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1.
Int J Mol Med ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236565

RESUMO

A long noncoding RNA called small nucleolar RNA host gene 14 (SNHG14) has been validated as a key regulator of cellular processes in multiple types of human cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, the expression status and specific roles of SNHG14 in retinoblastoma (RB) have not been studied. The aims of the present study were to determine the expression status of SNHG14 in RB, assess the effects of SNHG14 on malignant characteristics of RB cells and investigate the mechanisms of action of SNHG14 in RB. SNHG14 expression levels in RB tissue samples and cell lines were measured by reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT­qPCR). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo were quantitated by the Cell Counting Kit­8 assay, flow cytometry, migration and invasion assays, and mouse tumor xenograft experiments, respectively. The target microRNA (miRNA) of SNHG14 was predicted by bioinformatics analysis and was subsequently validated by a luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay, RT­qPCR, and western blot analysis. SNHG14 was identified to be significantly overexpressed in RB tissues and cell lines. SNHG14 overexpression was markedly associated with the intraocular international retinoblastoma classification stage, optic nerve invasion, and differentiation grade among patients with RB. The patients in the SNHG14 high­expression group exhibited shorter overall survival compared with the SNHG14 low­expression group. Functional analysis revealed that SNHG14 silencing inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis in vitro, and decreased tumor growth in vivo. SNHG14 directly interacted with, and functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of, miR­124, consequently upregulating signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). miR­124 inhibition and STAT3 expression recovery attenuated the effects of the SNHG14 silencing on RB cells. In conclusion, SNHG14 served as a ceRNA to upregulate STAT3 by sponging miR­124. Therefore, targeting the SNHG14/miR­124/STAT3 pathway may be an effective therapeutic strategy against RB.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 149: 532-540, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004606

RESUMO

This research displayed the structures and thermomechanical feature of starch-based nanocomposites as induced by interaction between propionylated amylose/amylopectin and nanofiller (organically modified montmorillonite). Propionylated amylose incorporated with nanofiller caused some phase separation within the nanocomposites. By contrast, highly-branched propionylated amylopectin favored nanofiller dispersion and disrupted its crystalline structure, and further facilitated certain exfoliated or intercalated structures. Based on these structures, propionylated amylose-rich nanocomposites showed enhanced ß-relaxation in the induced "plasticizer-rich" regions, whereas the propionylated amylopectin nanocomposites displayed higher glass-transition temperature due to restricted macromolecular mobility. These results suggested that the structures and further packaging properties of starch-based nanocomposites could be better understood by controlling the interaction of starch with other ingredients.

3.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693229

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a type of malignant cancer that has become particularly prevalent worldwide. It is of crucial importance to CRC treatment that the underlying molecular mechanism of CRC progression is determined. The NRAS gene is an important small G protein that is involved in various biological processes, including cancers. NRAS is an oncogene in many neoplasms but its function and regulation in CRC have seldom been investigated. In this study, it was uncovered that the NRAS protein was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues. According to a bioinformatics prediction, we identified that miR-144 may target NRAS to suppress its expression. In vitro experiments indicated that miR-144 decreased NRAS expression in different CRC cell lines (SW480, LoVo, and Caco2). By inhibiting NRAS, miR-144 repress SW480 cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, miR-144 decelerated the growth of SW480 xenograft tumors in vivo by targeting NRAS. In summary, our results identified a novel miR-144-NRAS axis in CRC that could promote the research and treatment of CRC.

5.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8673-8682, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726010

RESUMO

Metalenses, planar lenses realized by placing subwavelength nanostructures that locally impart lenslike phase shifts to the incident light, are promising as a replacement for refractive optics for their ultrathin, lightweight, and tailorable characteristics, especially for applications where payload is of significant importance. However, the requirement of fabricating up to billions of subwavelength structures for centimeter-scale metalenses can constrain size-scalability and mass-production for large lenses. In this Letter, we demonstrate a centimeter-scale, all-glass metalens capable of focusing and imaging at visible wavelength, using deep-ultraviolet (DUV) projection stepper lithography. Here, we show size-scalability and potential for mass-production by fabricating 45 metalenses of 1 cm diameter on a 4 in. fused-silica wafer. The lenses show diffraction-limited focusing behavior for any homogeneously polarized incidence at visible wavelengths. The metalens' performance is quantified by the Strehl ratio and the modulation transfer function (MTF), which are then compared with commercial refractive spherical and aspherical singlet lenses of similar size and focal length. We further explore the imaging capabilities of our metalens using a color-pixel sCMOS camera and scanning-imaging techniques, demonstrating potential applications for virtual reality (VR) devices or biological imaging techniques.

