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1.
Bioact Mater ; 22: 518-534, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330162

RESUMO

Transplanting cell cultured brown adipocytes (BAs) represents a promising approach to prevent and treat obesity (OB) and its associated metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, transplanted BAs have a very low survival rate in vivo. The enzymatic dissociation during the harvest of fully differentiated BAs also loses significant cells. There is a critical need for novel methods that can avoid cell death during cell preparation, transplantation, and in vivo. Here, we reported that preparing BAs as injectable microtissues could overcome the problem. We found that 3D culture promoted BA differentiation and UCP-1 expression, and the optimal initial cell aggregate size was 100 µm. The microtissues could be produced at large scales via 3D suspension assisted with a PEG hydrogel and could be cryopreserved. Fabricated microtissues could survive in vivo for long term. They alleviated body weight and fat gain and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced OB and T2DM mice. Transplanted microtissues impacted multiple organs, secreted protein factors, and influenced the secretion of endogenous adipokines. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on fabricating human BA microtissues and showing their safety and efficacy in T2DM mice. The proposal of transplanting fabricated BA microtissues, the microtissue fabrication method, and the demonstration of efficacy in T2DM mice are all new. Our results show that engineered 3D human BA microtissues have considerable advantages in product scalability, storage, purity, safety, dosage, survival, and efficacy.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 984503, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425568

RESUMO

Background: The EGFR exon 20 insertions (ex20ins) D770_N771insSVD and V769_D770insASV are most frequent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are associated with intrinsic resistance to currently approved EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A763_Y764insFQEA and D770delinsGY, respectively, account for 3%-8% and 2.0%-4.8% of EGFR ex20ins in NSCLC and are associated with a more favorable response to EGFR-specific TKIs as per case reports. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular structures of these mutants and their binding affinities to diverse EGFR TKIs and compare the clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients harboring these mutations. Methods: A real-world cohort study was conducted to evaluate and compare the clinical outcomes of EGFR TKIs among NSCLC patients with different EGFR ex20ins mutants in response to EGFR TKIs. The structures of A763_Y764insFQEA and D770delinsGY were also analyzed and drug binding simulations were performed. Results: With a median follow-up of 24.0 months, the first-line objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and median progression-free survival (PFS) were, respectively, 0 (0/16), 50.0% (8/16), and 2.07 months (95%CI, 0-6.25) in patients harboring D770_N771insSVD and V769_D770insASV variants and 33.3% (4/12), 83.3% (10/12), and 9.97 months (95%CI, 4.75-15.19) in patients with A763_Y764insFQEA and D770delinsGY variants. There was a significant difference between the PFS of these two subgroups (median, 9.97 vs.2.07 months, HR = 0.33, 95%CI, 0.13-0.85, p = 0.02). Similarly, the PFS was significantly longer after second-line treatment with EGFR TKIs in patients harboring A763_Y764insFQEA and D770delinsGY compared to those with other insertions (median, 6.77 vs.2.23 months, HR = 0.14, p < 0.001). Computational simulations indicated that A763_Y764insFQEA and D770delinsGY mutants were structurally similar to wild-type EGFR. In contrast, the C-helix and phosphate-binding loop of D770_N771insSVD and V769_D770insASV had shifted into the drug-binding pocket, resulting in significant steric hindrance and a lack of affinity for the currently approved EGFR inhibitors. Conclusion: NSCLC patients harboring A763_Y764insFQEA and D770delinsGY insertions of EGFR are responsive to the currently approved EGFR TKIs as opposed to patients with the D770_N771insSVD and V769_D770insASV variants. Therefore, A763_Y764insFQEA and D770delinsGY should be classified as active mutations among heterogeneous EGFR ex20ins subtypes and the carriers can be treated with the suitable EGFR TKIs.

