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1.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TOAST subtype classification is important for diagnosis and research of ischemic stroke. Limited by experience of neurologist and time-consuming manual adjudication, it is a big challenge to finish TOAST classification effectively. We propose a novel active deep learning architecture to classify TOAST. METHODS: To simulate the diagnosis process of neurologists, we drop the valueless features by XGB algorithm and rank the remaining ones. Utilizing active learning framework, we propose a novel causal CNN, in which it combines with a mixed active selection criterion to optimize the uncertainty of samples adaptively. Meanwhile, KL-focal loss derived from the enhancement of Focal loss by KL regularization is introduced to accelerate the iterative fine-tuning of the model. RESULTS: To evaluate the proposed method, we construct a dataset which consists of totally 2310 patients. In a series of sequential experiments, we verify the effectiveness of each contribution by different evaluation metrics. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves competitive results on each evaluation metric. In this task, the improvement of AUC is the most obvious, reaching 77.4. CONCLUSIONS: We construct a backbone causal CNN to simulate the neurologist process of that could enhance the internal interpretability. The research on clinical data also indicates the potential application value of this model in stroke medicine. Future work we would consider various data types and more comprehensive patient types to achieve fully automated subtype classification.

2.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 24(1): 4, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows quantification of biventricular blood flow by flow components and kinetic energy (KE) analyses. However, it remains unclear whether 4D flow parameters can predict cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) as a clinical outcome in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). Current study aimed to (1) compare 4D flow CMR parameters in rTOF with age- and gender-matched healthy controls, (2) investigate associations of 4D flow parameters with functional and volumetric right ventricular (RV) remodelling markers, and CPET outcome. METHODS: Sixty-three rTOF patients (14 paediatric, 49 adult; 30 ± 15 years; 29 M) and 63 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (14 paediatric, 49 adult; 31 ± 15 years) were prospectively recruited at four centers. All underwent cine and 4D flow CMR, and all adults performed standardized CPET same day or within one week of CMR. RV remodelling index was calculated as the ratio of RV to left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volumes. Four flow components were analyzed: direct flow, retained inflow, delayed ejection flow and residual volume. Additionally, three phasic KE parameters normalized to end-diastolic volume (KEiEDV), were analyzed for both LV and RV: peak systolic, average systolic and peak E-wave. RESULTS: In comparisons of rTOF vs. healthy controls, median LV retained inflow (18% vs. 16%, P = 0.005) and median peak E-wave KEiEDV (34.9 µJ/ml vs. 29.2 µJ/ml, P = 0.006) were higher in rTOF; median RV direct flow was lower in rTOF (25% vs. 35%, P < 0.001); median RV delayed ejection flow (21% vs. 17%, P < 0.001) and residual volume (39% vs. 31%, P < 0.001) were both greater in rTOF. RV KEiEDV parameters were all higher in rTOF than healthy controls (all P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, RV direct flow was an independent predictor of RV function and CPET outcome. RV direct flow and RV peak E-wave KEiEDV were independent predictors of RV remodelling index. CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-scanner multicenter 4D flow CMR study, reduced RV direct flow was independently associated with RV dysfunction, remodelling and, to a lesser extent, exercise intolerance in rTOF patients. This supports its utility as an imaging parameter for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response in rTOF. Clinical Trial Registration https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03217240.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 24, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013202

RESUMO

Single-atom catalysts (SACs) have attracted tremendous research interests in various energy-related fields because of their high activity, selectivity and 100% atom utilization. However, it is still a challenge to enhance the intrinsic and specific activity of SACs. Herein, we present an approach to fabricate a high surface distribution density of iridium (Ir) SAC on nickel-iron sulfide nanosheet arrays substrate (Ir1/NFS), which delivers a high water oxidation activity. The Ir1/NFS catalyst offers a low overpotential of ~170 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 and a high turnover frequency of 9.85 s-1 at an overpotential of 300 mV in 1.0 M KOH solution. At the same time, the Ir1/NFS catalyst exhibits a high stability performance, reaching a lifespan up to 350 hours at a current density of 100 mA cm-2. First-principles calculations reveal that the electronic structures of Ir atoms are significantly regulated by the sulfide substrate, endowing an energetically favorable reaction pathway. This work represents a promising strategy to fabricate high surface distribution density single-atom catalysts with high activity and durability for electrochemical water splitting.