6.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 66(6): 962-976, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486127

RESUMO

Wild-type Escherichia coli MG1655 usually does not accumulate l-threonine. In this study, the effects of 13 genes related to the glucose uptake, glycolysis, TCA cycle, l-threonine biosynthesis, or their regulation on l-threonine accumulation in E. coli MG1655 were investigated. Sixteen E. coli mutant strains were constructed by chromosomal deletion or overexpression of one or more genes of rsd, ptsG, ptsH, ptsI, crr, galP, glk, iclR, and gltA; the plasmid pFW01-thrA*BC-rhtC harboring the key genes for l-threonine biosynthesis and secretion was introduced into these mutants. The analyses on cell growth, glucose consumption, and l-threonine production of these recombinant strains showed that most of these strains could accumulate l-threonine, and the highest yield was obtained in WMZ016/pFW01-thrA*BC-rhtC. WMZ016 was derived from MG1655 by deleting crr and iclR and enhancing the expression of gltA. WMZ016/pFW01-thrA*BC-rhtC could produce 17.98 g/L l-threonine with a yield of 0.346 g/g glucose, whereas the control strain MG1655/pFW01-thrA*BC-rhtC could only produce 0.68 g/L l-threonine. In addition, WMZ016/pFW01-thrA*BC-rhtC could tolerate the high concentration of glucose and produced no detectable by-products; therefore, it should be an ideal platform strain for further development. The results indicate that manipulating the glucose uptake and TCA cycle could efficiently increase l-threonine production in E. coli.

7.
FEBS Lett ; 593(16): 2118-2138, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234227

RESUMO

Laboratory mice are standardly housed at around 23 °C, setting them under chronic cold stress. Metabolic changes in the liver in mice housed at thermoneutral, standard and cold temperatures remain unknown. In the present study, we isolated lipid droplets and mitochondria from their livers in a comparative proteomic study aiming to investigate the changes. According to proteomic analysis, mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and retinol metabolism are enhanced, whereas oxidative phosphorylation is not affected obviously under cold conditions, suggesting that liver mitochondria may increase TCA cycle capacity in biosynthetic pathways, as well as retinol metabolism, to help the liver to adapt. Based on proteomic and immunoblotting results, perilipin 5 and major urinary proteins are increased significantly, whereas mitochondrial pyruvate carrier is decreased dramatically under cold conditions, indicating their involvement in liver adaptation.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 118-130, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176811

RESUMO

Marine submerged aquatic angiosperms (seagrasses) are declining globally. The species Zostera japonica Asch. & Graebn. is endangered in its native range in Asia, but has been successfully introduced to North America. A large area (1031.8 ha) of Z. japonica meadow has recently been discovered in the intertidal zone of Yellow River Delta, China. This seagrass occurs along both sides of the river mouth, forming dense meadows in turbid water conditions. Seasonal investigations over two years were conducted to examine the distribution, biomass, seed reproduction, seed bank, and population recruitment of the seagrass meadows at three sites in the intertidal zone. The meadows generally showed relatively high coverage, biomass, reproductive effort, and seed production in August. The seed bank was found to be large and contributed to population recruitment. There were significant inter-annual variations overall, and at individual sites. These variations are likely due to winter temperatures, which determine the abundance of overwintering shoots and seedling success. Differences in micro-topography may also play a role in producing variations in seedling success between sites. Microsatellite analysis revealed a high genetic exchange between the two sides of the river mouth. The results indicate that the seagrass bed in the Yellow River Delta shallow waters is in good condition, which can be attributed to its location within a national nature reserve. Establishment of protected areas might act as an effective way to mitigate the anthropogenic disturbance, conserve the seagrass meadows, and then enhance critical ecosystem functions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Zosteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , China , Pradaria , Rios
9.
Arch Med Sci ; 15(3): 738-753, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110542

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of the study was to further explore the pathogenesis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), gene-sequencing was used to analyze the differentially expressed circRNAs in exosomes of patients with IMN, which may lay the foundation for the research of circRNAs as a new class of exosome-based IMN diagnosis biomarkers. Material and methods: Ten patients with IMN and ten normal controls were recruited as experimental subjects in our study. The exosomes were extracted from the collected serum and urine. Then, pure circRNAs were extracted from the exosomes with a series of enzymatic reactions. Afterwards, the significantly differentially expressed circRNAs were chosen by the method of gene-sequencing. Results: Compared with normal controls, the circRNAs were reduced in the exosomes from serum of patients with IMN, which mostly originated from intron gene regions. Meanwhile, a total of 89 circRNAs were significantly differentially expressed, which were also mostly derived from intron gene regions, including 49 up-regulated and 40 down-regulated genes. However, the species were increased in the exosomes from the urine of patients with IMN compared to normal controls, and they mainly originated from exon gene regions. Simultaneously, 60 circRNAs were significantly differentially expressed, which primarily belonged to intron gene regions, including 54 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated regions. Conclusions: The significant differential and specific expression of circRNAs in the exosomes from patients with IMN were observed. For example, MUC3A, which originated from chr7:100550808|100551062, could be considered a potential diagnostic biomarker of IMN. Furthermore, these figures may be used as a reference or supplement in the research of the pathogenesis of IMN.

