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1.
Am Heart J ; 226: 198-205, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High sodium intake has been considered as the leading dietary risk factor for deaths and disability-adjusted life-years among older adults. High-quality randomized trials to evaluate the effects of practical sodium reduction strategies are needed. METHODS: The study is a cluster randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design conducted in 48 senior residential facilities in northern China. These facilities are randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to 1 of 4 groups: stepwise salt supply control (SSSC) in which 5%-10% of the study salt supply in the institutional kitchens will be reduced every 3 months, replacing normal salt with salt substitute (SS); SSSC only; SS only; or neither SSSC nor SS. The interventions last for 2 years with follow-up every 6 months. The primary outcome is the change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to 24 months. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, cardiovascular events, and death. CURRENT STATUS: The study has recruited and randomized 48 senior residential facilities with 1,606 participants. Mean age at baseline was 71 years, and 76% are male. Both types of salt intervention were initiated in the study facilities between January and April 2018. CONCLUSION: The study is well placed to define the effects of 2 practical and scalable sodium reduction strategies for blood pressure reduction and will provide important new data about safety of these strategies among older adults in China.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519546

RESUMO

The relationship between the structure and properties is always a hot topic in the luminescent material field. In this work, a new phosphor KBa2(PO3)5:Eu2+ (KBP:Eu) was prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and electroluminescence studies. The polyphosphate host KBP offers three lattice environments (K1, Ba1, and Ba2) for Eu2+ ions to realize broad-band emission from 380 to 700 nm under 345 nm excitation. The distributions of Eu2+ in the three lattice sites can be proven by low-temperature PL and transient fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, temperature-dependent luminescence studies for phosphor KBP:0.02Eu reveal that its luminescence intensity at 150 °C retains about 97% of the initial value at 25 °C. By composing a 365 nm UV chip and KBP:0.02Eu, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ phosphors, a warm white-light-emitting diode (WLED) was obtained with a correlated color temperature of 5146 K and chromaticity coordinates (0.3404, 0.3384). Therefore, KBP:Eu phosphor is a potential cyan-emitting phosphor used for high-power WLEDs.

3.
Am Heart J ; 221: 136-145, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986290

RESUMO

The Salt Substitute and Stroke Study is an ongoing 5-year large-scale cluster randomized trial investigating the effects of potassium-enriched salt substitute compared to usual salt on the risk of stroke. The study involves 600 villages and 20,996 individuals in rural China. Intermediate risk markers were measured in a random subsample of villages every 12 months over 3 years to track progress against key assumptions underlying study design. Measures of 24-hour urinary sodium, 24-hour urinary potassium, blood pressure and participants' use of salt substitute were recorded, with differences between intervention and control groups estimated using generalized linear mixed models. The primary outcome of annual event rate in the two groups combined was determined by dividing confirmed fatal and non-fatal strokes by total follow-up time in the first 2 years. The mean differences (95% CI) were -0.32 g (-0.68 to 0.05) for 24-hour urinary sodium, +0.77 g (+0.60 to +0.93) for 24-hour urinary potassium, -2.65 mmHg (-4.32 to -0.97) for systolic blood pressure and +0.30 mmHg (-0.72 to +1.32) for diastolic blood pressure. Use of salt substitute was reported by 97.5% in the intervention group versus 4.2% in the control group (P<.0001). The overall estimated annual event rate for fatal and non-fatal stroke was 3.2%. The systolic blood pressure difference and the annual stroke rate were both in line with the statistical assumptions underlying study design. The trial should be well placed to address the primary hypothesis at completion of follow-up.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Cloreto de Potássio , Potássio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Sódio/urina , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , China , Culinária , Feminino , Conservação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Insects ; 10(11)2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671577

RESUMO

Clip domain serine proteases play vital roles in various innate immune functions and in embryonic development. Nilaparvata lugens proclotting enzymes (NlPCEs) belong to this protease family. NlPCE1 was reported to be involved in innate immunity, whereas the role of other NlPCEs is unclear. In the present study, N. lugens proclotting enzyme-3 (NlPCE3) was cloned and characterized. NlPCE3 contains a signal peptide, a clip domain, and a trypsin-like serine protease domain. NlPCE3 was expressed in all tissues examined (gut, fat body, and ovary), and at all developmental stages. Immunofluorescence staining showed that NlPCE3 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and cytomembrane of follicular cells. Double stranded NlPCE3 RNA interference clearly inhibited the expression of NlPCE3, resulting in abnormal egg formation and obstruction of ovulation. These results indicate that NlPCE3 plays an important role in egg production in N. lugens.

