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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 140: 965-972, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442503

RESUMO

This study investigated the structural characteristic and in vitro digestion and fermentation behaviours of polysaccharide from litchi pulp (LPII). The results showed that LPII was 161.24kDa, and consisted of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucose. The glycosidic linkages were identified as α-L-Araf-(1→, →5)-α-Araf-(1→ and →3,6)-ß-D-Galp-(1→. After 4h gastric digestion, the molecular weight (Mw) of LPII was declined and the reducing sugars content (CR) was increased significantly. But, the intestinal digestion had no effect on the structure of LPII. In addition, after 24h gut microbiota fermentation, the neutral sugars content and pH value decreased while total bacteria amount, CR, the production of short-chain fatty acids, acetic acid and n-butyric acid increased. These results showed that LPII could be digested in gastric digestion and fermented in large intestine fermentation broth, but not changed in small intestinal fluid. The digestion and fermentation behaviours of LPII may be related with its structural features.

2.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; : 1-12, 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282254

RESUMO

This study investigated the contents of saponins and phenolic compounds in relation to their antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 7 colored quinoa varieties. The total saponin content was significantly different among 7 varieties and ranged from 7.51 to 12.12 mg OAE/g DW. Darker quinoa had a higher content of phenolic compounds, as well as higher flavonoids and antioxidant activity than that of light varieties. Nine individual phenolic compounds were detected in free and bound form, with gallic acid and ferulic acid representing the major compounds. The free and bound phenolic compounds (gallic acid and ferulic acid in particular) exhibited high linear correlation with their corresponding antioxidant values. In addition, the free phenolic extracts from colored quinoa exhibited higher inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase than the bound phenolic extracts. These findings imply that colored quinoa with abundant bioactive phytochemicals could be an important natural source for preparing functional food.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 132: 915-921, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959133

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria fermentation is an important processing technology for fruits and vegetables. Bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides are altered during the fermentation process. Polysaccharides from longan pulp (LPs) were extracted after different fermentation times and their physicochemical and prebiotic properties were investigated, such as longan polysaccharides named LP-0 and LP-12 means they were extracted from longan pulp fermented for 0 and 12 h, respectively. The yield, contents of neutral sugar and uronic acid, molecular weight (Mw), and monosaccharide composition of LPs were significantly changed with different fermentation times. Specially, the yield and uronic acid content of LPs were first increase and then decline. LP-12 contained the smallest Mw (108.71 ±â€¯5.55 kDa) of the tested LPs (p < 0.05). When compared with unfermented LP-0, the glucose molar percentages of fermented LPs declined, while those of rhamnose and galactose increased, except for LP-6. Fermented LPs also exhibited a stronger stimulatory effect on Lactobacillus strain proliferation, with the proliferative effect of LP-12 being the strongest (p < 0.05). These results suggest that lactic acid bacteria fermentation can change the physicochemical properties and enhance the prebiotic activities of polysaccharides from longan pulp.

4.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(9): 1747-1755, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017523

RESUMO

Citrus plants are rich in flavonoids and beneficial for lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Both citrus peel flavonoid extracts (CPFE) and a mixture of their primary flavonoid compounds, namely, nobiletin, tangeretin and hesperidin, citrus flavonoid purity mixture (CFPM), were found to have lipid-lowering effects on oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α) gene was markedly increased, while the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene was significantly decreased by both CPFE and CFPM in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Flavonoid compounds from citrus peel suppressed miR-122 and miR-33 expression, which were induced by oleic acid. Changes in miR-122 and miR-33 expression, which subsequently affect the expression of their target mRNAs FAS and CPT1α, are most likely the principal mechanisms leading to decreased lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Citrus flavonoids likely regulate lipid metabolism by modulating the expression levels of miR-122 and miR-33.