3.
Eur J Health Econ ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using two generic preference-based measures in Chinese patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and identified demographic and clinical determinants of health utility scores in this population. METHODS: This study used cross-sectional data of 212 Chinese patients with SBMA who completed both the EQ-5D and SF-6D. Association between response to EQ-5D and SF-6D dimensions was examined using Spearman's correlation coefficient, and the association between the two utility scores was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The variations in utility scores across patients in different subgroups were compared using one-way ANOVA. Bland-Altman (B-A) plot was used to assess the agreement of utility scores between EQ-5D and SF-6D. A multivariate Tobit regression model was employed to estimate the association between utility scores and the presence of symptoms and chronic conditions. RESULTS: The mean utility scores for the EQ-5D and SF-6D were 0.54 and 0.56, respectively. The hypothesized correlation between the EQ-5D and SF-6D dimensions ranged from 0.31 to 0.58, and the correlation between their utility scores was 0.64. An acceptable agreement between EQ-5D and SF-6D utility scores was identified by B-A plot. Patients with chronic diseases, misdiagnosis, high financial burden, and several clinical symptoms were highly likely to report a low health utility score. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to investigate the HRQoL of patients with SBMA worldwide. The estimated health utility scores for EQ-5D and SF-6D can be utilized as baseline data for future cost-utility analyses of SBMA-related interventions.

4.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 15(11): 1960-1970, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common type of amyloidosis, leading to cardiomyocyte necrosis and interstitial fibrosis. Gallium-68-labeled fibroblast activation protein inhibitor 04 (68Ga-FAPI-04) has recently been introduced for imaging fibroblast activation in cardiac diseases. To date, cardiac fibroblast and cardiac amyloidosis (CA) phenotype activities have not been mapped. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 68Ga-FAPI-04 positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in assessing AL CA. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients (mean age: 59.1 ± 7.7 years; 20 men, 10 women) with biopsy-proven AL amyloidosis were enrolled prospectively (including 27 with AL CA and 3 without AL CA). All patients underwent 68Ga-FAPI-04 PET/CT (107.4 ± 26.5 MBq). Global standardized uptake values and left ventricular (LV) molecular volume were calculated in correlation to echocardiography (n = 30), cardiac magnetic resonance (n = 18), and clinical biomarkers. Subsequently, the patients were categorized as having patchy (PET-patchy), extensive (PET-extensive), and negative (PET-negative) patterns. RESULTS: Of all patients, 80% (24 of 30) showed increased LV uptake (PET-patchy [n = 4] vs PET-extensive [n = 20]), whereas 6 patients did not show visible myocardial uptake. Standardized uptake value ratio and LV molecular volume were significantly higher in the PET-extensive than the PET-patchy group (2.79 mL ± 1.22 mL vs 1.53 mL ± 0.66 mL [P = 0.045] and 198.3 mL ± 59.97 mL vs 127.8 mL ± 25.82 [P = 0.005], respectively). Additionally, 68Ga-FAPI-04 uptake was significantly correlated with clinical biomarkers (Mayo stage and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), LV end-systolic volume, extracellular volume, and LV global strain (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 68Ga-FAPI-04 PET/CT is feasible in detecting myocardial fibroblast activation in patients with AL CA in correlation with myocardial remodeling. It might provide complementary information on cardiac molecular characterization and staging of disease.


Assuntos
Amiloidose , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina , Feminino , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Radioisótopos de Gálio , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Estudos de Viabilidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores , Fibroblastos
5.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317101

RESUMO

Nucleocapsid (N) protein plays crucial roles in the life cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex with the viral RNA. Here we reported the crystal structures of the N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) of the N protein and an NTD-RNA complex. Our structures reveal a unique tetramer organization of NTD and identify a distinct RNA binding mode in the NTD-RNA complex, which could contribute to the formation of the RNP complex. We also screened small molecule inhibitors of N-NTD and N-CTD and discovered that ceftriaxone sodium, an antibiotic, can block the binding of RNA to NTD and inhibit the formation of the RNP complex. These results together could facilitate the further research of antiviral drug design targeting N protein.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 368: 128280, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368492