5.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 4109-4118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213831

RESUMO

Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major malignancy in China, which is the critical risk of people health. Many natural herbs extracts have been found to exhibit good therapeutic effect on CRC. Our previous study found that grape seed procyanidins B2 (PB2) would induce CRC cell death. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its anti-tumor effect on CRC remains unclear. Thereby, this study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor mechanism of PB2 on CRC. Methods: CCK-8, western blotting, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and animal study were used in the current study. Results: The in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that PB2 could promote the apoptosis of CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was significantly reversed by caspase 3 inhibitor. Meanwhile, PB2 dose-dependently induced autophagy in CRC cells, which was markedly attenuated by autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. In addition, PB2 dose-dependently inhibited the expressions of p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR in the cells. Conclusion: PB2 dose-dependently induced apoptosis and autophagy in CRC cells via downregulation of PI3K/Akt pathway. This study provided the experimental basis for further development of PB2 as a new effective anticancer drug for the patients with CRC.

6.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(2): 360-364, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-PBHSCT) using modified BU/CY conditioning regimen for young AML patients of low and middle risk in the first complete remission (CR1). METHODS: Ten young AML patients of low and middle risk who did not want to accept allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(allo-HSCT)and underwent auto-PBHSCT in CR1 during May 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. From 3 months after auto-PBHSCT, the maintenance therapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-2 combined with histamine dihydrochloride was performed for these patients in the next 18 months. The side effects of the conditioning regimen, hematopoietic recovery time, transplant-related mortality (TRM) within 100 days and 1 year after auto-PBHSCT, relapse rate, leukemia-free survival (LFS) rate at 2 years and 3 years, overall survival (OS) were evaluated at 3 years and 4 years. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal side effects were the major non-hematologic toxicity reaction, among which, 7 cases relatively mild and 3 cases displayed moderate, just one case suffered from severe reaction. In 4 cases, the mild liver damage occurred, but no hemorrhagic cystitis occurred. All the patients experienced different kinds of infection, including 5 cases of bloodstream infection, 2 cases of gastrointestinal infection, 3 cases of crissum infection and 2 cases of oral infection. The myeloablative effect occurred in all ten patients. The median times for absolute neutrophil count (ANC)<0.5×109/L and for platelet count <20.0×109/L were 1.5 (0-3) days and 3 (2-5) days after transplantation, respectively. The patients achieved ANC>0.5×109/L at 10 to 19 days, median was 13 days after auto-PBHSCT. The patients achieved platelet count >20×109/L at 10 to 72 days; median was 32 days after auto-PBHSCT. The TRM within 100 days and 1 year after transplantation was 0. The relapse occurred in 2 cases at 6 and 14 months after auto-PBHSCT raspectively. The median follow-up time was 48.1 months, and the median survival time was 54.7 months after transplantation. The 2-year and 3-year LFS were 100% (10 cases) and 80% (8 cases), respectively. The 3-year and 4-year OS were 80% (8 cases) and 70% (7 cases), respectively. CONCLUSION: Modified BU/CY as conditioning regimen for auto-PBHSCT can achieve the myeloablative effect without raising TRM and obtain good LFS and OS. As for young AML patients without high risk, it is a valuable therapeutic option, especially for those lacking the chance of allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(5): 3151-3165, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907503

