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1.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103827, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a role for the gut microbiome and cytokines in atherosclerosis development, but combined analyses of the changes of the gut microbiota and cytokines have not been explored previously. METHODS: We treated ApoE-/- and wild-type mice with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The gut microbiome and cytokine composition were analyzed using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and RayBio Quantibody Arrays, respectively. GO and KEGG analysis were performed to rationalize the potential mechanisms involved in the process of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Gut bacterial characteristics in ApoE-/- mice were clearly separated and 21 gut bacterial clades were detected by the LEfSe analysis showing significant differences during the development of atherosclerosis. The relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidaceae, Bacteroides, and Akkermansia showed significant positive correlations with serum total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Additionally, the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae was positive with the level of HDL and the abundance of Rikenellaceae showed a negative relationship with the level of TG and LDL. Thirteen differentially expressed proteins were identified with P-value < 0.05. CXCL5, FGF2, and E-Selectin were significantly negatively associated with Akkermansia and Verrucomicrobia. Additionally, CXCL5 was significantly negatively correlated with Bacteroides and Bacteroidaceae. Three "cellular component" subcategories, 24 ″molecular function" subcategories, 752 ″biological process" subcategories and 29 statistically remarkable KEGG pathway categories were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiota changes of the mice having atherosclerosis and their relationship with the inflammatory status could be one of the major etiological mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis.

2.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691509

RESUMO

At present, hypoechogenicity, as one of the clinically relevant features associated with suspicion of malignant thyroid disease, is affected by the variability of modules and the experience of sonographers, thus leading to unsatisfying results. We propose the ultrasound gray scale ratio (UGSR) to obtain an objective, numerical estimate of the echogenicity degree in different-sized thyroid nodules, and we then evaluate its diagnostic efficacy in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions. In total, 553 ultrasound images of thyroid nodules from one kind of ultrasonographic scanner were analyzed, among which 281 were papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and 272 were nodular goiters (NGs). The UGSR of the PTCs, NGs, and surrounding normal thyroid tissue was measured by image analysis software. The best cut-off value for distinguishing various sizes of PTCs and NGs was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. As the UGSR increased, the sensitivity of the diagnosing PTCs decreased, and the specificity increased. When the maximum Jordan index was 0.611, the best cut-off value was 0.692, and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing PTCs were 87.9% and 73.2%, respectively. For the analysis of subgroups of different tumor sizes, as the size of thyroid nodules increased from 0.3 to 2 cm, the sensitivity of the diagnosis of PTCs decreased from 97.5% to 58.8%, and the specificity increased from 72.4% to 90.9%. These results strongly suggest that the UGSR is an appropriate objective, numerical method for estimating the echogenicity degree and has various diagnostic efficacies in different-sized thyroid nodules. Thus, the UGSR can be used as an additional ultrasound parameter in the diagnosis of different-sized PTCs and NGs.

3.
J Liposome Res ; : 1-11, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691619

RESUMO

In this study, we describe a novel synthesis of galactosylated lipids by lipase catalysis. Lactitol (Lac), galactose (Gal), or N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) was coupled with cholesterol (CHS) as target head groups by enzyme-catalyzed regioselective esterification to produce three kinds of lipids: CHS-1-Gal, CHS-6-Gal, or CHS-6-GalNAc1. The biological effects of galactosylated lipids carrying different constitutional isomers of the pendent sugar species were investigated. LP-1-Gal (liposomes containing 5.0 molar% of CHS-1-Gal) showed strong binding to tetrameric lectins of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA120) in vitro, while LP-6-Gal (liposomes containing 5.0 molar% of CHS-6-Gal) and LP-6-GalNAc (liposomes containing 5.0 molar% of CHS-6-GalNAc) did not. After intravenous injection, LP-6-GalNAc, LP-1-Gal and LP-6-Gal rapidly disappeared from the blood and accumulated rapidly in liver (up to 74.88 ± 4.11%, 58.67 ± 5.75%, and 47.66 ± 4.56% of injected dose/g organ within 4 h, respectively). This is significantly higher than the uptake of unmodified liposomes (Unmod-LP) (18.67 ± 6.07%). Pre-injection of asialofetuin significantly inhibits liver uptake of Gal-liposomes (P < 0.01), with the degree of inhibition appearing in the following order: LP-6-GalNAc (73.29%) > LP-1-Gal (67.06%) > LP-6-Gal (53.61%). More importantly, LP-6-GalNAc was preferentially taken up by hepatocytes and the uptake ratio by parenchymal cells (PC) and nonparenchymal cells (NPC) (PC/NPC ratio) was 11.03 higher than LP-1-Gal (7.32), LP-6-Gal (5.83) and Unmod-LP (2.39). We suggest that liposomes containing the novel galactosylated lipid CHS-6-GalNAc have potential as drug delivery carriers for hepatocyte-selective targeting.