RESUMO

Biomass pretreatment is considered a key step in the 2nd generation biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. Research on conventional biomass pretreatment solvents has mainly been focused on carbohydrate conversion efficiency, while their hazardousness and/or carbon intensity were not comprehensively considered. Recent sustainability issues request further consideration for eco-friendly and sustainable alternatives like biomass-derived solvents. Carbohydrate and lignin-derived solvents have been proposed and investigated as green alternatives in many biomass processes. In this review, the applications of different types of biomass pretreatment solvents, including organic, ionic liquid, and deep eutectic solvents, are thoroughly discussed. The role of water as a co-solvent in these pretreatment processes is also reviewed. Finally, current research challenges and prospects of utilizing biomass-derived pretreatment solvents for pretreatment are discussed. Given bioethanol's market potential and increasing public awareness about environmental concerns, it will be a priority adopting sustainable and green biomass pretreatment solvents in biorefinery.

7.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 444, 2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that patients recovering after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may have a variety of acute sequelae including newly diagnosed diabetes. However, the risk of diabetes in the post-acute phase is unclear. To solve this question, we aimed to determine if there was any association between status post-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and a new diagnosis of diabetes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies assessing new-onset diabetes after COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were all searched from inception to June 10, 2022. Three evaluators independently extracted individual study data and assessed the risk of bias. Random-effects models estimated the pooled incidence and relative risk (RR) of diabetes compared to non-COVID-19 after COVID-19. RESULTS: Nine studies with nearly 40 million participants were included. Overall, the incidence of diabetes after COVID-19 was 15.53 (7.91-25.64) per 1000 person-years, and the relative risk of diabetes after COVID-19 infection was elevated (RR 1.62 [1.45-1.80]). The relative risk of type 1 diabetes was RR=1.48 (1.26-1.75) and type 2 diabetes was RR=1.70 (1.32-2.19), compared to non-COVID-19 patients. At all ages, there was a statistically significant positive association between infection with COVID-19 and the risk of diabetes: <18 years: RR=1.72 (1.19-2.49), ≥18 years: RR=1.63 (1.26-2.11), and >65 years: RR=1.68 (1.22-2.30). The relative risk of diabetes in different gender groups was about 2 (males: RR=2.08 [1.27-3.40]; females: RR=1.99 [1.47-2.80]). The risk of diabetes increased 1.17-fold (1.02-1.34) after COVID-19 infection compared to patients with general upper respiratory tract infections. Patients with severe COVID-19 were at higher risk (RR=1.67 [1.25-2.23]) of diabetes after COVID-19. The risk (RR=1.95 [1.85-2.06]) of diabetes was highest in the first 3 months after COVID-19. These results remained after taking confounding factors into account. CONCLUSIONS: After COVID-19, patients of all ages and genders had an elevated incidence and relative risk for a new diagnosis of diabetes. Particular attention should be paid during the first 3 months of follow-up after COVID-19 for new-onset diabetes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes
8.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 1-7, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The circle of Willis (COW) is a circulatory anastomosis located at the base of the brain. Little is known about the association between covert vascular brain injury and COW configurations in the general population. We explored this relationship in a community-based Chinese sample. METHODS: A total of 1,055 patients (mean age, 54.8 ± 8.9 years; 36.0% men) without intracranial arterial stenosis were included in the analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate the presence of imaging markers of covert vascular brain injury, including white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), enlarged perivascular spaces, and brain atrophy. Magnetic resonance angiography was used to classify the COW configurations according to the completeness, symmetry, and presence of the fetal posterior cerebral artery (FTP). The association between vascular lesions and variations in COW was analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 1,055 patients, 104 (9.9%) had a complete COW. Completeness correlated with age (p = 0.001). Incomplete COW was positively associated with WMH severity (OR = 2.071; 95% CI, 1.004-4.270) and CMB presence (OR = 1.542; 95% CI, 1.012-2.348), independent of age and sex. The presence of FTP was associated with lacunes (OR = 1.878; 95% CI, 1.069-3.298), more severe WMHs (OR = 1.739; 95% CI, 1.064-2.842), and less severe enlarged perivascular spaces (OR = 0.562; 95% CI, 0.346-0.915). CONCLUSIONS: COW configuration was significantly related to various covert vascular brain injuries.