5.
Cancer Biol Ther ; : 1-7, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989325

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiulcer oral mucosal protectant-RADoralex® in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucosal reactions elicited during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 90 patients with locally advanced NPC who developed post-treatment grade 1 oral mucositis were selected for this study. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 44) treated by mouth rinsing with the RADoralex® during radiochemotherapy and the control group (n = 43) treated by mouth rinsing with sodium bicarbonate solution, and the patients' oral mucosal conditions, quality of life, weight change and oral pain levels were analyzed. The incidence of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0 grade 2 and grade 3 oral mucositis were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared to the control group, the time to progression, and the time from the end of treatment to oral mucosa healing in the experimental group was significantly shorter. The experimental group lost 8.66 ± 3.543% of their body weight during treatment period, while the control group lost 12.53 ± 4.284% (p < .001). From the beginning the 3rd week of treatment to the 2nd week after the end of treatment, the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS) scores were lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .05). RADoralex® significantly reduced the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in patients with locally advanced NPC during radiochemotherapy, delayed the progression of oral mucositis.

6.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the image quality, examination time, and total energy release of a standardized pediatric brain tumor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol performed with and without compressed sensitivity encoding (C-SENSE). Recently introduced as an acceleration technique in MRI, we hypothesized that C­SENSE would improve image quality, reduce the examination time and radiofrequency-induced energy release compared with conventional examination in a pediatric brain tumor protocol. METHODS: This retrospective study included 22 patients aged 2.33-18.83 years with different brain tumor types who had previously undergone conventional MRI examination and underwent follow-up C­SENSE examination. Both examinations were conducted with a 3.0-Tesla device and included pre-contrast and post-contrast T1-weighted turbo-field-echo, T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Image quality was assessed in four anatomical regions of interest (tumor area, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and posterior fossa) using a 5-point scale. Reader preference between the standard and C­SENSE images was evaluated. The total examination duration and energy deposit were compared based on scanner log file analysis. RESULTS: Relative to standard examinations, C­SENSE examinations were characterized by shorter total examination times (26.1 ± 3.93 vs. 22.18 ± 2.31 min; P = 0.001), reduced total energy deposit (206.0 ± 19.7 vs. 92.3 ± 18.2 J/kg; P < 0.001), and higher image quality (overall P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: C­SENSE contributes to the improvement of image quality, reduction of scan times and radiofrequency-induced energy release relative to the standard protocol in pediatric brain tumor MRI.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151332, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743881

RESUMO

Information on the passivation of heavy metals (HMs) by environmental factors and microbial communities during activated carbon (AC) composting remains limited. Thus, this study elucidated the dynamic changes in HM fractions during chicken manure composting after AC amendment at different periods (initial period: T1, thermophilic period: T2, cooling period: T3). Compared with the initial stage, organic matter concentrations in the control, T1, T2, and T3 groups decreased by 15.9%, 25.8%, 22.6%, and 19.0%, respectively, at the end of composting. The HM-fractions results showed that the passivation sequence of HMs by AC was the highest for Zn, followed by Cu and Pb. AC addition in T2 significantly affected the bacterial community. Variance partitioning analysis indicated that AC accelerated the passivation effect on Zn and Pb by regulating environmental factors, and on Cu by influencing the microbial community. These results are helpful for understanding the mechanism of HM passivation in AC aerobic composting, and are also conducive to the environmentally friendly treatment of livestock and poultry manure.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150662, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597547

RESUMO

For the simultaneous photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), directional charge-transfer channels and efficient separation of photogenerated holes and electrons are important. Herein, a Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalyst, protonated g-C3N4/BiVO4 decorated with wood flour biochar (pCN/WFB/BiVO4), was prepared through a hydrothermal reaction and electrostatic self-assembly for Cr(VI) photoreduction and RhB photodegradation. The morphological features, crystalline structure, chemical composition, optical properties, specific surface area, and photoelectrochemical properties of the prepared samples were investigated. The pCN/WFB/BiVO4 photocatalyst exhibited superior removal performance when used to remove Cr(VI) and RhB separately or RhB-Cr(VI) system. The biochar bridge served as a charge-transfer channel between two semiconductors, and the electrons in protonated g-C3N4 (pCN) and BiVO4 achieved a charge balance. This led to the formation of a Z-scheme heterojunction, fast photogenerated charge separation, and a powerful redox ability. The pCN/WFB/BiVO4 photocatalyst provides new insight into the mechanisms responsible for boosting multicomponent photocatalytic reactions, while constituting a promising candidate for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Farinha , Madeira , Catálise , Carvão Vegetal , Cromo , Rodaminas
9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 159: 112768, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906652