4.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 6975-6989, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698599

RESUMO

The traditional path optimization problem is to consider the shortest path of the vehicle, but the shortest path does not effectively reduce the logistics cost. On the contrary, in the case of one-sided pursuit of the shortest path, it may cause some negative effects. This paper constructs a more realistic path optimization model on the path of traditional logistics distribution, and designs a path model based on simulated annealing algorithm which taking fuel consumption, cost, road gradient and condition of vehicle into account. The algorithm model of load capacity and other problems is used to verify the algorithm of the model through a simulation case of multiple distribution points. The experimental results show that the path optimization strategy considering the gradient of the road reduces the cost of the vehicle path, indicating the correctness of considering the vehicle load and road gradient factors in logistics transportation.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703294

RESUMO

Sleep disturbance and non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) are currently growing public health concerns, and sex differences may result in differential exposure to frequency of NMPOU or sleep disturbance. This study aimed to explore the association between the frequency of lifetime or past-year NMPOU and sleep disturbance and to evaluate whether there was any sex difference in this association among Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed in seven randomly selected Chinese provinces through the 2015 School-Based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey. A total of 159,640 adolescents were invited to participate and among them, 148,687 adolescents' questionnaires were completed and qualified for this study (response rate: 93.14%). All analyses were performed for boys and girls separately. There were significant sex differences in the prevalence of lifetime or past-year opioid misuse and sleep disturbance (p < 0.05). Among girls, frequent lifetime NMPOU (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.80-2.44) and past-year NMPOU (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.68-2.77) were positively associated with sleep disturbance. Among boys, these associations were also statistically significant, while the magnitudes of associations between frequent lifetime NMPOU or past-year NMPOU and sleep disturbance were greater in girls than those in boys. There is a significant sex difference in the prevalence of lifetime or past-year NMPOU and sleep disturbance. Furthermore, exposure to more frequent lifetime or past-year NMPOU is associated with a greater risk of sleep disturbance, especially among girls. Taking into account the sex difference for lifetime or past-year NMPOU may help to decrease the risk of sleep disturbance.

6.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736238

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore an early, rapid and precise diagnosis of Stickler syndrome type I (STL1) and to enrich the spectrum of COL2A1 mutations in the Chinese population, which is poorly studied at present. METHODS: In the current study, we analysed 115 patients with high myopia by next-generation sequencing and identified five STL1 patients from four unrelated Chinese families. The clinical features of all patients were reviewed in detail. RESULTS: Four variants of COL2A1 were identified, including two novel variants (c.1435delG and c.184delG) and two previously reported variants (c.1221+1G>A and c.1030C>T). Three variants caused premature termination codons which were common in STL1. In addition, we proposed a new diagnostic tactic to improve early diagnostics of STL1 in patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, our findings expanded the spectrum of COL2A1 mutations with two novel variants and provided a new diagnostic tactic for reference, which was of great significance. Precise diagnosis on the basis of clinical manifestations and genetic testing will become the gold standard to diagnose inherited ocular disorders or syndromes in the future.