5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2692970, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800665

RESUMO

In previous studies, Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten was reported to contain xanthones, iridoids, terpenoids, and sterols and is mainly used to cure hepatitis, jaundice, fever, headache, and angina pectoris. In this study, we used bioassay guided fractionation to identify compounds from G. acuta and investigated their activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) expression were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Protein expression was evaluated using western blot. The results showed that all four compounds had protective effects on H9c2 cells. The transcription levels of HO-1 and GCLC significantly increased in H9c2 cells pretreated with norswertianolin (1), swetrianolin (2), demethylbellidifolin (3), and bellidifolin (4). However, compared to the model group, the transcription levels of Nrf2 were not enhanced by pretreatment with compounds 1, 2, and 4. The protein expression levels of HO-1 and GCLC in H9c2 cells were greater than that in the H2O2-treated group, and the expression of Nrf2 was not significantly changed except by swetrianolin treatment; inhibitors can reverse the protective effect by ZnPP (15 µM), BSO (10 µM), and brusatol (10 µM). The results indicated that the four compounds isolated from G. acuta inhibited the oxidative injury induced by H2O2 by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway in H9c2 cells and provide evidence that G. acuta may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Gentianella/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantenos/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 125: 232-237, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528994

RESUMO

Longan polysaccharides are valuable compounds with many biological activities. Lactobacillus fermentum was selected to ferment longan pulp and the polysaccharides from unfermented and fermented longan pulp (denoted as LP and LP-F, respectively) were isolated. Their physicochemical, immunomodulatory and prebiotic activities were investigated. The results revealed that LP-F, the molecular weight of which was lower than that of LP, contained less neutral sugar, uronic acid and glucose but more arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and mannose. Compared with LP, LP-F had better solubility, lower apparent viscosity and particle size. LP-F exhibited stronger stimulation on macrophages secretion of NO and IL-6, as well as better proliferation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus casei. In summary, fermentation treatment could change the physicochemical properties and enhance the bioactivity of polysaccharides from longan pulp.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Curcuma/química , Fermentação , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Solubilidade , Análise Espectral , Viscosidade
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 206: 344-351, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553331

RESUMO

Longan pulp polysaccharides were extracted with hot water (LP-H), superfine grinding (LP-S) and superfine grinding-assisted enzymatic treatments (LP-SE). The yields, physicochemical properties and prebiotic activities of polysaccharides were investigated. Compared with LP-H and LP-S, the yield, sugar content, solubility, arabinose and mannose percentage of LP-SE increased while its apparent viscosity, particle size, Mw and glucose percentage declined. Three LPs contained similar glycosidic linkage of →3)-α-l-Araf-(1→, →3,6)-ß-d-Galp-(1→ and α-l-Rhap(l→, while they each contained specific glycosidic linkage of →4)-ß-d-Glcp(l→, →4)-ß-d-Galp-(1→ and →5)-α-l-Araf-(1→ in LP-H, LP-S and LP-SE, respectively. Moreover, LP-SE exhibited stronger stimulation than LP-H and LP-S on the proliferation of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The results indicated three extraction methods had some effect on chemical composition and structure of polysaccharide. LP-SE extracted by superfine grinding-assisted enzymatic treatment exhibited the highest prebiotic activities, which have a great potential in applying in functional food and medical industry.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Sapindaceae/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Leuconostoc mesenteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
8.
J Plant Physiol ; 232: 216-225, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537609

RESUMO

In plants, SIZ1 regulates abiotic and biotic stress responses by promoting the SUMOylation of proteins. The apple MdSIZ1 protein has conserved domains similar to those of Arabidopsis AtSIZ1. Real-time fluorescent quantitative analysis showed that MdSIZ1 gene expression was induced by phosphate-deficient conditions. In addition, the level of SUMOylation was also significantly increased under these conditions. The MYB transcription factor MdPHR1 might be a target for the SUMO protein, which is a phosphorus starvation-dependent protein. Subsequently, an MdSIZ1 expression vector was constructed and transformed in Arabidopsis mutant siz1-2 and apple callus. The MdSIZ1 transgenic Arabidopsis partially complemented the defect phenotype of siz1-2 under phosphate-deficient conditions. The survival rate, length of primary root, and number or density of lateral roots were similar between the transgenic lines and wild type (WT). Under phosphate-deficient conditions, the SUMO conjugate and fresh weight of the MdSIZ1 transgenic apple callus were improved compared with WT. The MdSIZ1 transgenic apple callus grew under phosphate-deficient conditions, whereas the MdSIZ1 sense apple callus did not. Therefore, MdSIZ1 is involved in the regulation of the phosphate-deficiency response in apple.