RESUMO

As widespread contaminants, fumonisins (FBs) and ochratoxins (OTs) in food may cause public health threat. In this study, the dietary exposures to FBs and OTs in the Chinese general population were investigated by means of a total diet study (TDS) approach. A total of 672 composite dietary samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in three consecutive China total diet studies from 2007 to 2020. Combining with the national consumption data, estimated dietary exposure to FBs and OTs were assessed and compared with health-based guidance values (HBGVs). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of FBs were 55-237 ng/kg bw/day at the upper bound accounting 2.77%-17.4% of provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Cereals were the greatest contributor to fumonisin exposure. For ochratoxin A (OTA), the EDIs were 0.65-5.72 ng/kg bw/day at the upper bound accounting 4.67%-40.8% of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). Although the estimated exposures were well below their respective HBGVs in general, they were found to exceed HBGVs in sporadic regions. Moreover, there was a remarkable increase in the dietary exposure to fumonisin B3 (FB3) and ochratoxin B (OTB) over the last decade that is worth further attention.

10.
Nano Lett ; 22(1): 263-270, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905368

RESUMO

Nonuniform Li deposition causes dendrites and low Coulombic efficiency (CE), seriously hindering the practical applications of Li metal. Herein, we developed an artificial solid-state interphase (SEI) with planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the surface of Li metal anodes by a facile in situ formation technology. The resultant dihydroxyviolanthron (DHV) layers serve as the protective layer to stabilize the SEI. In addition, the oxygen-containing functional groups in the soft and conformal SEI film can regulate the diffusion and transport of Li ions to homogenize the deposition of Li metal. The artificial SEI significantly improves the CEs and shows superior cyclability of over 1000 h at 4 mAh cm-2. The LiFePO4/Li cell (2.8 mAh cm-2) enables a long cyclability for 300 cycles and high CEs of 99.8%. This work offers a new strategy to inhibit Li dendrite growth and enlightens the design on stable SEI for metal anodes.

11.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(3): 655-660, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380907

RESUMO

The dying-back hypothesis holds that the damage to neuromuscular junctions and distal axons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis occurs at the earliest stage of the disease. Previous basic studies have confirmed early damage to neuromuscular junctions, but it is difficult to obtain such evidence directly in clinical practice. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 22 patients with early amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with disease duration < 12 months and with clinical symptoms limited to the upper limbs. We also recruited 32 healthy controls. Repetitive nerve stimulation was performed, and patients were followed for 12 months. We found a significant change in the response to repetitive nerve stimulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients without spontaneous electromyographic activity. Patients that were prone to denervation had an increased decrement response of target muscles after repetitive nerve stimulation. These results suggest that changes in response to repetitive nerve stimulation may occur before denervation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The damage to lower motor neurons is more obvious in patients with a higher percentage of repetitive never stimulation-related amplitude decrements. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Peking University Third Hospital (approval No. M2017198) on August 24, 2017.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852199

RESUMO

Manganese(III/IV) oxide minerals are known to spontaneously degrade organic pollutants in nature. However, the kinetics are too slow to be useful for engineered water treatment processes. Herein, we demonstrate that nanoscale Mn3O4 particles under nanoscale spatial confinement (down to 3-5 nm) can significantly accelerate the kinetics of pollutant degradation, nearly 3 orders of magnitude faster compared to the same reaction in the unconfined bulk phase. We first employed an anodized aluminum oxide scaffold with uniform channel dimensions for experimental and computational studies. We found that the observed kinetic enhancement resulted from the increased surface area of catalysts exposed to the reaction, as well as the increased local proton concentration at the Mn3O4 surface and subsequent acceleration of acid-catalyzed reactions even at neutral pH in bulk. We further demonstrate that a reactive Mn3O4-functionalized ceramic ultrafiltration membrane, a more suitable scaffold for realistic water treatment, achieved nearly complete removal of various phenolic and aniline pollutants, operated under a common ultrafiltration water flux. Our findings mark an important advance toward the development of catalytic membranes that can degrade pollutants in addition to their intrinsic function as a physical separation barrier, especially since they are based on accelerating natural catalytic pathways that do not require any chemical addition.