10.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(2)2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30960325

RESUMO

Starch-based materials with reinforced properties were considered as one of the most promising materials to replace the petro-based packaging products, and actually, the molecular structures of starch usually determined the structures and properties of end-used starchy products. Here, starch-based nanocomposites were fabricated by starch esters derived from native starches with different amylose contents and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). The fractured surface under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibited wrinkles formed by macromolecular aggregation owing to the interaction competition between the plasticizer and nanofiller with the starch ester. The more intense interaction within amylopectin-rich films promoted the formation of much randomly exfoliation of OMMT observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As the amylose content increased, the interaction between the starch ester and the nanofiller was weakened, leading to the dispersion morphology of an ordered arrangement and partly intercalated structures in the dimension of 12.92 to 19.77 nm. Meanwhile, such interaction also affected both the inner ordered structure integrity of starch ester and the layer structure consistency of nanofiller according to X-ray diffraction results. Further, the stronger interaction between amylopectin and the nanofiller endowed higher thermal stability to the amylopectin-rich starch-based nanocomposites. In short, these results are beneficial for the application of starch-based nanocomposites in the food packaging industry by regulating the interaction between starch and nanofillers.

11.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 13: 310-320, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923728

RESUMO

TALE has always had potential as a gene-editing and regulatory tool. However, with the advent of CRISPR/Cas9, an easier to use tool with the same function, TALE has recently been abandoned because of the time-consuming and low-efficiency process required for its construction. The off-target activity of CRISPR/Cas9 has been a challenge to its in vivo application. By contrast, TALE has been applied in vivo for gene editing and therapy because of its high targeting capability. To overcome the key limitation of the TALE technique, we developed a high-efficiency method for constructing custom TALEs. We created 62 new monomers and developed a new pipeline that enabled assembly of custom TALEs in just 1 day. We verified the new method by assembling nine TALEs targeting the promoters of two transcription factor genes: HNF4α and E47. The expression of the two endogenous genes in two cancer cells, HepG2 and PANC1, was activated by the constructed TALEs, which promoted differentiation of the two cancer cells. Using the new method, custom TALEs can be generated as easily and rapidly as CRISPR, thus promoting the wide application of TALE-based techniques.

12.
Protoplasma ; 256(2): 471-490, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244382

RESUMO

Melatonin (MT), derived from tryptophan, is an amazing signaling molecule with multiple functions in plants. Heat stress (HS) induced by high temperature is a major stress factor that limits metabolism, growth, development, and productivity of plants. However, whether MT could enhance the thermotolerance of maize seedlings and the underlying mechanisms is not completely known. In this study, treatment of maize seedlings with MT enhanced the survival percentage of maize seedlings under HS conditions, mitigated an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, product of membrane lipid peroxidation) and electrolyte leakage, and improved tissue vitality compared with the control without MT treatment, indicating that MT treatment could enhance the theromotolerance of maize seedlings. To understand the mechanisms underlying MT-enhanced thermotolerance of maize seedlings, the antioxidant defense (guaiacol peroxidease: GPX; glutathione reductase: GR; catalase: CAT; ascorbic acid: AsA; and glutathione: GSH), methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification (glyoxalase I: Gly I; and glyoxalase II: Gly II), and osmoregulation (proline: Pro; trehalose: Tre; and total soluble sugar: TSS) systems were assayed. The results showed that MT treatment stimulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GPX, GR, and CAT) and MG detoxification enzymes (Gly I and Gly II), increased the contents of nonenzyme antioxidants (AsA and GSH) and osmolytes (Pro, Tre, and TSS) in maize seedlings under normal culture conditions, and maintained a higher abovementioned enzyme activity and antioxidant and osmolyte contents under HS conditions compared with the control. This work reported that MT could enhance the thermotolerance of maize seedlings by modulating the antioxidant defense, MG detoxification, and osmoregulation systems.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Plântula/química , Zea mays/química , Melatonina/farmacologia , Osmorregulação , Termotolerância
13.
J Biotechnol ; 290: 10-15, 2019 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496777