Assuntos
Ligases/fisiologia , Malus/fisiologia , Fosfatos/deficiência , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Arabidopsis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ligases/metabolismo , Malus/enzimologia , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sumoilação
9.
J Food Sci Technol ; 55(12): 4782-4791, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482973

RESUMO

In this study, dried longan pulp (DLP) was subjected to fermentation using selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. Plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides). We then studied changes in the free and bound phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity, free amino acid, and organic acid composition. Fermentation exhibited a 17.4% and 5.7% increase in the amount of free and total phenolic contents of DLP. Phenolic composition determined by HPLC revealed significant changes due to fermentation that were primarily in the contents of gallic acid, vanillic acid, 4-methylcatechol and p-coumaric acid, resulting in a 37.9% and 25.7% increase in free gallic acid and 4-methylcatechol, respectively. Fermentation was also found to enhance the ferric reducing antioxidant power of both free and total and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity of free phenolic fraction by 18.3%, 11.8%, and 37.4%, respectively. In addition, fermentation was observed to reduce the contents of free amino acids with bitter taste (phenylalanine, tyrosine and leucine), and increase amino acids (taurine, aspartic acid, cysteine, cysteine thiazoline and γ-amino-butyric acid) having antioxidant potential. Therefore, this study provides basis for the production of fermented longan-based functional products with improved antioxidant activity.

10.
Plant Physiol ; 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333149

RESUMO

SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification of target proteins is important for various biological processes related to abiotic stress resistance in plants; however, little is known about its role in resistance toward iron (Fe) deficiency. Here, the SUMO E3 ligase MdSIZ1 was shown to be involved in the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase-mediated response to Fe deficiency. Subsequently, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor (TF), MdbHLH104, which acts as a key component in regulating PM H+-ATPase-mediated rhizosphere acidification and Fe uptake in apples (Malus domestica), was identified as a direct target of MdSIZ1. MdSIZ1 directly sumoylated MdbHLH104 both in vitro and in vivo, especially under conditions of Fe deficiency, and this sumoylation was required for MdbHLH104 protein stability. Double substitution of K139R and K153R in MdbHLH104 blocked MdSIZ1-mediated sumoylation in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the K139 and K153 residues were the principal sites of SUMO conjugation. Moreover, the transcript level of the MdSIZ1 gene was substantially induced following Fe deficiency. MdSIZ1 overexpression exerted a positive influence on PM H+-ATPase-mediated rhizosphere acidification and Fe uptake. Our findings reveal an important role for sumoylation in the regulation of PM H+-ATPase-mediated rhizosphere acidification and Fe uptake during Fe deficiency in plants.

11.
Molecules ; 23(9)2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200581

RESUMO

Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of litchi pericarp during storage at 4 °C for seven days and at room temperature (RT) for 72 h were evaluated in this study. The contents of total phenolic and procyanidin decreased by 20.2% and 24.2% at 4 °C and by 37.8% and 47.8% at RT, respectively. Interestingly, the corresponding reductions of anthocyanins were 41.3% and 73%, respectively. Four phenolic compounds, including epicatechin, procyanidin A2, procyanidin B2, and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-l-rhamnosidase were detected in litchi pericarp. Their contents after storage at 4 °C and at RT were decreased by 22.1⁻49.7% and 27.6⁻48.7%, respectively. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of litchi pericarp decreased by 17.6% and 58.7% at 4 °C, and by 23.4% and 66.0% at RT, respectively. The results indicated that storage at 4 °C preserved more phenolics and retained higher antioxidant activity in litchi pericarp compared to storage at RT, suggesting that storage at 4 °C should be considered as a more effective method for slowing down the degradation of litchi pericarp phenolics.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10482, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992951

RESUMO

Rice husks (RHs) as an agro-waste generated from rice production, while its application is limited. This study was designed to introduce a full utilization of rice husks, which extracted the phytochemical at first and then produced cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as the use of the residue. Furthermore, the phytochemicals extracted from rice husk was identified and its biological activity, including antioxidant activity, cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and antiproliferative activity, had been detected as well. Results showed the bound fraction of rice husk had higher antioxidant than common fruit and grain. Free fraction of rice husk deserved to have further analysis in antiproliferative activity due to its low cytotoxicity. The CNCs produced by residue was using delignification process and acid hydrolysis treatments. The chemical composition of the residue obtained after phytochemical extraction was determined. CNCs morphological investigation was performed using an optical microscope and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our strategy is to achieve a comprehensive utilization of rice husks with both economy and environment benefits.