RESUMO

This investigation was conducted to elucidate whether atractylenolide II could reverse the role of lncRNA XIST/miR-30a-5p/ROR1 axis in modulating chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells. We totally collected 294 pairs of colorectal cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues and also purchased colorectal cancer cell lines and human embryonic kidney cell line. 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, mitomycin and adriamycin were designated as the chemotherapies for colorectal cell lines, and atractylenolides were arranged as the Chinese drug. The expressions of XIST, miR-30a-5p and ROR1 were quantified with aid of qRT-PCR or Western blot, and luciferase reporter gene assay was implemented to determine the relationships among XIST, miR-30a-5p and ROR1. Our results demonstrated that XIST and ROR1 expressions were dramatically up-regulated, yet miR-30a-5p expression was down-regulated within colorectal cancer tissues (P < 0.05). The overexpressed XIST and ROR1, as well as under-expressed miR-30a-5p, were inclined to promote viability and proliferation of colorectal cells under the influence of chemo drugs (P < 0.05). In addition, XIST could directly target miR-30a-5p, and ROR1 acted as the targeted molecule of miR-30a-5p. Interestingly, atractylenolides not only switched the expressions of XIST, miR-30a-5p and ROR1 within colorectal cancer cells but also significantly intensified the chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells (P < 0.05). Finally, atractylenolide II was discovered to slow down the viability and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the XIST/miR-30a-5p/ROR1 axis could be deemed as pivotal markers underlying colorectal cancer, and administration of atractylenolide II might improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer.

8.
J Environ Manage ; 231: 73-85, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336345

RESUMO

By applying an integrated framework, we developed a new way to quantify the multifunctionality of rural residential land: analyzing the reciprocal relationships between the structure and function of land use, as well as identifying the demand of rural sustainability for residential land functions. In the assessment of the rural residential land functions from the supply and demand perspectives by establishing an indicators system, the results show that there are five substantial functions of rural residential land, i.e., residential, public service, industrial, commercial and ecological function, and a potential function. Unbalanced development patterns between function supply and demand are clearly observed at multilevel: at the regional level, demand exceeding supply refers to the public service, commercial, and ecological function, especially for ecological function; at the town level, the spatial pattern of the difference is closely linked with topographic features; the inferior and complex topographic condition always is associated with inadequate function supply. Strategies based on the arrangements of rural residential land use structure, including function conversion and function enhancement, have been adopted to balance the supply and demand of land functions. Together, alternative strategies (e.g., industrial allocation, population introduction, and location choices) also need to be recognized by policymakers to achieve rural sustainable development.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecologia , Características de Residência , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Habitação , Planejamento Social
9.
J Ren Nutr ; 29(4): 276-284, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of sustained dietary salt reduction on albuminuria in nearly 2000 community-dwelling adults. DESIGN AND METHODS: The present study is a prespecified secondary analysis of the China Rural Health Initiative Salt Reduction Study cluster randomized trial undertaken in 120 villages in rural China. Villages were randomized to a sodium reduction program of education and access to reduced-sodium salt substitute or control. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) and albuminuria (uACR ≥22.1 or 31.0 mg/g for men and women, respectively) were assessed at 18 months in a stratified random sample of predominantly older individuals living in participating rural villages. RESULTS: A total of 2,566 participants from 119 villages provided 1,903 eligible urine samples. The sodium reduction program reduced sodium intake by an equivalent of 0.82g of salt/day (0.06-1.68 g) (322 [24-661] mg sodium/day). The mean uACR was 8.85 (8.05-9.82) mg/g (1.00 [0.91-1.11] mg/mmol) in intervention participants compared with 10.53 (9.73-11.33) mg/g (1.19 [1.10-1.28] mg/mmol) in control participants (p=0.008). The corresponding odds ratio for albuminuria was 0.67 (0.46-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary sodium reduction was associated with significantly lower uACR and less albuminuria after 18 months. Whether CKD progression can be slowed by dietary sodium reduction should be a global research priority. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01259700.