RESUMO

Yarrowia lipolytica has been used to produce both citric acid and lipid-based bioproducts at high titers. In this study, we found that pH differentially affects citric acid and lipid production in Y. lipolytica W29, with citric acid production enhanced at more neutral pH's and lipid production enhanced at more acid pH's. To determine the mechanism governing this pH-dependent switch between citric acid and lipid production, we profiled gene expression at different pH's and found that the relative expression of multiple transporters is increased at neutral pH. These results suggest that this pH-dependent switch is mediated at the level of citric acid transport rather than changes in the expression of the enzymes involved in citric acid and lipid metabolism. In further support of this mechanism, thermodynamic calculations suggest that citric acid secretion is more energetically favorable at neutral pH's, assuming the fully protonated acid is the substrate for secretion. Collectively, these results provide new insights regarding citric acid and lipid production in Y. lipolytica and may offer new strategies for metabolic engineering and process design.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/análise , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipídeos/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Yarrowia/fisiologia
14.
Arch Med Sci ; 14(5): 1102-1111, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154894

RESUMO

Introduction: To analyze the microRNA expression of tumor necrosi factor α (TNF-α) stimulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and exosomes from their culture supernatant. Material and methods: TNF-α (20 ng/ml) was used to stimulate MSCs, which were then regarded as TNF-α cells (TC), while unstimulated cells were the normal control cells (NCC). MSCs and their culture supernatant were harvested after 48 h. Subsequently, exosomes were isolated from culture supernatants with ExoQuick-TC and were divided into two groups, TNF-α exosomes (TE) and normal control exosomes (NCE). Then, the microRNAs were measured by high-throughput sequencing and the results were differentially analyzed. Finally, the correlation of the target genes corresponding to differently expressed microRNAs was analyzed by gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis. Results: High-throughput sequencing showed that the cellular compartment (TC vs. NCC) had 280 microRNAs. miR-146a-5p was a uniquely up-regulated microRNA (p < 0.001) and the most significantly down-regulated microRNA among the 279 microRNAs included was miR-150-5p (p < 0.001). There were 180 differentially expressed microRNAs in the exosome compartment (TE vs. NCE), where miR-146-5p (p < 0.001) was one of 176 upregulated microRNAs and miR-203b-5p (p < 0.001) was one of 4 downregulated microRNAs. Coincidentally, bioinformatics analysis showed that IRAK1 was a critical target gene of miR-146-5p related to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. Conclusions: In contrast with the control group, there were significantly differentially expressed microRNAs in both MSCs and exosomes. Interestingly, miR-146a-5p was up-regulated in both comparative groups, and its target gene IRAK1 plays a crucial part in the TLR signaling pathway. These investigations demonstrate a new direction for subsequent inflammation mechanistic studies.

15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(3): 1278-1285, 2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965474

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to investigate the change of biofilm characteristics when implementing the procedure of partial nitrification. A ratio control strategy (DO/NH4+-N) was taken to achieve partial nitrification, and biofilm samples were obtained at 10.27%, 52.12%, and 93.54% of the nitrite accumulation rate. The amount and spatial distribution of total bacteria, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and nitrite oxidative bacteria (NOB) were observed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) through a three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (EEM) to observe the secretion and composition changes of extracellular polymer substances. Ratio control successfully enriched AOB and achieved partial nitrification under conditions when NOB was not completely washed. Heterotrophic bacteria and nitrifying bacteria coexist in the biofilm. The heterotrophic bacteria were in the outer layer, but nitrifying bacteria were distributed in the biofilm surface at 6-25 µm. During the process of short-range nitrification, the AOB/NOB value gradually increased, and the stable operation period was as high as 15.56. During the operation of the reactor, EPS and microbial flora changes are closely related. When microbial activity decreased, EPS secretion decreased. During the stable operation period of partial nitrification, NOB and other bacteria that are non-resistant to high nitrite nitrous acid declined, and the fluorescence intensity of aromatic protein-like bacteria decreased. However, the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the chemical composition of EPS was not obvious during the process of partial nitrification.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrificação , Nitritos/isolamento & purificação , Amônia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Microscopia Confocal
16.
Arch Virol ; 163(10): 2899-2902, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872952

RESUMO

Two double-stranded RNA viruses, named Culex tritaeniorhynchus totivirus NJ2 (CTV_NJ2) and NJ3 (CTV_NJ3), were discovered from wild-captured Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. The complete genomes (7,624 and 7,612 bp in length) were obtained using RNA sequencing. Both CTV_NJ2 and CTV_NJ3 encode a putative capsid protein and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The most similar strain to CTV_NJ2/3 is Omono River virus strain AK4 (ORV-AK4). The CP and RdRp identities of AK4 are different to CTV_NJ2 (84% and 87%) and CTV_NJ3 (47% and 62%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that taxonomically speaking CTV_NJ2/3 grouped within the unclassified Totiviridae and formed a distinct clade with other arthropod-infecting viruses.