13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; : 113112, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865856

RESUMO

In recent years, the microplastics (MPs) pollution in the offshore of microplastics has gradually become a concerning topic, and the understanding the accumulation of MPs in different tissues of organisms is also an important aspect. MPs can easily affect target tissues and transport related chemicals to humans through the food chain. MPs in the gills and guts of fish in the artificial reef area of Haizhou Bay and adjacent waters were detected in this study. The results showed that MPs were ubiquitous in the gills and guts of 26 species, with average quantities of 3.54 ± 2.14 pieces/fish and 3.00 ± 2.63 pieces/fish, respectively. More than 99% of the plastics were MPs that were less than 5 mm in diameter, with blue fiber being the most common. The number and quantity of MPs in gills were higher than those in guts in different habitat types, living water layers and feeding habits of fish. At the community level, as the body length and body weight increased, the quantity of MPs in the gills and guts showed a slight decreasing trend, and the correlation was not strong (P > 0.05). With increasing trophic levels (TLs), MPs were biomagnified in the guts (Trophic magnification factor, TMF = 1.37), but no change occurred in the gills (TMF = 1.00). We believe that biomagnification of MPs should be obtained by comparing the quantity of MPs in whole organisms rather than only in specific tissues before such conclusions can be defined. We recommend that periodic marine monitoring programs be implemented, as well as research into smaller MPs and even nanoplastics, to assess from the perspective of water, sediments, organisms and ecotoxicology, which will provide useful information for MPs pollution in artificial reefs and help to improve the MPs pollution database in China.

14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 758010, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869670

RESUMO

With the development of anti-tumor drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are an indispensable part of targeted therapy. They can be superior to traditional chemotherapeutic drugs in selectivity, safety, and efficacy. However, they have been found to be associated with serious adverse effects in use, such as myocardial infarction, fluid retention, hypertension, and rash. Although TKIs induced arrhythmia with a lower incidence than other cardiovascular diseases, much clinical evidence indicated that adequate attention and management should be provided to patients. This review focuses on QT interval prolongation and atrial fibrillation (AF) which are conveniently monitored in clinical practice. We collected data about TKIs, and analyzed the molecule mechanism, discussed the actual clinical evidence and drug-drug interaction, and provided countermeasures to QT interval prolongation and AF. We also pooled data to show that both QT prolongation and AF are related to their multi-target effects. Furthermore, more than 30 TKIs were approved by the FDA, but most of the novel drugs had a small sample size in the preclinical trial and risk/benefit assessments were not perfect, which led to a suspension after listing, like nilotinib. Similarly, vandetanib exhibits the most significant QT prolongation and ibrutinib exhibits the highest incidence in AF, but does not receive enough attention during treatment.

15.
Res Sq ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873596

RESUMO

Advances in biomedicine are largely fueled by exploring uncharted territories of human biology. Machine learning can both enable and accelerate discovery, but faces a fundamental hurdle when applied to unseen data with distributions that differ from previously observed ones-a common dilemma in scientific inquiry. We have developed a new deep learning framework, called Portal Learning, to explore dark chemical and biological space. Three key, novel components of our approach include: (i) end-to-end, step-wise transfer learning, in recognition of biology's sequence-structure-function paradigm, (ii) out-of-cluster meta-learning, and (iii) stress model selection. Portal Learning provides a practical solution to the out-of-distribution (OOD) problem in statistical machine learning. Here, we have implemented Portal Learning to predict chemicalprotein interactions on a genome-wide scale. Systematic studies demonstrate that Portal Learning can effectively assign ligands to unexplored gene families (unknown functions), versus existing state-of-the-art methods. Compared with AlphaFold2-based protein-ligand docking, Portal Learning significantly improved the performance by 79% in PR-AUC and 27% in ROC-AUC, respectively. The superior performance of Portal Learning allowed us to target previously "undruggable" proteins and design novel polypharmacological agents for disrupting interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins. Portal Learning is general-purpose and can be further applied to other areas of scientific inquiry.