10.
Food Microbiol ; 76: 346-353, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166160

RESUMO

Plant polyphenols have shown antiviral activity against several human pathogens, but their physicochemical interactions are not well-understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the antiviral activity between monomeric catechin and dimeric procyanidin B2 (PB2) using cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and to understand their potential antiviral mechanism using virus-like particles (VLPs) and the P domain of human norovirus GII (HNoV GII.4). Surrogate viruses at 5 log PFU/mL were treated with 0.5-5 mg/mL monomeric catechin monohydrate, PB2 or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2; control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Infectivity was determined using plaque assays and data from triplicate experiments were statistically analyzed. PB2 at 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 by 0.21 and 1.23 log PFU after 24 h, respectively. Monomeric catechins at 1 mg/mL reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 6 h and MNV-1 titers to undetectable levels after 24 h. In addition, PB2 was shown to directly bind the P domain, the main capsid structure of HNoVs in the ratio of 1:1 through spontaneous interactions. Electrostatic interactions played a dominant role between PB2 and the P domain. PB2 significantly altered tertiary but not secondary structures of VLPs. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that PB2 aggregated VLPs, further indicating interactions between them. These findings indicate that PB2 causes structural changes of the P domain of VLPs, mainly through direct interaction leading to HNoV inactivation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Calicivirus Felino/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Calicivirus Felino/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Gatos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Placa Viral , Ligação Viral
11.
Int Wound J ; 15(4): 565-570, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600564

RESUMO

Deep second-degree burn injuries pose a challenge for treating scar deformity in developing paediatric patients. Some patients underwent several re-operations during their development. There was no literature reporting which factors affect re-operative times. In this article, we intend to analyse possible influential factors that are responsible for re-operative times in paediatric patients with scar deformity after deep second-degree burn injuries. From 2010 to 2016, 177 paediatric cases with a history of deep second-degree burn injury who underwent re-operation once, twice, and equal to or more than thrice were recruited to this study, with age ranging from 0 to 18 years. The following factors were analysed: age, gender, size of scar, method for reconstruction, location, postoperative anti-scar treatment, preschool group, school group, combined deformity, and combined method for reconstruction. One-way ANOVA and multi-way ANOVA analysis were used as statistical tools to analyse the above factors and re-operative times. There were 83 male cases and 94 female cases, with an average age of 7.47 years. Statistical significance was achieved for the size of scar (P = 0.000), operation method (P = 0.001), and combined deformity (P = 0.026) under 1-way ANOVA in different re-operative times. The operation methods for the head and neck area (P < 0.05) and the lower extremities (P < 0.05) are critical factors for multi-factor variance analysis in different re-operative times. Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that the size of scar was an independent risk factor for the number of operations. Combined operative method was a protective risk factor for the number of operations. There was no statistical significance obtained for other factors. Size of scar, operation method, and combined operation method are the risk factors for re-operative times, while operation methods for the head and neck area and lower extremities are the critical factors for re-operative times. We can use the combined method to resolve scar-related problems in order to reduce re-operative times.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/cirurgia , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 106: 587-595, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807689

RESUMO

The polysaccharides (AVP) was obtained from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) viscera, using the alkaline protease to enzymolysis, sevage method and repeated freezing and thawing method to remove protein and hydrogen peroxide method to depigment. The total sugar content was 46.27±1.5% and uronic acid, sulfate radical, hexosamine and protein contents were 17.44±0.22%, 16.98±0.15%, 0.65±0.02% and 1.64±0.13% in AVP respectively. The main monosaccharide compositions of AVP were d-galactose, d-xylose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-glucuronic acid. MTT assay showed AVP had a significant anti-tumor activity to gastric carcinoma cells, especially to MGC 803, while it had no influence upon proliferation of normal stomach cells GES 1. The results of Morphological changes, cell migration ability and AO/EB staining indicated that MGC803 cells underwent apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner induced by AVP. Moreover, the western blotting results showed that the expressions of survivin, Bcl-2 and VEGF were decreased, while the expression of Bax and p53 were increased in a dose-dependent manner of AVP. The results suggested that AVP might be a potential anti-tumor agent securely and naturally.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastrópodes/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Hexosaminas/química , Hexosaminas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Estômago/patologia , Survivina , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/agonistas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ácidos Urônicos/química , Ácidos Urônicos/isolamento & purificação , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Vísceras/química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/agonistas , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
13.
Zootaxa ; 4344(2): 395-400, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245642