Assuntos
Culex/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Totiviridae , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Filogenia , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Totiviridae/classificação , Totiviridae/genética , Totiviridae/isolamento & purificação
17.
Sci Adv ; 4(2): eaap9957, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507880

RESUMO

Focal adjustment and zooming are universal features of cameras and advanced optical systems. Such tuning is usually performed longitudinally along the optical axis by mechanical or electrical control of focal length. However, the recent advent of ultrathin planar lenses based on metasurfaces (metalenses), which opens the door to future drastic miniaturization of mobile devices such as cell phones and wearable displays, mandates fundamentally different forms of tuning based on lateral motion rather than longitudinal motion. Theory shows that the strain field of a metalens substrate can be directly mapped into the outgoing optical wavefront to achieve large diffraction-limited focal length tuning and control of aberrations. We demonstrate electrically tunable large-area metalenses controlled by artificial muscles capable of simultaneously performing focal length tuning (>100%) as well as on-the-fly astigmatism and image shift corrections, which until now were only possible in electron optics. The device thickness is only 30 µm. Our results demonstrate the possibility of future optical microscopes that fully operate electronically, as well as compact optical systems that use the principles of adaptive optics to correct many orders of aberrations simultaneously.

18.
Opt Express ; 26(2): 1573-1585, 2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402031

RESUMO

Optical components, such as lenses, have traditionally been made in the bulk form by shaping glass or other transparent materials. Recent advances in metasurfaces provide a new basis for recasting optical components into thin, planar elements, having similar or better performance using arrays of subwavelength-spaced optical phase-shifters. The technology required to mass produce them dates back to the mid-1990s, when the feature sizes of semiconductor manufacturing became considerably denser than the wavelength of light, advancing in stride with Moore's law. This provides the possibility of unifying two industries: semiconductor manufacturing and lens-making, whereby the same technology used to make computer chips is used to make optical components, such as lenses, based on metasurfaces. Using a scalable metasurface layout compression algorithm that exponentially reduces design file sizes (by 3 orders of magnitude for a centimeter diameter lens) and stepper photolithography, we show the design and fabrication of metasurface lenses (metalenses) with extremely large areas, up to centimeters in diameter and beyond. Using a single two-centimeter diameter near-infrared metalens less than a micron thick fabricated in this way, we experimentally implement the ideal thin lens equation, while demonstrating high-quality imaging and diffraction-limited focusing.

19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 181: 528-535, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254003

RESUMO

This work discloses the multi-level structure and thermal behaviors of hydrophobic, propionylated starch-based films as affected by the amylose contents of starch materials used. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that amylose promoted the formation of more compact structure within the film matrices. Also, small and wide angle X-ray scattering analysis revealed that higher amylose content was preferable for the formation of new orders on nanoscale and crystallites. With these structural changes, the viscoelasticity of amorphous short chains was enhanced and the glass transition temperature was reduced by the increased amylose content; but the depolymerization of macromolecules and the decomposition of molecular bonds were postponed, since the increase in starch crystallites restricted the motion of adjacent amorphous regions. Hence, this work provides valuable information for rational design of hydrophobic starch-based films with desired thermal features by simply regulating the amylose content of starch raw materials.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16614, 2017 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192203

RESUMO

The Endangered Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) is one of the most culturally iconic and sought-after species by wildlife tourists. Here we investigate how the presence of tourists influence the vigilance behaviour of cranes foraging in Suaeda salsa salt marshes and S. salsa/Phragmites australis mosaic habitat in the Yellow River Delta, China. We found that both the frequency and duration of crane vigilance significantly increased in the presence of wildlife tourists. Increased frequency in crane vigilance only occurred in the much taller S. salsa/P. australis mosaic vegetation whereas the duration of vigilance showed no significant difference between the two habitats. Crane vigilance declined with increasing distance from wildlife tourists in the two habitats, with a minimum distance of disturbance triggering a high degree of vigilance by cranes identified at 300 m. The presence of wildlife tourists may represent a form of disturbance to foraging cranes but is habitat dependent. Taller P. australis vegetation serves primarily as a visual obstruction for cranes, causing them to increase the frequency of vigilance behaviour. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of the migratory red-crowned crane population that winters in the Yellow River Delta and can help inform visitor management.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comportamento Animal , Aves , Ecossistema , Atividades Humanas , Animais , China
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