17.
Environ Pollut ; : 118649, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902527

RESUMO

Research on food web structures in marine ecosystems is an important field in ecology where the interaction of structure and function contributes to understanding biodiversity. The coastal waters of Jiangsu are one of the important fishing bases in China. In recent years, with the development of industry in the coastal waters of Jiangsu, heavy metal (HM) pollution in this region has become more serious. In this study, all samples (including macroalgae, bivalves, cephalopods, gastropods, crustaceans and fish) were collected in the coastal waters of Jiangsu in spring, summer and autumn. Based on the construction of the food web structure using carbon and nitrogen isotope technology, the main methods of material circulation and energy flow were quantified, and the accumulation regularity and seasonal variation characteristics of HMs in the food web were analysed. The results showed that (1) among all the trophic groups, bivalves had the highest enrichment level of HMs, while fish had the lowest. However, fish have a strong ability to enrich Hg, and the main source of Hg enrichment in the human body is edible fish, so more attention should be given to Hg concentrations in fish. (2) In spring, the mean HM concentrations of marine organisms in the coastal waters of Jiangsu were Zn > Cu > As > Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni > Hg, and they were Zn > Cu > As > Pb > Cd > Ni > Cr > Hg in summer and Zn > Cu > As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Ni > Hg in autumn. In total, the concentrations of Zn, Cu and As were the highest, while the mean concentration of Hg in organisms was the lowest. (3) No significant biomagnification of HMs was found in the three seasons. We speculated that overfishing leads to miniaturization and a younger age of organisms, which makes the concentration of highly enriched HMs in organisms with high trophic levels (TLs) lower.

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 739085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950065

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of using the Internet on depression symptoms of older Chinese, based on 7,801 adults aged over 60 years from the 2018 China Family Panel Studies. Results showed that the elderly who used the Internet reported lower depression scores, and the more frequent they use Internet, the lower their depression scores. Moreover, using the Internet for social contact and entertainment decreased the depression scores of the older adults, but when using Internet for learn, work, and commercial activity, the relief of depressive symptoms disappeared. Therelief of depression symptoms through Internet use were heterogeneous among different groups: the elderly aged 60-70, women, rural residents, and those with lower education attainment. Moreover, Internet use decreased the depression scores by increasing the frequency of contact with their children and increasing the importance of their enjoyment of life. According to the relief of depression by using Internet reasonably, policies should be designed to ensure that all ages could have easy access to the Internet.

19.
Front Sociol ; 6: 675968, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950729

RESUMO

There is little literature on the impact of donation on individual wellbeing in China. This study examines individual donations in China to answer the question of whether helping others makes us happier and to provide policy implications for in Chinese context. Based on the 2012 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) data and using ordered logit and OLS as benchmark models, this study finds that donation can significantly increase individual happiness. After using propensity score matching (PSM) to eliminate the possible impact of self-selection, the above conclusion remains robust. After a sub-sample discussion, it is found that this effect is more pronounced under completely voluntary donation behavior, and is not affected by economic factors, indicating that the happiness effect of donation does not vary significantly depending on the individual's economic status. This study contributes to the literature on donation behavior by examining the impact of donation behavior on donors' subjective happiness in China, and further identifies subjective happiness differences, as between voluntary and involuntary donations, thereby providing theoretical and empirical support for the formulation of policies for the development of donation institutions in China.

20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(21): 5627-5640, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951216

RESUMO

This study investigated the differential mechanisms of Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in improving diabetes in mice through AMPK-mediated NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. The diabetic mouse model was established with high-fat diet coupled with streptozotocin(STZ, intraperitoneal injection, 100 mg·kg~(-1), once a day for three consecutive days), after which the mice were randomly divided into model group, low-dose(5 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(15 g·kg~(-1)) Rehmanniae Radix groups, low-dose(5 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(15 g·kg~(-1)) Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata groups, catalpol group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(5-HMF) group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), metformin group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), with the normal group also set. The organ indexes of heart,liver, spleen, lung, kidney and pancreas were calculated after four weeks of administration. The pathological changes and fibrosis of pancreas, kidney and liver in mice were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Masson staining. Western blot was used to determine the expression levels of Toll-like receptor-4(TLR4), nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB), Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3),interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK) in the pancreas, kidney and liver of mice. Compared with the model group, the administration groups witnessed significant decrease in the liver,spleen, kidney, pancreas and fat indexes of diabetic mice, and there was no significant difference in heart and lung indexes. The pathological states and fibrosis of pancreatic, kidney and liver tissues were significantly improved after administration. Additionally, the expression levels of TLR4, NF-κB and NLRP3 in pancreas, kidney and liver of diabetic mice were significantly lowered. The expression levels of p-AMPK/AMPK were enhanced significantly in kidney and liver of mice in Rehmanniae Radix group while in pancreas, kidney and liver in Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata group. This suggests that Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata differ in the mechanism of regulating energy metabolism of multiple organs and thereby exerting anti-inflammatory effects to alleviate symptoms of diabetic mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , NF-kappa B , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Extratos Vegetais , Rehmannia , Transdução de Sinais , Estreptozocina
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