7.
J Sep Sci ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674130

RESUMO

The chromatographic elution process is a key step in the production of notoginseng total saponins. Due to quality variability of loading samples and resin capacity decreasing over cycle time, saponins, especially the five main saponins of notoginseng total saponins, need to be monitored in real time during the elution process. In this study, convolutional neural networks, one of the most popular deep learning methods, were used to develop quantitative calibration models based on in-line near-infrared spectroscopy for notoginsenoside R1 , ginsenosides Rg1 , Re, Rb1 and Rd, and their sum concentration, with root mean square error of prediction values of 0.87, 2.76, 0.60, 1.57, 0.28, and 4.99 mg/mL, respectively. Partial least squares calibration models were also developed for model performance comparison. Results show predicted concentration profiles outputted by both the convolutional neural network models and partial least squares models show agreements with the real trends defined by reference measurements, and can be used for elution process monitoring and endpoint determination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case study of combining convolutional neural networks and in-line near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring of the chromatographic elution process in commercial production of botanical drug products.

8.
Biosci Rep ; 39(11)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694048

RESUMO

Polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism genes may influence the susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we studied methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) tagging polymorphisms in 584 HCC cases and 923 controls. Polymerase chain reaction was harnessed to detect MTHFR genotype. Overall, our results showed that genotype distribution of MTHFR rs4846048 and rs4845882 polymorphisms was not different between HCC patients and controls. MTHFR rs9651118 and rs1801133 loci were protective factors for HCC (rs9651118: CT vs. TT: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.90, P=0.008 and TC/CC vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.93, P=0.015; rs1801133: GA vs. GG: adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.97, P=0.031, AA/GA vs. GG: adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.57-0.99, P=0.045). However, MTHFR rs3753584 locus was a candidate for susceptibility to HCC (CT vs. TT: adjusted OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.20-2.32, P=0.003 and TC/CC vs. TT: adjusted OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.15-2.20, P=0.005). Results of haplotype analysis suggested that MTHFR Grs1801133Trs3753584Grs4845882Ars4846048Trs9651118 was associated with the risk of HCC (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.16-2.07, P=0.003). The power of our study also confirmed these associations (the value of power >0.80). In summary, our findings suggested that MTHFR rs3753584, rs9651118 and rs1801133 polymorphisms may affect the risk of HCC in Chinese Han population. In future, our findings should be further validated in additional case-control studies.

9.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 317, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapy drug for malignant tumors. The clinical application of DOX is limited due to its dosage relative cardiotoxicity. Oxidative damage and cardiac inflammation appear to be involved in DOX-related cardiotoxicity. Shenmai injection (SMI), which mainly consists of Panax ginsengC.A.Mey.and Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl, is widely used for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and viral myocarditis in China. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Shenmai injection on doxorubicin-induced acute cardiac injury via the regulation of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: Male ICR mice were randomly divided into seven groups: control, DOX (10 mg/kg), SMI (5 g/kg), DOX with pretreatment with SMI (0.5 g/kg, 1.5 g/kg or 5 g/kg) and DOX with post-treatment with SMI (5 g/kg). Forty-eight hours after the last DOX administration, all mice were anesthetized for ultrasound echocardiography. Then, serum was collected for biochemical and inflammatory cytokine detection, and heart tissue was collected for histological and Western blot detection. RESULTS: A cumulative dose of DOX (10 mg/kg) induced acute cardiotoxicity in mice manifested by altered echocardiographic outcome, and increased tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1, interferon-γ, and serum AST and LDH levels, as well as cardiac cytoplasmic vacuolation and myofibrillar disarrangement. DOX also caused the increase in the expression of IKK-α and iNOS and produced a large amount of NO, resulting in the accumulation of nitrotyrosine in the heart tissue. Pretreatment with SMI elicited a dose-dependent cardioprotective effect in DOX-dosed mice as evidenced by the normalization of serum inflammatory mediators, as well as improve dcardiac function and myofibril disarrangement. CONCLUSIONS: SMI could recover inflammatory cytokine levels and suppress the expression of IKK-α and iNOS in vivo, which was increased by DOX. Overall, there was evidence that SMI could ameliorate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting inflammation and recovering heart dysfunction.