13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 112: 968-975, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438750

RESUMO

Litchi polysaccharide (LP) was extracted from litchi pulp. Its chemical composition, microstructure, zeta potential, flow and viscoelastic behavior were investigated. LP contained uronic acid (41.18%), neutral sugar (42.23%), and protein (2.72%). The monosaccharide composition was mostly arabinose, galactose, and a small amount of mannose, rhamnose and glucose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed LP was porous network structure. LP concentration had no effect on its zeta potential value while salts reduced them. LP showed shear-thinning behavior during the tested shear rate range. The power-law model was used to evaluate the flow behavior of LP; both its flow behavior index and consistency index changed with different concentrations. The viscosity of LP increased under acidic conditions (pH2-4), but was stable with heat treatment. The LP dispersion displayed as a liquid viscoelastic behavior in 1% and 2% concentrations and behaved as an elastic gel at 3% concentration as well as the addition of NaCl and CaCl2.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Litchi/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Reologia , Elasticidade , Frutas/ultraestrutura , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Litchi/ultraestrutura , Monossacarídeos/análise , Padrões de Referência , Sais/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Temperatura Ambiente , Viscosidade
14.
Molecules ; 23(1)2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346313

RESUMO

The composition, in vitro bioaccessibility and antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds in defatted rice bran (DRB) and its soluble and insoluble dietary fibres were systematically evaluated in this study. The total phenolic content of insoluble dietary fibre from DRB (IDFDRB) was much higher than that of the soluble dietary fibre from DRB (SDFDRB) but was 10% lower than that of DRB. Bound phenolics accounted for more than 90% of the total phenolics in IDFDRB, whereas they accounted for 34.2% and 40.5% of the total phenolics in DRB and SDFDRB, respectively. Additionally, the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities were significantly different in DRB, SDFDRB and IDFDRB. The phenolic compounds in IDFDRB were much less bioaccessibility than those in DRB and SDFDRB due to the higher proportion of bound phenolics in IDFDRB. Considering that bound phenolics could be released from food matrices by bacterial enzymes in the large intestine and go on to exert significant beneficial health effects in vivo, further studies on IDFDRB are needed to investigate the release of the phenolics from IDFDRB via gut microbiota and the related health benefits.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Oryza/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(44): 9675-9684, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29041775

RESUMO

Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.


Assuntos
Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Litchi/química , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/imunologia , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Intestinos/imunologia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/imunologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia
16.
Food Nutr Res ; 61(1): 1348864, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28747868

RESUMO

Background: Momordica charantia is used in China for its jianghuo (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of shanghuo (the antonym of jianghuo, excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. Objective: We hypothesized that Momordica charantia water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Design: The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. Results: MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. Conclusions: The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Abbreviations: MWE: Momordica charantia water extract; M. charantia: Momordica charantia L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1ß: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin-Ciocalteu; GAE: gallic acid equivalents; bw: body weight; NC: normal control group; Model: restraint stress model group; VC: positive control vitamin C group, 250 mg/kg bw; MWEL: Momordica charantia water extract low-dose group, 250 mg/kg bw; MWEM: Momordica charantia water extract middle-dose group, 500 mg/kg bw; MWEH: Momordica charantia water extract high-dose group, 750 mg/kg bw; HE: hematoxylin and eosin; ORAC: total oxygen radical absorbance capacity; ABAP: dihydrochloride; ATP: adenosine triphosphate.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(24): 5000-5009, 2017 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562048

