characterizations. Finally, the authors shared perspectives on the technical challenges that need to be addressed to fully unleash the potential of DLCNN and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of lymphoma.

16.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564423

RESUMO

Although heroin and morphine are structural analogues and morphine is a metabolite of heroin, it is not known how the effect of each substance on metabolites in vivo differs. Heroin and morphine were administered to C57BL/6J mice in increasing doses from 2 to 25 and 3 to 9 mg kg-1 (twice a day, i.p.), respectively, for 20 days. The animals underwent withdrawal for 5 days and were readministered the drugs after 10 days. Serum and urine analytes were profiled using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and metabolic patterns were evaluated based on metabonomics data. Metabonomics data showed that heroin administration changed metabolic pattern, and heroin withdrawal did not quickly restore it to baseline levels. A relapse of heroin exposure changed metabolic pattern again. In contrast, although the administration of morphine changed metabolic pattern, whether from morphine withdrawal or relapse, metabolic pattern was similar to control levels. The analysis of metabolites showed that both heroin and morphine interfered with lipid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid metabolism. In addition, both heroin and morphine increased the levels of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and citric acid but decreased the serum levels of 2-ketoglutaric acid and tryptophan. Moreover, heroin and morphine reduced the levels of aconitic acid, cysteine, glycine, and oxalic acid in urine. The results show 3-Hydroxybutyric acid, tryptophan, citric acid and 2-ketoglutaric acid can be used as potential markers of opiate abuse in serum, while oxalic acid, aconitic acid, cysteine, and glycine can be used as potential markers in urine.

17.
Transpl Immunol ; 69: 101461, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487810

RESUMO

MicroRNA-155(miR-155) and protein prenylation have been reported to participate in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) through modulating T lymphocyte differentiation, however the mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-155 and protein prenyltransferases in peripheral blood T lymphocytes of aGVHD mice was significantly increased. Suppression of miR-155 by antagomir-155 could remarkably reduce prenyltransferases mRNA and protein expression in T lymphocytes of aGVHD mice. Conversely, prenyltransferase inhibitors significantly reduced the level of miR-155. Inhibition of this feedback loop of miR-155 and protein prenylation in aGVHD mice led to improved survival and lower aGVHD histopathology scores and significantly induced T cell deficient differentiation towards T helper 17 (Th17) cells and titled differentiation towards CD4+CD25hi regulatory T (Treg) cells. Furthermore, the immunoregulatory effects and protection from aGVHD of prenyltransferase inhibitors could be reversed by the addition of miR-155. The dual treatment of prenylation inhibitors and antagomir-155 showed synergistic effects on T polarization and protection from aGVHD. Consistent with the in vivo changes, inhibition of this feedback loop of miR-155 and protein prenylation affected Th17 and Treg cell polarization in vitro. Our data suggest that miR-155 and protein prenylation may constitute a feedback loop that amplifies immune and inflammatory responses in subjects with aGVHD, and they may serve as potential targets for aGVHD prophylaxis and treatment.

18.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(9): 814-20, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore clinical effect of acupoint application of Chinese herbal medicine in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after orthopaedic surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS: From January 2018 to December 2019, 168 patients who met inclusion criteria and were underwent selective spine surgery, were double-blind divided into two groups according to central random system, 84 patients in each group. In control group, there were 39 males and 45 females aged from 30 to 65 years old with an average of (53.83±9.17) years old, 37 patients were classified to typeⅠand 47 patients were typeⅡ according to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grading. In experiment group, there were 39 males and 45 females aged from 30 to 65 years old with an average of (54.08±9.00) years old; 32 patients were classified to typeⅠand 52 patients were typeⅡ according to ASA grading. Both of two groups were obtained acupoint application before anesthesia induction, and acupoint application were put on Zhongwan (CV 12) and bilateral Neiguan (PC 6) for 6 h, changed after 24 h, last for 2 d. The drug prescription of plasters in experimental group was consist of Rhizome Pinelliae Preparata, Ginger and Clove. The plasters in control group was consistent with drug plasters in experimental group in appearance and smell to the greatest extent. The ingredients were flour and excipients with 10% of experimental drug concentration. Incidence of nausea vomiting, visual analogue scale (VAS) of narusea degree at 24 h and 24 to 48 h after operation between two groups were compared, SF- 12 simple quality of life score before operation, 24 and 48 h after operation were also compared by using R3.6.1 Rstudio software by the third-party. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in incidence of nausea vomiting, VAS of narusea degree at 24 h after operation (P>0.05), while there were no differences in incidence of nausea vomiting, VAS of narusea degree at 24 to 48 h after operation (P>0.05) . There were no statistical differences in SF-12 before operation, 24 and 48 h after opertaion (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The curative effect of acupoint application of traditional Chinese medicine on the prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting is not obvious.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Pontos de Acupuntura , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443637

RESUMO

Transforming waste biomass materials into bio-oils in order to partially substitute petroleum asphalt can reduce environmental pollution and fossil energy consumption and has economic benefits. The characteristics of bio-oils and their utilization as additives of asphalts are the focus of this review. First, physicochemical properties of various bio-oils are characterized. Then, conventional, rheological, and chemical properties of bio-oil modified asphalt binders are synthetically reviewed, as well as road performance of bio-oil modified asphalt mixtures. Finally, performance optimization is discussed for bio-asphalt binders and mixtures. This review indicates that bio-oils are highly complex materials that contain various compounds. Moreover, bio-oils are source-depending materials for which its properties vary with different sources. Most bio-oils have a favorable stimulus upon the low temperature performance of asphalt binders and mixtures but exhibit a negative impact on their high-temperature performance. Moreover, a large amount of oxygen element, oxygen-comprising functional groups, and light components in plant-based bio-oils result in higher sensitivity to ageing of bio-oil modified asphalts. In order to increase the performance of bio-asphalts, most research has been limited to adding additive agents to bio-asphalts; therefore, more reasonable optimization methods need to be proposed. Furthermore, upcoming exploration is also needed to identify reasonable evaluation indicators of bio-oils, modification mechanisms of bio-asphalts, and long-term performance tracking in field applications of bio-asphalts during pavement service life.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Animais , Biomassa , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Oxigênio/química , Reologia
20.
Pathogens ; 10(7)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358006

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (huNoVs) cause epidemic acute gastroenteritis with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, there are no commercial vaccines or antivirals against these important pathogens so far. In this study, we found that bovine colostrum (bCM) inhibited huNoV VLPs and their capsid-protruding (P) domains binding to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) that are huNoV receptor or attachment factors for infection, suggesting that bCM may function as a natural antiviral against huNoVs. We then characterized the bCM for the functional inhibition components by sequentially separating bCM into multiple fractions through various chromatography approaches, followed by determining their inhibitory abilities against huNoV receptor-binding P protein interacting with HBGAs. The protein components of bCM functional fractions were examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Our data suggested that some milk proteins, likely in the form of glycoproteins, contribute to the observed blocking effects of bCM. Our findings lay an important foundation to further develop bCM into a potential natural antiviral against huNoVs.

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