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1.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(8): 807-814, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843287

RESUMO

Prospection refers to the ability to mentally construct future events, which is closely related to motivation and anhedonia. The neural underpinning of impaired prospection in psychiatric populations remains unclear. We recruited 34 individuals with autistic traits (AT), 27 individuals with schizotypal traits (ST), 31 individuals with depressive symptoms (DS), and 35 controls. Participants completed a prospection task while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We found that regions of the "default mode network" including the medial frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate cortex, the precuneus and the parahippocampus were activated; and regions of the "task-positive network" including the inferior parietal lobe, the inferior frontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus were deactivated during prospection in controls. Compared with controls, AT, ST, and DS showed comparable behavioral performance on prospection. However, reduced activation in anterior cingulate cortex and frontal gyrus was found in AT individuals relative to controls during prospection. ST individuals showed hyperactivation in the caudate relative to controls when processing positive emotion, while DS individuals and controls showed similar neural responses during prospection. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 317: 111390, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537603

RESUMO

Social anhedonia (SA) impairs social functioning in schizophrenia. Previous evidence suggested that certain brain regions predict longitudinal change of real-world social outcomes, yet previous study designs have failed to capture the corresponding functional connectivity among the brain regions involved. This study measured the real-world social network in 22 pairs of individuals with high and low levels of SA, and followed up them for 21 months. We further explored whether resting-state social brain network characteristics could predict the longitudinal variations of real-world social network. Our results showed that social brain network characteristics could predict the change of real-world social networks in both the high SA and low SA groups. However, the results differed between the two groups, i.e., the topological characteristics of the social brain network predicted real-world social network change in the high SA group; whereas the functional connectivity within the social brain network predicted real-world social network change in the low SA group. Principal component analysis and linear regression analysis on the entire sample showed that the functional connectivity component centered at the right orbital inferior frontal gyrus could best predict social network change. Our findings support the notion that social brain network characteristics could predict social network development.

3.
Schizophr Res ; 232: 77-84, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044349

RESUMO

Social behaviour requires the brain to efficiently integrate multiple social processes, but it is not clear what neural substrates underlie general social behaviour. While psychosis patients and individuals with subclinical symptoms are characterized by social dysfunction, the neural mechanisms underlying social dysfunctions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. We first constructed a general social brain network (SBN) using resting-state functional connectivity (FC) with regions of interest based on the automatic meta-analysis results from NeuroSynth. We then examined the general SBN and its relationship with social network (SN) characteristics in 30 individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 33 individuals with social anhedonia (SA). We found that patients with SCZ exhibited deficits in their SN, while SA individuals did not. SCZ patients showed decreased segregation and functional connectivity in their SBN, while SA individuals showed a reversed pattern with increased segregation and functional connectivity of their SBN. Sparse canonical correlation analysis showed that both SCZ patients and SA individuals exhibited reduced correlation between SBN and SN characteristics compared with their corresponding healthy control groups. These preliminary findings suggest that both SCZ and SA participants exhibit abnormality in segregation and functional connectivity within the general SBN and reduced correlation with SN characteristics. These findings could guide the development of non-pharmacological interventions for social dysfunction in SCZ spectrum disorders.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Social
4.
Psych J ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783123

RESUMO

This study constructed the network structure of social anhedonia, emotion processing, and executive function in college students using network analysis. We calculated the strength of each node in the network. The results suggest that social anhedonia had negative effects on executive function, emotion experience, and emotion expression.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticipatory pleasure deficits are closely correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and may be found in both clinical and subclinical populations along the psychosis continuum. Prospection, which is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, is impaired in individuals with social anhedonia (SocAnh). In this study, we examined the neural correlates of envisioning positive future events in individuals with SocAnh. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals with SocAnh and 33 matched controls were recruited to undergo functional MRI scanning, during which they were instructed to simulate positive or neutral future episodes according to cue words. Two stages of prospection were distinguished: construction and elaboration. RESULTS: Reduced activation at the caudate and the precuneus when prospecting positive (v. neutral) future events was observed in individuals with SocAnh. Furthermore, compared with controls, increased functional connectivity between the caudate and the inferior occipital gyrus during positive (v. neutral) prospection was found in individuals with SocAnh. Both groups exhibited a similar pattern of brain activation for the construction v. elaboration contrast, regardless of the emotional context. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide further evidence on the neural mechanism of anticipatory pleasure deficits in subclinical individuals with SocAnh and suggest that altered cortico-striatal circuit may play a role in anticipatory pleasure deficits in these individuals.