9.
Thorac Cancer ; 2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represents a breakthrough in the current landscape for the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC), but the real-world outcome is limited. This study aimed to investigate the treatment options and efficacy evaluation of first-line, second-line, and subsequent-line immunotherapy in routine practice. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of ES-SCLC patients treated with ICIs was conducted between May 2016 and September 2021. Objective response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were assessed between groups to explore the value of ICIs at different treatment time periods. PFS1 and PFS2 were defined as the duration from initial therapy to disease progression or death in first-line or second-line treatment. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients with ES-SCLC were included. PFS1 was prolonged in patients treated with first-line ICIs-combined therapy (median PFS1 7.20 months vs. 5.30 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-087, p = 0.0085). For patients who progressed after first-line ICIs treatment (N = 22), PFS1 + PFS2 was longer in the second-line ICIs continuation group with no significant difference (median PFS1 + PFS2 11.27 months vs. 7.20 months, HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.14-1.51, p = 0.19). For patients who experienced a progression event after first-line chemotherapy (N = 50), PFS2 and PFS1 + PFS2 were prolonged in patients who accepted second-line ICIs-combined therapy without significant difference (median PFS2 4.00 months vs. 2.43 months, HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.33-1.05, p = 0.070; median PFS1 + PFS2 11.30 months vs. 8.70 months, HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.98, p = 0.056). CONCLUSION: First-line ICIs plus chemotherapy should be applied in the clinical practice of ES-SCLC. If patients did not receive ICIs plus chemotherapy in first-line treatment, therapies that include ICIs in second-line treatment should be considered.

10.
Thorac Cancer ; 2022 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combined with chemotherapy is one of the standards of care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without driver mutations. However, the biomarker of combination therapy is still unknown. Although previous studies have confirmed that low allele frequency adjusted blood-based tumor mutational burden (LAF-bTMB) is associated with the efficacy of ICI monotherapy, there has been no report on the correlation between the efficacy of LAF-bTMB and ICI combined chemotherapy. This study aimed to explore whether LAF-bTMB can be used as a predictive biomarker for the efficacy of immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. METHODS: This study enrolled patients diagnosed with advanced NSCLC and who received ICI combined with chemotherapy for first-line therapy from May 2020 to December 2021 at Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College. Clinical information, treatment information, survival data, and peripheral blood samples of every patient before treatment were collected. Next-generation sequencing was performed on plasma samples to estimate bTMB and LAF-bTMB. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients with NSCLC were enrolled. In this cohort, 19 patients achieved partial response (PR), and the objective response rate (ORR) was 45.2%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) of all patients was 13.4 months (95% CI, 7.49-19.72). Both PFS and the overall survival (OS) were significantly longer in the responder (R) group than in the non-responder (NR) group (median PFS, 16.4 months vs. 7.2 months, p = 0.028; median OS, NE vs. 9.3 months, p = 0.016). There was no significant difference in bTMB and LAF-BTMB between the R and NR group. The ORR of patients with LAF-bTMB≤8muts/Mb was significantly higher than that of patients with LAF-bTMB >8muts/Mb (ORR, 61% vs. 26%, respectively, p = 0.033). When LAF-bTMB ≤8muts/Mb or > 20muts/Mb, ORR was significantly higher than that of patients with LAF-bTMB between 8 and 20muts/Mb (ORR were 57% and 21%, p = 0.047). No correlation has been found between LAF-bTMB and PFS or OS. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that neither bTMB nor LAF-bTMB is feasible as a potential predictor of first-line immunochemotherapy for advanced NSCLC. More suitable biomarkers need to be explored to screen patients with better efficacy of immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy in the future.