RESUMO

Mitochondria play an important role in the initiation and development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Our previous studies found lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) exerted protective effect against ALD partly by inhibiting fatty acid ß-oxidation, and phenolic-rich lychee pulp extract improved restraint stress-induced liver injury by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LPPE exerted protective effect against ALD via modulating mitochondrial function. The mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation significantly alleviated hepatic steatosis, suppressed serum aspartate aminotransferase activity, and decreased triglyceride levels in serum and liver. On the basis of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme analyses, LPPE supplementation inhibited serum and hepatic oxidative stress. Moreover, LPPE supplementation significantly suppressed mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level, and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial DNA content, activities of mitochondrial complexes I and IV, and hepatic ATP level. Furthermore, LPPE supplementation significantly inhibited cytoplasmic cytochrome c level and caspase-3 activity, repressed Bax expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and increased Bcl-2 expression in liver. In summary, LPPE exerts beneficial effects against alcoholic liver injury by alleviating mitochondrial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Litchi/química , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação
18.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 81(8): 1576-1585, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28471298

RESUMO

To establish optimal ultra-high-pressure (UHP)-assisted extraction conditions for procyanidins from lychee pericarp, a response surface analysis method with four factors and three levels was adopted. The optimum conditions were as follows: 295 MPa pressure, 13 min pressure holding time, 16.0 mL/g liquid-to-solid ratio, and 70% ethanol concentration. Compared with conventional ethanol extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods, the yields of the total procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolics extracted using the UHP process were significantly increased; consequently, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and cellular antioxidant activity of UHP-assisted lychee pericarp extracts were substantially enhanced. LC-MS/MS and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification results for individual phenolic compounds revealed that the yield of procyanidin compounds, including epicatechin, procyanidin A2, and procyanidin B2, from lychee pericarp could be significantly improved by the UHP-assisted extraction process. This UHP-assisted extraction process is thus a practical method for the extraction of procyanidins from lychee pericarp.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Litchi/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Etanol/química , Análise Fatorial , Fluorometria , Pressão , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Solventes/química , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Plant Cell Environ ; 40(10): 2068-2080, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28440563

RESUMO

MdMYB1 acts as a crucial component of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-skinned apples (Malus domestica), but little is known about its post-translational regulation. Here, a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase MdSIZ1 was screened out as an MdMYB1-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybridization approach. The interaction between MdSIZ1 and MdMYB1 was further verified with pull-down and CoIP assays. Furthermore, it was found that MdSIZ1 directly sumoylated MdMYB1 proteins in vivo and in vitro, especially under moderately low temperature (17 °C) conditions, and that this sumoylation was required for MdMYB1 protein stability. Moreover, the transcription level of MdSIZ1 gene was remarkably induced by low temperature and phosphorus deficiency, and MdSIZ1 overexpression exerted a large positive influence on anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration, suggesting its important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis under stress conditions. Our findings reveal an important role for a small ubiquitin-like modifier modification of MYB transcription factors in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sumoilação , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Vias Biossintéticas , Frutas/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise
20.
Food Funct ; 8(2): 808-815, 2017 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28121324

RESUMO

Dietary phenolics exhibit hypolipidemic activity by changing lipid metabolism-related microRNA (miRNA) expression. Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-l-rhamnosidase (quercetin 3-rut-7-rha), rutin and (-)-epicatechin are the main phenolics in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pulp. A previous study reported that quercetin 3-rut-7-rha and rutin had hypolipidemic effects. To elucidate these effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of lychee pulp phenolics (LPPs), the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and their associated miRNAs were measured after ten weeks of treatment with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or in combination with LPPs. The administration of LPPs significantly reduced the HFD-induced increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased the HDL-c content. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) were upregulated, while fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA and the corresponding protein expression levels were downregulated by LPPs. Furthermore, the expression levels of miR-33, which directly modulates ABCA1 and CPT1a, and miR-122, which indirectly regulates FAS, were downregulated in mouse hepatocytes. The repression of miR-33 and miR-122 is a possible molecular mechanism of the hypolipidemic effects of LPPs in the liver. Our results suggest a novel hypolipidemic mechanism of LPPs.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Litchi/química , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
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