6.
Autism Res ; 14(4): 668-680, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314710

RESUMO

Temporal proximity is an important clue for multisensory integration. Previous evidence indicates that individuals with autism and schizophrenia are more likely to integrate multisensory inputs over a longer temporal binding window (TBW). However, whether such deficits in audiovisual temporal integration extend to subclinical populations with high schizotypal and autistic traits are unclear. Using audiovisual simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks for nonspeech and speech stimuli, our results suggested that the width of the audiovisual TBW was not significantly correlated with self-reported schizotypal and autistic traits in a group of young adults. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state activity was also acquired to explore the neural correlates underlying inter-individual variability of TBW width. Across the entire sample, stronger resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the left superior temporal cortex and the left precuneus, and weaker rsFC between the left cerebellum and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex were correlated with a narrower TBW for speech stimuli. Meanwhile, stronger rsFC between the left anterior superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior temporal gyrus was correlated with a wider audiovisual TBW for non-speech stimuli. The TBW-related rsFC was not affected by levels of subclinical traits. In conclusion, this study indicates that audiovisual temporal processing may not be affected by autistic and schizotypal traits and rsFC between brain regions responding to multisensory information and timing may account for the inter-individual difference in TBW width. LAY SUMMARY: Individuals with ASD and schizophrenia are more likely to perceive asynchronous auditory and visual events as occurring simultaneously even if they are well separated in time. We investigated whether similar difficulties in audiovisual temporal processing were present in subclinical populations with high autistic and schizotypal traits. We found that the ability to detect audiovisual asynchrony was not affected by different levels of autistic and schizotypal traits. We also found that connectivity of some brain regions engaging in multisensory and timing tasks might explain an individual's tendency to bind multisensory information within a wide or narrow time window. Autism Res 2021, 14: 668-680. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Percepção do Tempo , Percepção Auditiva , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fala , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eval Health Prof ; : 163278720979651, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322941

RESUMO

The Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) was developed to assess dysmorphic appearance concern and has been found to be a reliable and valid instrument in Western societies. To examine the psychometric properties of a new Chinese BICI, the BICI was administered to 1,231 Chinese young adults (Study 1) and 47 female patients with eating disorders and 56 matched controls (ED; Study 2). In study 1, Cronbach's alpha of .92 and test-retest reliability of .73 over a 6-month interval was observed for the total scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model for the BICI: avoidant behaviors (AB), safety behaviors against perceived flaws (SB), and negative appearance evaluation (NE). In study 2, ED patients scored significantly higher on the BICI total and three subscale scores than controls. In addition, AB best differentiated ED patients and matched controls (Cohen's d = 1.52); SB best differentiated between the non-clinical female and male groups (Cohen's d = 0.75); NE was most closely associated with level of negative affect and subjective well-being (inverse relationship) in both clinical and non-clinical groups. In conclusion, the Chinese BICI is a reliable and valid tool for evaluating dysmorphic appearance concern among Chinese speakers.