11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 2238985, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193080

RESUMO

Background: D-dimer (DD) has been indicated as a potential indicator due to its connection with the prognosis of the COVID-19 pandemic. Aging is linked to elevated DD levels in coagulation activation. However, few studies have investigated the correlation of DD with prognosis, especially in the old population. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the correlation of DD with prognosis in shock and perioperative populations over 65 years of age. Methods: We analyzed 9261 old patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) with either confirmed shock or in perioperative period of high-risk surgery, with 8813 of them had DD levels determined on admission. In-hospital mortality, length of ICU stay and ventilation time (VT) associated variables were assessed using generalized linear models. Results: Although DD levels had no positive correlations with in-hospital mortality (RR, 1.006; 95% CI, 0.998-1.014) and length of ICU stay (RR, 1.012; 95% CI, 0.997-1.028) in Model 3, they were strongly correlated with VT (RR, 1.577; 95% CI, 1.024-2.064). Higher DD levels in females (RR, 1.804; 95% CI, 1.116-2.602), those who used antibiotics (RR, 1.736; 95% CI, 1.092-2.453), those with surgery (RR, 1.640; 95% CI, 1.273-2.114), and those with shock (RR, 1.740; 95% CI, 1.001-2.687) had stronger correlation with longer VT than the counterparts. While patients who were between 65 and 74 years old (RR, 1.023; 95% CI, 1.003-1.043), with no use of antibiotics (RR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.001-1.013) nor shock (RR, 1.011; 95% CI, 1.002-1.021), but had undergone surgical procedures (RR, 1.030; 95% CI, 1.012-1.048) were correlated with a longer ICU length of stay. Conclusion: DD levels at ICU admission are highly related to increased VT and length of ICU stay in the old population with either confirmed shock or after high-risk surgery, indicating the strong potential of DD as a marker with prognostic utility for all ICU patients in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Choque , Idoso , Antibacterianos , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 1026866, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36312241

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate cardiac pathology in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify associations between pathological changes and clinical characteristics. Methods: The present autopsy cohort study included hearts from 26 deceased patients hospitalized in intensive care units due to COVID-19, and was conducted at four sites in Wuhan, China. Cases were divided into a neutrophil infiltration group and a no-neutrophil group based on the presence or absence of histopathologically identified neutrophilic infiltrates. Results: Among the 26 patients, histopathological examination identified active myocarditis in four patients. All patients with myocarditis exhibited extensive accompanying neutrophil infiltration, and all patients without myocarditis did not. The neutrophil infiltration group exhibited significantly higher rates of detection of interleukin-6 (100 vs. 4.6%) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (100 vs. 31.8%) than the no-neutrophil group (both p < 0.05). On admission, four patients with neutrophil infiltration in myocardium had significantly higher baseline levels of aspartate aminotransferase, D dimer, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein than the other 22 patients (all p < 0.05). During hospitalization, patients with neutrophil infiltration had significantly higher maximum creatine kinase-MB (median 280.0 IU/L vs. 38.7 IU/L, p = 0.04) and higher troponin I (median 1.112 ng/ml vs. 0.220 ng/ml, p = 0.56) than patients without neutrophil infiltration. Conclusion: Active myocarditis was frequently associated with neutrophil infiltration in the hearts of deceased patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with neutrophil-infiltrated myocarditis had a series of severely abnormal laboratory test results on admission, and high maximum creatine kinase-MB during hospitalization. The role of neutrophils in severe heart injury and systemic conditions in patients with COVID-19 should be emphasized.