RESUMO

A new species of water scavenger beetle, Laccobius (Glyptolaccobius) yinziweii sp. nov. is described from Yunnan, China. Diagnostic characters are illustrated. Laccobius (Cyclolaccobius) nitidus Gentili, 1984 is reported from Guizhou, Laccobius (Microlaccobius) hammondi Gentili, 1984 from Hubei, and Laccobius (s. str.) inopinus Gentili, 1980 from Guizhou for the first time. Additionally, an identification key to Laccobius (Glyptolaccobius) of the world is updated.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019912

RESUMO

Background: 24-h urine collection is regarded as the "gold standard" for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective: To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods: Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results: The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.38, p < 0.01 for the Kawasaki; r = 0.35, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.31, p < 0.01 for the INTERSALT; r = 0.37, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.34, p < 0.01 for the Tanaka). Significant biases between estimated and measured 24-h sodium excretion were observed (all p < 0.01 for three methods). Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods (mean bias: 31.90, 95% Cl: 23.84, 39.97). Overestimation occurred when the Kawasaki and Tanaka methods were used while the INTERSALT method underestimated 24-h sodium excretion. Conclusion: The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine specimens were inadequate for the assessment of sodium intake at the population level in high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province, although the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods.


Assuntos
Sódio/urina , Urinálise/métodos , Idoso , China , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Risco , População Rural , Sódio na Dieta , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
15.
Am Heart J ; 188: 109-117, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577665

RESUMO

Lowering sodium intake with a reduced-sodium, added potassium salt substitute has been proved to lower blood pressure levels. Whether the same strategy will also reduce the risks of vascular outcomes is uncertain and controversial. The SSaSS has been designed to test whether sodium reduction achieved with a salt substitute can reduce the risk of vascular disease. The study is a large-scale, open, cluster-randomized controlled trial done in 600 villages across 5 provinces in China. Participants have either a history of stroke or an elevated risk of stroke based on age and blood pressure level at entry. Villages were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to intervention or continued usual care. Salt substitute is provided free of charge to participants in villages assigned to the intervention group. Follow-up is scheduled every 6months for 5years, and all potential endpoints are reviewed by a masked adjudication committee. The primary end point is fatal and nonfatal stroke, and the 2 secondary endpoints are total major cardiovascular events and total mortality. The study has been designed to provide 90% statistical power (with 2-sided α = .05) to detect a 13% or greater relative risk reduction for stroke. The power estimate assumes a primary outcome event rate of 3.5% per year and a systolic blood pressure difference of 3.0mm Hg between randomized groups. Recruitment is complete and there are 20,996 participants (about 35 per village) that have been enrolled. Mean age is 65years and 49% are female. There were 73% enrolled on the basis of a history of stroke. The trial is well placed to describe the effects of salt substitution on the risks of vascular disease and death and will provide important policy-relevant data.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Dalton Trans ; 46(26): 8673-8679, 2017 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650508

RESUMO

Two new lead rare-earth polyborates, PbTbB7O13 and PbEuB7O13, have been successfully synthesized via a high temperature molten salt method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that they are isostructural and feature a 2D layer structure that contains alternating layers of [B7O13]∞ and [Tb]∞. The [B7O13]∞ layer is constructed of BO3 and BO4 groups with the fundamental building block of B7O17 (3Δ4□: <Δ2□>Δ<Δ2□>). Solid solutions of PbTb1-xEuxB7O13 (x = 0-1) were prepared via a solid state reaction and the photoluminescence properties were studied. The results show that under UV or near-UV excitation, the luminescence colour of samples of PbTb1-xEuxB7O13 (x = 0-1) can be tuned from green through yellow to red by simply adjusting the relative Eu3+ and Tb3+ concentrations, because of the Tb3+ → Eu3+ energy transfer mechanism.

17.
J Med Virol ; 89(10): 1865-1870, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504470

RESUMO

Hantavirus infection during pregnancy can influence both maternal and fetal outcomes. Here, we describe four cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in pregnant Chinese women. The HFRS put these women at increased risk for severe illness, despite the patients' symptomologies in the onset phase were similar to those observed in non-pregnant HFRS patients, such as fever, headache, nausea, and thrombocytopenia. Pregnant women appeared to have a more severe status, presenting with severe complications, such as hypervolemia and pulmonary edema. Nevertheless, with appropriate management, mothers with HFRS may carry to full-term and breastfeeding maybe safe and feasible.