10.
Addict Biol ; : e12857, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746092

RESUMO

Alcohol misuse is associated with significant energy deficits. As feeding involves multiple sensory, cognitive, and affective processes, low food intake in problem drinkers likely reflects alterations in both regional and inter-regional responses. To investigate the effects of problem drinking on feeding-related neural activities and connectivities, we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in 82 drinkers who viewed palatable food and nonfood images in alternating blocks. Drinking severity was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A whole-brain multiple regression with AUDIT scores as the predictor showed a negative correlation between drinking severity and activation to food vs nonfood cues in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC). AUDIT scores were also negatively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) of the lOFC and regions that responded preferentially to food stimuli, including the left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral middle insula, and occipital cortices. Connectivity strength between the lOFC and these regions was negatively modulated by drinking severity. In contrast, there was no relationship between AUDIT scores and lOFC connectivity with regions that did not show either selectivity to food images or GMV loss. A mediation analysis further suggested that alcohol misuse may have compromised lOFC's structural integrity, which in turn disrupted lOFC interactions with regions that support the processing of visual food cues. Overall, the findings provide evidence for the effects of problem drinking on the brain substrates of feeding, potentially shedding light on the neural mechanisms underlying energy deficits in at-risk drinkers.

11.
Org Lett ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746208

RESUMO

An electrochemical oxidative dehydrogenative C(sp3)-H amination reaction to construct trans-2,3-disubstituted aziridines is reported, which avoids using external oxidants and generates only hydrogen gas as the byproduct. With KI as the mediator and electrolyte, the desired aziridines were prepared in good yields in an undivided cell at room temperature. The potential value of this mild electrochemical strategy was further highlighted by the gram-scale synthesis.

12.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680326

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an emerging class of RNA species that could participate in some critical pathways and disease pathogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of lncRNAs in atrial fibrillation (AF) is still not fully understood. In the present study, we analyzed RNA-seq data of paired left and right atrial appendages from five patients with AF and other five patients without AF. Based on the gene expression profiles of 20 samples, we found that a majority of genes were aberrantly expressed in both left and right atrial appendages of patients with AF. Similarly, the dysregulated pathways in the left and right atrial appendages of patients with AF also bore a close resemblance. Moreover, we predicted regulatory lncRNAs that regulated the expression of adjacent protein-coding genes (PCGs) or interacted with proteins. We identified that NPPA and its antisense RNA NPPA-AS1 may participate in the pathogenesis of AF by regulating the muscle contraction. We also identified that RP11 - 99E15.2 and RP3 - 523K23.2 could interact with proteins ITGB3 and HSF2, respectively. RP11 - 99E15.2 and RP3 - 523K23.2 may participate in the pathogenesis of AF via regulating the extracellular matrix binding and the transcription of HSF2 target genes, respectively. The close association of the lncRNA-interacting proteins with AF further demonstrated that these two lncRNAs were also associated with AF. In conclusion, we have identified key regulatory lncRNAs implicated in AF, which not only improves our understanding of the lncRNA-related molecular mechanism underlying AF but also provides computationally predicted regulatory lncRNAs for AF researchers.

13.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(5): 667-672, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699198

RESUMO

Objective To compare the values of dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(DCE-MRI),digital breast tomosynthesis(DBT),and digital mammography(DM)in the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and imaging data of 65 cases with early breast cancer confirmed by surgical pathology from June 2017 to December 2018.All patients underwent breast DCE-MRI,DM and DBT before surgery.The receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curves were drawn,with the pathological results as the gold standard,to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different examination methods.The areas under ROC curves(AUCs)were compared using Z test.The differences among DCE-MRI,DBT and DM in detecting early breast cancer were compared using chi-square test in terms of positive rates,accuracy,sensitivity,and specificity.Pearson correlation analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of these imaging methods in detecting the size of early breast cancer.Results The AUCs of DCE-MRI,DBT,and DM based on the BI-RADS classification for early diagnosis of breast cancer were 0.910,0.832,and 0.700,respectively(z=2.132,P=0.001);the sensitivity of DCE-MRI,DBT,and DM for early breast cancer was 92.3%,70.8%,and 52.5%,the specificity was 65.0%,85.0%,and 79.3%,and the accuracy was 83.1%,70.8%,and 50.8%,indicating that DCE-MRI(χ 2=15.330,P=0.0001) and DBT(χ 2=5.450,P=0.020) had significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than DM.The measurement results of DM,DBT,and DCE-MRI were positively correlated with the pathological measurements(r=0.781,r=0.847,r=0.946;all P<0.01). Conclusions DCE-MRI and DBT have higher positive rates and accuracies than DM in detecting early breast cancer.Medical institutions where DCE-MRI is still not available can use DBT to improve the early detection of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mamografia/métodos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Cereb Cortex ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667492