8.
Schizophr Res ; 224: 88-94, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046333

RESUMO

In this study, we applied brain grey matter volume and structural covariance methods on T1 weighted images to delineate potential structural brain changes in individuals with high schizotypy, who were defined as healthy individuals scoring in the top tenth percentile of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Eighty-seven college students with high schizotypy and 122 controls were recruited in China. Differences in grey matter volume and volume covariance between the two groups, and correlations of grey matter volume with SPQ scores in the high schizotypy group were examined. We found that individuals with high schizotypy had decreased grey matter volume at the left medial superior frontal gyrus (medsFG) extending towards the superior frontal gyrus, decreased structural covariance within the right medsFG, between the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), the right superior temporal gyrus and the right anterior insula; and increased structural covariance between the caudate and the right inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis revealed that grey matter volume of the left middle temporal pole and the right sFG correlated positively with the SPQ total scores, volume of the bilateral cerebellum 9 sub-region correlated negatively with the SPQ cognitive-perceptual sub-scale scores, volume of the bilateral striatum correlated positively with the SPQ interpersonal sub-scale scores, and volume of the bilateral superior temporal pole correlated positively with the SPQ disorganization sub-scale scores in the high schizotypy group. These results highlight important grey matter structural changes in the medsFG in individuals with high schizotypy.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral , China , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 305: 111170, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836136

RESUMO

In this study, we examined differences in resting-state functional connectivity between sub-regions of the Default Mode Network (DMN) and whole brain voxels in 22 individuals with high schizo-obsessive traits (SOT), 30 with high schizotypal traits (SCT) alone, 20 with high obsessive-compulsive traits (OCT) alone and 30 with low trait scores (LT). We found that the SOT group showed the most reduced functional connectivity within the DMN compared with the other groups. The SOT group also showed increased connectivity between the DMN and the Salience Network, and between the DMN and the Auditory Network compared with the LT group. The SCT group exhibited increased connectivity between the DMN and the Salience Network, and between the DMN and the Executive Control Network (ECN) compared with the LT group. The OCT group exhibited decreased connectivity within the DMN, between the DMN and the Salience Network, and between the DMN and the ECN compared with the LT group. These findings highlight different changes in DMN-related functional connectivity associated with high SOT, SCT and OCT traits and may provide insight into the dysfunctional brain networks in the early stage of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

10.
Psych J ; 9(5): 749-759, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677322

RESUMO

Empirical findings suggest that there is an overlap between schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disorders also have a high comorbidity rate. However, little is known about the impact of co-occurring schizotypal and obsessive-compulsive traits on executive function, emotion experience, and emotion expressivity in the normal population. The present study examined the prevalence of coexisting schizotypal and obsessive-compulsive traits and the relationship between these two traits in a sample of healthy college students. We also conducted a moderation analysis to explore the effect of these two type of traits on executive function, emotion experience, and emotion expressivity. We recruited 3,319 participants to complete the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised (OCI-R). A subset of them (n = 575) also completed the Chinese versions of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX), the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), and the Emotional Expressivity Scale (EES). We found that the prevalence of co-occurring schizotypal and OCD traits was 3.33%. All the subscales of the SPQ and the OCI-R significantly correlated with each other. Both traits had a negative impact on executive function and emotion expressivity. The interaction between the disorganization dimension of schizotypal traits and OCD traits had a significant effect on executive function, but not emotion experience or emotion expressivity. This study was limited by its cross-sectional design and recruitment of only college students. These findings suggest that there is an approximately 3% rate of co-occurring schizotypal and obsessive-compulsive traits in a healthy college student sample. The interaction between these two types of traits may influence executive function.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Função Executiva , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/epidemiologia , Estudantes
11.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizotypy refers to schizophrenia-like traits below the clinical threshold in the general population. The pathological development of schizophrenia has been postulated to evolve from the initial coexistence of 'brain disconnection' and 'brain connectivity compensation' to 'brain connectivity decompensation'. METHODS: In this study, we examined the brain connectivity changes associated with schizotypy by combining brain white matter structural connectivity, static and dynamic functional connectivity analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 87 participants with a high level of schizotypal traits and 122 control participants completed the experiment. Group differences in whole-brain white matter structural connectivity probability, static mean functional connectivity strength, dynamic functional connectivity variability and stability among 264 brain sub-regions of interests were investigated. RESULTS: We found that individuals with high schizotypy exhibited increased structural connectivity probability within the task control network and within the default mode network; increased variability and decreased stability of functional connectivity within the default mode network and between the auditory network and the subcortical network; and decreased static mean functional connectivity strength mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network and the task control network. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the specific changes in brain connectivity associated with schizotypy and indicate that both decompensatory and compensatory changes in structural connectivity within the default mode network and the task control network in the context of whole-brain functional disconnection may be an important neurobiological correlate in individuals with high schizotypy.