13.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235666

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to assess the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study based on the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2016 on adults aged ≥20 years. NAFLD was determined as a US Fatty Liver Index score ≥ 30 in the absence of other liver conditions. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to explore the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and mortality. RESULTS: 898 all-cause deaths and 305 cardiovascular deaths were recorded over a median follow-up of 8.7 years. Compared with those in the severe deficiency group (below 25.0 nmol/L), the fully adjusted HRs and 95% CIs of NAFLD patients with sufficient serum 25(OH)D concentrations (≥75.0 nmol/L) were 0.36 (0.22, 0.60) for all-cause mortality and 0.14 (0.07, 0.29) for cardiovascular mortality. Each one-unit increase in the natural log-transformed serum 25(OH)D concentration was related to a 41% lower risk for all-cause deaths (HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.77) and a 65% lower risk for cardiovascular deaths (HR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Among NAFLD patients, increased serum 25(OH)D levels were independently associated with reduced risk for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , Calcifediol , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
14.
J Oncol ; 2022: 6458877, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072980

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the 6th most common carcinoma as well as the 2nd most common malignancy worldwide in women. It is closely related to fat content, and dyslipidemia is among the most significant metabolic changes in this cancer. Therefore, further understanding of the regulation mechanism in lipid metabolism of endometrial cancer is conducive to the development of better therapeutic strategies and methods. Here, we systematically review the signaling pathways that regulate lipid metabolism in endometrial cancer and the research progress of drugs and targeted therapies that act on lipid metabolism by retrieving relevant articles. The underlying mechanism of occurrence and development of endometrial cancer is relatively clear and comprehensively reviewed here. But following more research studies will help to illuminate more specific regulatory roles of lipid metabolism in endometrial cancer and explore new possible mechanisms, prognostic and therapeutic targets, and subsequent drugs. Our review will provide a full view for the following investigation of lipid metabolism in endometrial cancer.

15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 352, 2022 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are about 7000 rare diseases worldwide, of which only 5% of the diseases can be treated with medicines, showing that it's important to improve patient access to orphan drugs. Recently, China has actively worked to set up a national system for rare diseases to improve the diagnosis and treatment capabilities and ensure the accessibility of drugs. However, the benefits of the system have yet not to be measured. This study aimed to provide an overview of orphan drug access based on the Compendium of China's First List of Rare Diseases and National Network to Collaborate on Diagnosis and Treatment of Rare Diseases, expecting to map a blueprint for orphan drug access in China. METHODS: Framework of China's national system for rare diseases was summarized. We surveyed the availability and affordability of 79 approved orphan drugs based on the Compendium of China's First List of Rare Diseases in 30 leading provincial institutions from 2017 to 2020. The availability was measured annually at 3 levels (market, hospital and drug), and affordability was reflected by comparing costs of daily defined dose with per capita income of urban and rural residents, with the National Basic Medical Insurance considered. RESULTS: The market availability of orphan drugs in China showed an upward trend. As of 2020, the median hospital-level availability was 41.1% (increased by 1.5 times), highly available drugs increased by 16.5%. There were 64/74 orphan drugs that were affordable to rural/urban residents with the National Basic Medical Insurance considered (an increase of 14.1%), and the urban-rural gap of affordability ratio was narrowed (down by 6.0%). Comprehensive analysis showed the proportions of drugs with better availability and affordability in urban and rural areas by 2020 were 39.4% and 32.3%, respectively, which had increased but were still at a low level. CONCLUSIONS: China's national system for rare diseases has made great progress in orphan drug access, indicating that it's been functioning under the joint reformation of medical treatment, medical insurance and medicines supply. The list of rare diseases will be updated and collaboration in networks will be enhanced to further improve the system.