RESUMO

Imaging studies have distinguished the brain correlates of approach and avoidance behaviors and suggested the influence of individual differences in trait sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP) on these neural processes. Theoretical work of reinforcement sensitivity postulates that SR and SP may interdependently regulate behavior. Here, we examined the distinct and interrelated neural substrates underlying rewarded action versus inhibition of action in relation to SR and SP as evaluated by the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire. Forty-nine healthy adults performed a reward go/no-go task with approximately 2/3 go and 1/3 no-go trials. Correct go and no-go responses were rewarded and incorrect responses were penalized. The results showed that SR and SP modulated rewarded go and no-go, respectively, both by recruiting the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and left middle frontal gyrus (rACC/left MFG). Importantly, SR and SP influenced these regional activations in opposite directions, thus exhibiting an antagonistic relationship as suggested by the reinforcement sensitivity theory. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that heightened SR contributed to higher rewarded go success rate via enhanced rACC/left MFG activity. The findings demonstrate interrelated neural correlates of SR and SP to support the diametric processes of behavioral approach and avoidance.

15.
Cytotechnology ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705334

RESUMO

In Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines, the establishment of the ideal fed-batch regimen promotes metabolic conditions advantageous for the bioproduction of therapeutic molecules. A tailored, cell line-specific feeding scheme is typically defined during process development (PD) activities, through the incorporation of Design of Experiment (DOE) and late stage cell culture approaches. The feeding during early stage cell line development (CLD) was a simplified "one-fits-all" design, inherited from PD lab, that didn't account for CLD needs of throughput and streamlined workflow. The "one-fits-all" efficiency was not routinely verified when novel technologies were incorporated in CLD and sub-optimal feeding carried the risk of not selecting the most desirable cell lines amenable to late stage PD. In our work we developed the DOE-feed method; a streamlined, three-stages framework for identifying efficient feeding schemes as the CLD technologies evolved. We combined early stage cell culture input data with late-stage techniques, such as statistical modelling, principal component analysis (PCA), DOE and Prediction Profiler. Novel in our DOE-feed work, we deliberately anticipated the application of statistics and approached the method development as an early-stage, continuously updated process, by building iterative datasets and statistically interpreting their responses. We capitalized on the statistical models defined by the DOE-feed methodology to study the influence of feeds on daily productivity and growth and to extrapolate feeding-schemes that improved the cell line screening. The DOE-feed became a methodology suited for CLD needs at AbbVie, and optimized the early stage screening, reduced the operational hands-on time and improved the overall workstream efficiency.

16.
Neuroimage ; : 116368, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743790

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested age-related differences in reward-directed behavior and cerebral processes in support of the age effects. However, it remains unclear how age may influence the processing of reward magnitude. Here, with 54 volunteers (22-74 years of age) participating in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT) with explicit cues ($1, ¢1, or nil) and timed response to win, we characterized brain activations during anticipation and feedback and the effects of age on these regional activations. Behaviorally, age was associated with less reaction time (RT) difference between dollar and cent trials, as a result of slower response to the dollar trials; i.e., age was positively correlated with RT dollar - RT cent, with RT nil as a covariate. Both age and the RT difference ($1 - ¢1) were correlated with diminished activation of the right caudate head, right anterior insula, supplementary motor area (SMA)/pre-SMA, visual cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, right superior/middle frontal gyri, and left primary motor cortex during anticipation of $1 vs. ¢1 reward. Further, these regional activities mediated the age effects on RT differences. In responses to outcomes, age was associated with decreases in regional activations to dollar vs. cent loss but only because of higher age-related responses to cent losses. Together, these findings suggest age-related differences in sensitivity to the magnitude of reward. With lower cerebral responses during anticipation to win large rewards and higher responses to outcomes of small loss, aging incurs a constricted sensitivity to the magnitude of reward.