12.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 51: 102057, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizotypy has been shown to be a time-stable construct that exists across the schizophrenia spectrum. The Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) was developed to capture the three factors underlying schizotypy: positive, disorganized and negative schizotypy. However, a recent validation study reported a four-factor construct with an additional negative social anhedonia factor. The factor structure of the Chinese version of the MSS remains unknown. This study aimed to identify and validate the factor structure of the Chinese version of the MSS. METHODS: We recruited 641 Chinese speakers via on-line advertisement. We administered the Chinese version of the MSS, which was a self-report instrument. The scale consists of 77 items with true or false response options. We identified and removed 43 outliers. Finally, a total of 294 participants were randomly selected as the derivative sample for exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The remaining 304 participants were retained as the validation sample for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). RESULTS: EFA identified four factors: the positive factor, the disorganization factor, the negative affective and motivational anhedonia factor, and the negative social anhedonia factor. The EFA-identified four-factor model was compared with the unidimensional, three-factor bifactorial and theoretical three-factor models using CFAs. The three-factor bifactorial model fitted the data better than the EFA-identified four-factor model. CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that the Chinese version of the MSS is a valid tool for assessing schizotypy in the Chinese setting.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Anedonia , China , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Schizophr Bull ; 46(2): 442-453, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355879

RESUMO

A phenomenon in schizophrenia patients that deserves attention is the high comorbidity rate with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the neurobiological basis of schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC). We aimed to investigate whether specific changes in white matter exist in patients with SOC and the relationship between such abnormalities and clinical parameters. Twenty-eight patients with SOC, 28 schizophrenia patients, 30 OCD patients, and 30 demographically matched healthy controls were recruited. Using Tract-based Spatial Statistics and Probabilistic Tractography, we examined the pattern of white matter abnormalities in these participants. We also used ANOVA and Support Vector Classification of various white matter indices and structural connection probability to further examine white matter changes among the 4 groups. We found that patients with SOC had decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity in the right sagittal stratum and the left crescent of the fornix/stria terminalis compared with healthy controls. We also found changed connection probability in the Default Mode Network, the Subcortical Network, the Attention Network, the Task Control Network, the Visual Network, the Somatosensory Network, and the cerebellum in the SOC group compared with the other 3 groups. The classification results further revealed that FA features could differentiate the SOC group from the other 3 groups with an accuracy of .78. These findings highlight the specific white matter abnormalities found in patients with SOC.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/patologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Substância Branca/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Schizophr Res ; 215: 322-329, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Affective forecasting, or the ability to forecast emotional responses to future events, is essential to everyday life adaption. Previous research suggests that individuals with social anhedonia exhibit deficits in affective forecasting, but the pattern of these deficits and their neural correlates are not known. METHODS: Individuals with social anhedonia (n = 40) and healthy controls (n = 46) completed a social affective forecasting task and underwent resting-state fMRI scanning. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, social anhedonia individuals anticipated reduced pleasure especially in social conditions and their prospection contained less visualization, voice, taste, self-referential thoughts, other-referential thoughts and language communication. Moreover, anticipated pleasure (valence and arousal for positive events) was positively associated with effort level, especially in social conditions. The social anhedonia group also exhibited stronger functional connectivity between the retrosplenial cortex and the insula and reduced functional connectivity between the hippocampal formation and the parahippocampus. These altered functional connectivities were correlated with anticipated valence in social, but not non-social, conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that individuals with social anhedonia anticipate less pleasure predominately in social conditions and impaired prospection may contribute to the reduced anticipated pleasure. Reduced anticipated pleasure may be a target to improve social motivation in social anhedonia individuals.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Anedonia/fisiologia , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Conectoma , Emoções/fisiologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Interação Social , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psych J ; 9(2): 223-233, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845536