Assuntos
Vírus Hantaan/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Rim/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(18): 4709-4714, 2017 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28424249

RESUMO

Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether- and carbon-carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating termite system, we reveal unprecedentedly rapid lignin depolymerization and degradation by combining laboratory feeding experiments, lignocellulosic compositional measurements, electron microscopy, 2D-NMR, and thermochemolysis. In a gut transit time of under 3.5 h, in young worker termites, poplar lignin sidechains are extensively cleaved and the polymer is significantly depleted, leaving a residue almost completely devoid of various condensed units that are traditionally recognized to be the most recalcitrant. Subsequently, the fungus-comb microbiome preferentially uses xylose and cleaves polysaccharides, thus facilitating final utilization of easily digestible oligosaccharides by old worker termites. This complementary symbiotic pretreatment process in the fungus-growing termite symbiosis reveals a previously unappreciated natural system for efficient lignocellulose degradation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Isópteros , Lacase/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Termitomyces/enzimologia , Animais
19.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 23, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194137

RESUMO

Clostridium beijerinckii DG-8052, derived from NCIMB 8052, cannot produce solvent or form spores, a phenomenon known as degeneration. To explore the mechanisms of degeneration at the gene level, transcriptomic profiles of the wild-type 8052 and DG-8052 strains were compared. Expression of 5168 genes comprising 98.6% of the genome was assessed. Interestingly, 548 and 702 genes were significantly up-regulated in the acidogenesis and solventogenesis phases of DG-8052, respectively, and mainly responsible for the phosphotransferase system, sugar metabolic pathways, and chemotaxis; meanwhile, 699 and 797 genes were significantly down-regulated, respectively, and mainly responsible for sporulation, oxidoreduction, and solventogenesis. The functions of some altered genes, including 286 and 333 at the acidogenesis and solventogenesis phases, respectively, remain unknown. Dysregulation of the fermentation machinery was accompanied by lower transcription levels of glycolysis rate-limiting enzymes (pfk and pyk), and higher transcription of cell chemotaxis genes (cheA, cheB, cheR, cheW, and cheY), controlled mainly by σ54 at acidogenesis. Meanwhile, abnormal spore formation was associated with repressed spo0A, sigE, sigF, sigG, and sigK which are positively regulated by σ70, and correspondingly inhibited expression of CoA-transferase at the solventogenesis phase. These findings indicated that morphological and physiological changes in the degenerated Clostridium strain may be related to altered expression of sigma factors, providing valuable targets for strain development of Clostridium species.

20.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0166620, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Average sodium intake and stroke mortality in northern China are both among the highest in the world. An effective, low-cost strategy to reduce sodium intake in this population is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of a community-based sodium reduction program on salt consumption in rural northern China. DESIGN: This study was a cluster-randomized trial done over 18 months in 120 townships (one village from each township) from five provinces. Sixty control villages were compared to 60 intervention villages that were given access to a reduced-sodium, added-potassium salt substitute in conjunction with a community-based health education program focusing on sodium reduction. The primary outcome was the difference in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion between randomized groups. RESULTS: Among 1,903 people with valid 24-hour urine collections, mean urinary sodium excretion in intervention compared with control villages was reduced by 5.5% (-14mmol/day, 95% confidence interval -26 to -1; p = 0.03), potassium excretion was increased by 16% (+7mmol/day, +4 to +10; p<0.001), and sodium to potassium ratio declined by 15% (-0.9, -1.2 to -0.5; p<0.001). Mean blood pressure differences were -1.1 mm Hg systolic (-3.3 to +1.1; p = 0.33) and -0.7 mm Hg diastolic (-2.2 to +0.8, p = 0.35) and the difference in the proportion with hypertension was -1.3% (-5.1 to 2.5, p = 0.56). CONCLUSION: There were clear differences in population sodium and potassium intake between villages that were most likely a consequence of increased use of salt substitute. The absence of effects on blood pressure reflects the moderate changes in sodium and potassium intake achieved. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01259700.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Dieta Hipossódica/efeitos adversos , Tontura/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Sódio/urina , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
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