18.
Cortex ; 123: 42-56, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747630

RESUMO

Human and non-human primate studies have examined neural responses to action and inhibition of action. However, it remains unclear whether the cerebral processes supporting these two distinct responses are differentially modulated by reward. In a sample of 35 healthy human adults, we examined brain activations to action and inhibition of action in a reward go/no-go task, with approximately ⅔ go and ⅓ no-go trials. Correct go and no-go trials were rewarded with $1 or ¢5 in reward sessions. Behaviorally, reward facilitated go and impeded no-go. A conjunction analysis showed shared activation to rewarded go and no-go responses in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and inferior parietal cortex. A whole-brain two-way ANOVA of response (go vs no-go) and reward (dollar vs nickel) revealed a significant main effect of response, with greater activity for no-go vs go success in the middle frontal cortex and the reversed pattern in the dorsal ACC, insula, thalamus, and caudate. The thalamus and caudate also responded preferentially to dollar relative to nickel reward during go trials. The main effect of reward (dollar > nickel) involved not only regions associated with reward valuation (e.g., medial orbitofrontal cortex - mOFC) but also those implicated in motor control, saliency, and visual attention including the rACC, ventral striatum, insula, and occipital cortex. Finally, the mOFC distinguished go and no-go responses in the dollar but not nickel trials, suggesting a functional bias toward response execution that leads to larger rewards. Together, these findings identified both shared and non-overlapping neural processes underlying goal-directed action and inhibition of action as well as delineated the effects of reward magnitude on such processes.

19.
Waste Manag ; 102: 541-549, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765974

RESUMO

Recycling of e-waste is an effective means for e-waste management. It has made great contribution to improving environmental benefits. This paper evaluates the emission reduction benefits and efficiency of e-waste recycling in China, using the direction distance function of DEA. Calculations show that from 2013 to 2017, the total emission reduction benefits of 29 provinces in China e-waste was 6.34 billion yuan, with an average emission reduction efficiency of 0.88. The emission reduction benefits of CO2 was 390 million tons, and the average emission reduction efficiency was only 0.82. The wastewater emission reduction benefits was 570 million yuan, with an average efficiency of 0.9. The emission reduction benefits of solid waste and SO2 are 5.37 billion yuan and 400 million yuan respectively, with the same emission reduction efficiency of 0.89. E-waste recycling in China still has huge potential for emission reduction.

20.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771176

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) display potent immunomodulatory and regenerative capabilities through the secretion of bioactive factors, such as proteins, cytokines, chemokines as well as the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). These functional properties of MSCs make them ideal candidates for the treatment of degenerative and inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a heterogenous disease that is typically characterized by inflammation, demyelination, gliosis and axonal loss. In the current study, an induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) murine model of MS was utilized. At peak disease onset, animals were treated with saline, placenta-derived MSCs (PMSCs), as well as low and high doses of PMSC-EVs. Animals treated with PMSCs and high-dose PMSC-EVs displayed improved motor function outcomes as compared to animals treated with saline. Symptom improvement by PMSCs and PMSC-EVs led to reduced DNA damage in oligodendroglia populations and increased myelination within the spinal cord of treated mice. In vitro data demonstrate that PMSC-EVs promote myelin regeneration by inducing endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells to differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. These findings support that PMSCs' mechanism of action is mediated by the secretion of EVs. Therefore, PMSC-derived EVs are a feasible alternative to cellular based therapies for MS, as demonstrated in an animal model of the disease.

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