RESUMO

Investigating the relationship between anticipatory pleasure deficits and risk features of mental disorders not only theoretically benefits the understanding of anhedonia, but could also facilitate early detection and intervention of mental disorders. Using network analysis, the present study examined the pattern of relationship between anticipatory pleasure and risk features of schizophrenia spectrum, depressive, anxiety, autism spectrum, and obsessive-compulsive disorders in a large sample of college students (n = 2152). It was found that interpersonal features of schizotypal personality traits and poor social skills of autistic traits showed strong correlation with low social anticipatory pleasure. Depressive symptoms severity was weakly associated with reduced abstract anticipatory pleasure, while obsessive-compulsive traits were weakly associated with high contextual anticipatory pleasure. No significant correlation was found between anxiety symptoms severity and anticipatory pleasure. Social anticipatory pleasure had the highest strength centrality among all anticipatory pleasure components, while interpersonal features of schizotypal personality traits had the highest strength centrality in the whole network. Our findings suggest that impaired anticipatory pleasure, especially social anticipatory pleasure, is a particular feature of schizotypal personality traits and autistic traits. Our findings may have implications for intervention in that the social component may be a target to improve anhedonia in individuals with schizotypal and autistic traits, while interpersonal features may be a key treatment target given that it was central to the relationship between anticipatory pleasure and risk features.


Assuntos
Metanálise em Rede , Prazer , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto , Ansiedade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
16.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 44: 209-216, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419738

RESUMO

Schizotypal personality (SP) traits have been found to be correlated with autistic traits, obsessive-compulsive traits, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. However, the overall pattern of the relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the network structure between SP traits and other subclinical features (symptoms or traits) and test the replicability of these relationships. A total of 2204 college students completed measurements for SP traits, autistic traits, obsessive-compulsive traits, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms, and a validated subsample of 814 completed the same questionnaires again three months later. Using network analysis, we constructed the network structure of subclinical features and then tested its replicability. We found that interpersonal features were the bridge node connecting SP traits and autistic traits (social skill: r = 0.50; attention switching: r = 0.14; communication: r = 0.12), while cognitive-perceptual (obsessing: r = 0.05; neutralizing: r = 0.06) and disorganization (obsessing: r = 0.11) features were the SP traits associated with obsessive-compulsive traits. In addition to interpersonal features (r = 0.10), disorganization (r = 0.12) and cognitive-perceptual (r = 0.05) features were also the overlap between depressive symptoms and SP traits. Anxiety symptoms only connected with interpersonal (r = 0.05) but not cognitive-perceptual features of SP traits. The network showed high predictability (43%) and interpersonal features of SP traits had the highest expected influence (1.67) among all nodes, which may be a potential target for intervention. High similarities were found on network structure (r = 0.86) and expected influence (r = 0.96), and no significant difference on global connectivity was found between these two networks (difference value = 0.45, p = 0.135), suggesting the replicability of the network structure.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Estatísticos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 24(5): 322-334, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451062