Assuntos
Produção de Droga sem Interesse Comercial , Doenças Raras , China , Humanos , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia
16.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 337, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (hATTR) is a progressive and fatal disease with heterogenous clinical presentations, limited diagnosis and poor prognosis. This retrospective analysis study aimed to report the genotypes and phenotypes of herediary transthyretin amyloidosis (hATTR) in Chinese through a systematic review of published literature. METHODS: The systematic review included structured searches of peer-reviewed literature published from 2007 to 2020 of following online reference databases: PubMed, Web of Science and the literature database in China. Extracted data included sample size, personal information (sex, age, natural course, family history), mutation type, clinical milestones and reason of death. RESULTS: We described 126 Chinese patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis identified through a systematic review of 30 studies. The most common genotype in the Chinese population was Gly83Arg (25, 19.8%), which most likely presented visual and neurological abnormalities without reported death. The second and third most common genotypes were Val30Met (20, 15.9%) and Val30Ala (10, 7.9%). Peripheral neurological manifestations (91, 72%) were dominant in 126 patients. The followed manifestation was autonomic neurological abnormalities (73, 58%). Half of the cases were reported to have visual disorders, and nearly one-third of the cases presented cardiac abnormalities. Among all 126 reported patients, 46.03% were classified as neurological type, 30.16% as mixed type and only 2.38% as cardiac type. In addition. Chinese patients were mostly early onset, with age of onset at 41.8 (SD: 8.9) years, and the median time from onset to death was 7.5 [IQR: 5.3] years. Patients with cardiac involvement had a shorter survival duration (log Rank (Mantel-Cox), χ2 = 26.885, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study focused on 126 Chinese hATTR patients obtained from a literature review. A total of 26 kinds of TTR mutations were found and the most common one was Gly83Arg. As for phenotype, 46.03% were classified as neurological type, 30.16% as mixed type and only 2.38% as cardiac type. Chinese hATTR patients were mostly early onset (AO 41.8 years), and the median time from onset to death was 7.5 years.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares , Pré-Albumina , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Pré-Albumina/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(10): 1253-1268, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Off-label drug use embodies a thorough clinical diagnosis and evaluation of treatment needs and should not be confused with unreasonable drug use, but it also faces potential risks with drug safety and legal issues. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We first established a guideline working group. Following the guideline development process recommended by the World Health Organization Handbook and the Chinese Medical Association, the key questions were determined through literature searches of PubMed, CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) and other databases. Both the evidence and the clinicians' diagnosis and treatment workload were considered to formulate the initial recommendations. Finally, two rounds of Delphi surveys and one expert seminar were organized to determine the final recommendations of this guideline. Meanwhile, we graded the recommendations based on the body of evidence. RESULTS: We determined nine questions and proposed a total of 23 recommendations regarding the definition of off-label use of drugs, applicable circumstances, classification of evidence, informed consent, legal basis, adverse drug reaction monitoring and evaluation, management procedure, responsibilities and obligations of different stakeholders, medical insurance reimbursement, and the national approval system. CONCLUSIONS: This guideline standardized clinical off-label drug use and provided suggestions and references for the management of off-label drug use.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Uso Off-Label , Humanos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Bases de Dados Factuais , China
18.
Genet Med ; 24(11): 2262-2273, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina in females. Whole-gene deletion and loss-of-function variants in TBX6 have been identified in association with MRKHS. We aimed to expand the spectrum of TBX6 variants in MRKHS and explore the biological effect of the variant alleles. METHODS: Rare variants in TBX6 were called from a combined multiethnic cohort of 622 probands with MRKHS who underwent exome sequencing or genome sequencing. Multiple in vitro functional experiments were performed, including messenger RNA analysis, western blotting, transcriptional activity assay, and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: We identified 16 rare variants in TBX6 from the combined cohort, including 1 protein-truncating variant reported in our previous study and 15 variants with unknown effects. By comparing the prevalence of TBX6 variants in the Chinese MRKHS cohort vs 1038 female controls, we observed a significant mutational burden of TBX6 in affected individuals (P = .0004, odds ratio = 5.25), suggesting a causal role of TBX6 variants in MRKHS. Of the 15 variants with uncertain effects, 7 were shown to induce a loss-of-function effect through various mechanisms. The c.423G>A (p.Leu141=) and c.839+5G>A variants impaired the normal splicing of TBX6 messenger RNA, c.422T>C (p.Leu141Pro) and c.745G>A (p.Val249Met) led to decreased protein expression, c.10C>T (p.Pro4Ser) and c.400G>A (p.Glu134Lys) resulted in perturbed transcriptional activity, and c.356G>A (p.Arg119His) caused protein mislocalization. We observed incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in families carrying deleterious variants, which indicates a more complex genetic mechanism than classical Mendelian inheritance. CONCLUSION: Our study expands the mutational spectrum of TBX6 in MRKHS and delineates the molecular pathogenesis of TBX6 variants, supporting the association between deleterious variants in TBX6 and MRKHS.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Anormalidades Congênitas , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Vagina/anormalidades , RNA Mensageiro , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética
19.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-7, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102606