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Investigating obsessive-compulsive symptoms in subclinical populations provides a useful framework for understanding the early development of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. The present study aimed to apply searchlight classification analysis on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to identify potential brain markers in subclinical individuals with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. METHODS: In this observational study, 40 college students with high obsessive-compulsive symptom scores and 40 with low obsessive-compulsive symptom scores were recruited from universities in China. We conducted searchlight classification and comparison analysis between the two groups based on Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (ALFF), fraction ALFF (fALFF) and resting-state functional connectivity using searchlight classification. RESULTS: We found that the highest accuracy rate in differentiating between the two groups was 85.00%. Significant discriminating features included the ALFF of the left medial superior frontal gyrus and the functional connectivity between the right thalamus and the bilateral medial superior frontal gyrus, and the right putamen, as well as the functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right insula. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the specific and distinguishing brain functional abnormalities associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Conectoma/métodos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prospection, which is closely related to negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, is mainly associated with the Default Mode Network (DMN). Although abnormalities of the DMN have been reported in schizophrenia patients and at-risk individuals, little is known about the relationship between functional connectivity of the DMN and prospection in these clinical and subclinical populations. METHOD: Study 1 recruited 40 schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy controls, while 31 individuals with social anhedonia (SocAhn) and 28 controls participated in Study 2. Participants in both studies were asked to complete a prospection task and underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Eleven regions of interest (ROIs) in the DMN were defined. Functional connectivity between each ROI and whole brain voxels were calculated and compared between groups (schizophrenia vs. control and SocAhn vs. control). Correlation analysis was conducted between altered functional connectivity and prospection variables in the schizophrenia and SocAhn groups. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients showed both hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity at the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem of the DMN. Decreased connectivity between the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and the right superior temporal gyrus (rSTG) was correlated with poor thought/emotion details in prospection. In individuals with SocAhn, decreased connectivity between the retrosplenial cortex (Rsp), a region of the MTL subsystem, and the right fusiform gyrus, was found and this was correlated with their prospection performance. CONCLUSION: Altered functional connectivity of the key nodes of the MTL subsystem was found in both patients with schizophrenia and individuals with SocAhn. Moreover, hypo-connectivity of the vMPFC was found to be correlated with prospection impairments in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 127(7): 710-721, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335440

RESUMO

Previous research has revealed anticipatory pleasure deficits in people with schizophrenia and people with social anhedonia but who do not have schizophrenia. Prospection is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, but little is known about the role of prospection in social anhedonia. In 2 studies, we investigated prospection and anticipatory pleasure in people with schizophrenia and people with social anhedonia using an affective prospection task and a self-report measure, the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS). In Study 1, we found that people with schizophrenia (n = 31) reported less TEPS anticipatory pleasure, generated less rich and vivid prospections, and reported less preexperiencing of future events than people without schizophrenia (n = 29). In Study 2, we found that people with social anhedonia (n = 34) reported less TEPS anticipatory pleasure, generated less rich prospections, and reported less pleasure and preexperiencing for future events than people without social anhedonia (n = 33). Taken together, prospection impairments and decreased anticipatory pleasure were observed in schizophrenia and social anhedonia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Anedonia , Antecipação Psicológica , Prazer , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato
20.
Psych J ; 7(4): 239-247, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259698

RESUMO

Future-oriented coping is a strategy for coping with events that may happen in the future, including efforts to ensure positive outcome and protection from potential threats. Appropriate future-oriented coping is essential for well-being and influences mental health and life satisfaction. However, little is known about the neural mechanism of future-oriented coping. We examined the neural basis of this coping strategy using resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Thirty healthy volunteers underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning and completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was used to investigate potentially correlated regions, with 11 nodes in the default mode network defined as regions of interest. Multiple regression analysis was performed to measure the correlation between coping behavior and functional connectivity. We found that proactive coping was significantly correlated with the functional connectivity strength between the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and the claustrum/insula. These novel findings suggest that cooperation between the PHC and the claustrum/insula plays an important role in proactive coping. Moreover, cognitive components, such as future thinking (the PHC) and sensory judgment (the claustrum/insula) could be important process factors in proactive coping.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Previsões , Vias Neurais , Descanso/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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