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to generate the health state classification system (HCS) of a condition-specific preference-based measure to capture the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) from the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life Scale (MG-QoL15r). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An HCS was derived from the MG-QoL15r in a large sample of 1739 patients with MG based on psychometric analysis, including factor analysis, item response theory analysis, and discussions with experts. Reliability, construct and convergent validity, and item fit of the HCS were further assessed using another sample. RESULTS: The HCS has six dimensions: social activity, hobbies and fun activities, meeting family needs, work performance, mobility, and emotion, and it demonstrates good internal consistency reliability. The unidimensionality of the HCS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Satisfied convergent validity was supported by a significant association with the 12-item Short Form Survey (SF-12). CONCLUSIONS: Based on a solid process of development and consultations with clinical professionals and patients, a valid MG-specific preference-based measure, MGQoL-6D, was developed. Further research will estimate the local preference weight to support the MG-related cost-utility analysis.IMPLICATION FOR REHABILITATIONA new condition-specific health state classification system (HCS) named Myasthenia gravis Quality of Life Scale (MGQoL-6D) is proposed.MGQoL-6D classifies MG health states as a combination of six dimensions with three response levels.The dimensions of the HCS are social activity, hobbies and fun activity, family needs, work performance, mobility, and emotion.The HCS and the upcoming value set of the MGQoL-6D could support the cost-effectiveness analysis of MG-related clinical and rehabilitated interventions.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 940510, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110554

RESUMO

Aims: The CYP2D6*41 variant is the second or third frequent reduced function allele in Chinese with a frequency of around 3-4%, while it is the major reduced function allele in Indians, Saudi Arabians and Caucasians with frequencies of around 10-20%. The present study was designed to explore the impact of CYP2D6*41 on the metabolic activity of CYP2D6 using phenotyping methods in urine, plasma, and saliva. Methods: We used dextromethorphan as the probe drug to analyze the phenotypes of 87 subjects with CYP2D6*1/*1 (n = 22), CYP2D6*1/*2 (n = 33), CYP2D6*2/*2 (n = 4), CYP2D6*1/*41 (n = 5), CYP2D6*2/*41 (n = 3), CYP2D6*10/*41 (n = 16), and CYP2D6*5/*41 (n = 4) for CYP2D6. The ratio of parent drug to metabolite in 3 h saliva, 3 h plasma, and in 0-3 h urine was considered the metabolic ratio (MR). Results: The CYP2D6*41 allele had substantial impact on the metabolic activity of CYP2D6 regardless of the urinary, plasma, or salivary phenotyping method used. In subjects with CYP2D6*1(or *2)/*1(or *2), *1 (or *2)/*41, *10/*41 and *5/*41 (all p < 0.001), the salivary, plasma, or urinary MR value increased. The MRs in saliva, plasma, and urine displayed high correlations. Conclusion: The activity score system or the consensus activity score system, instead of the traditional phenotype classification, could predict the CYP2D6 enzyme activity more accurately. CYP2D6*41 had similar or more impact on the CYP2D6 enzyme activity as compared with CYP2D6*10. Assigning *41 a score of 0.5 and assigning *10 a score of 0.25 according to the consensus AS system should be reconsidered.

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