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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 822796, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547223

RESUMO

Background: The changing pattern of pathogen spectrum causing herpangina in the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes on the molecular epidemiology of herpangina children during 2019-2020 in Tongzhou district, Beijing, China. Method: From January 2019 to December 2020, children diagnosed with herpangina were recruited by the staff from Tongzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Beijing. Viral RNA extraction from pharyngeal swabs was used for enterovirus (EV) detection and the complete VP1 gene was sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis was performed based on all VP1 sequences for EV genotypes. Result: A total of 1,331 herpangina children were identified during 2019-2020 with 1,121 in 2019 and 210 in 2020, respectively. The predominant epidemic peak of herpangina children was in summer and autumn of 2019, but not observed in 2020. Compared to the number of herpangina children reported in 2019, it decreased sharply in 2020. Among 129 samples tested in 2019, 61 (47.3%) children were detected with EV, while 22.5% (20/89) were positive in 2020. The positive rate for EV increased since June 2019, peaked at August 2019, and decreased continuously until February 2020. No cases were observed from February to July in 2020, and the positive rate of EV rebounded to previous level since August 2020. Four genotypes, including coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6, 9.3%), CV-A4 (7.8%), CV-A10 (2.3%) and CV-A16 (10.1%), were identified in 2019, and only three genotypes, including CV-A6 (9.0%), CV-A10 (6.7%) and CV-A16 (1.1%), were identified in 2020. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all CV-A6 strains from Tongzhou located in Group C, and the predominant strains mainly located in C2-C4 subgroups during 2016-2018 and changed into C1 subgroup during 2018-2020. CV-A16 strains mainly located in Group B, which consisting of strains widely distributed around the world. Conclusions: The predominant genotypes gradually shifted from CV-A16, CV-A4 and CV-A6 in 2019 to CV-A6 in 2020 under COVID-19 pandemic. Genotype-based surveillance will provide robust evidence and facilitate the development of public health measures.

2.
Theranostics ; 12(7): 3273-3287, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547770

RESUMO

Background: Visually evoked potential (VEP) is widely used to detect optic neuropathy in basic research and clinical practice. Traditionally, VEP is recorded non-invasively from the surface of the skull over the visual cortex. However, its trace amplitude is highly variable, largely due to intracranial modulation and artifacts. Therefore, a safe test with a strong and stable signal is highly desirable to assess optic nerve function, particularly in neurosurgical settings and animal experiments. Methods: Minimally invasive trans-sphenoidal endoscopic recording of optic chiasmatic potential (OCP) was carried out with a titanium screw implanted onto the sphenoid bone beneath the optic chiasm in the goat, whose sphenoidal anatomy is more human-like than non-human primates. Results: The implantation procedure was swift (within 30 min) and did not cause any detectable abnormality in fetching/moving behaviors, skull CT scans and ophthalmic tests after surgery. Compared with traditional VEP, the amplitude of OCP was 5-10 times stronger, more sensitive to weak light stimulus and its subtle changes, and was more repeatable, even under extremely low general anesthesia. Moreover, the OCP signal relied on ipsilateral light stimulation, and was abolished immediately after complete optic nerve (ON) transection. Through proof-of-concept experiments, we demonstrated several potential applications of the OCP device: (1) real-time detector of ON function, (2) detector of region-biased retinal sensitivity, and (3) therapeutic electrical stimulator for the optic nerve with low and thus safe excitation threshold. Conclusions: OCP developed in this study will be valuable for both vision research and clinical practice. This study also provides a safe endoscopic approach to implant skull base brain-machine interface, and a feasible in vivo testbed (goat) for evaluating safety and efficacy of skull base brain-machine interface.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 798787, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35559347

RESUMO

As an important life event in individuals' life, childbirth will affect the health of women to different degrees. More and more attention has been paid to whether the number of births will affect the incident diabetes in elderly women, but there are few related studies. Based on the data of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2018, 6,159 older women are selected as the study population. Logistic regression analyses are used to estimate the relationship between the number of births and diabetes risk. For each additional birth, the odds ratio of maternal diabetes will decrease by 6.9% and the result is significant at the 1% level, especially among mothers having four children or less. The conclusion is equally applicable in the sample of fathers and urban mothers, but the increase in the number of births will increase the risk of diabetes in rural mothers, although this result is not statistically significant. Later age at first birth, later age at last birth, the longer childbearing period, and birth interval will significantly reduce the risk of diabetes.

4.
Infect Genet Evol ; 101: 105293, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504588

RESUMO

Mitochondria are essential for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Moreover, the findings of our previous study indicate that host mitochondrial genetic factors are associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) for the Han Chinese. However, in terms of genetic heterogeneity, the impact of mitochondria on host susceptibility to HBV infection in ethnic minorities in China remains unclear. Here, a total of 7070 subjects who had visited the hospital between June 1, 2019, and April 31, 2020, were enrolled for seroprevalence of HBV infection investigation. A total of 220 individuals with CHB (CHBs) and 223 individuals with a trace of HBV infection (spontaneously recovered subjects, SRs) were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variations and classified into respective haplogroups. Haplogroup frequencies were compared between CHBs and SRs. Among eight nationalities, Yi nationality patients had the highest HBsAg prevalence rate (27.9% [95% CI: 25.3%-30.5%]) and the lowest vaccination rate (4.9% [95% CI: 3.7%-6.2%]). After adjustment for age and gender, haplogroup F was a risk factor for CHB infection (P = 0.049, OR = 2.079, 95% CI = 1.002-4.31), while D4 had a significant negative correlation with the HBeAg-positive rate (P = 0.024, OR = 0.215, 95% CI = 0.057-0.816). Together with our previous study, the findings indicate that different nationalities have different genetic susceptibility to HBV infection.

5.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 47(1): 109-115, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545370

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation modification is one of the most common epigenetic modifications for eukaryotic mRNA. Under the catalytic regulation of relevant enzymes, m6A participates in the body's pathophysiological processes via mediating RNA transcription, splicing, translation, and decay. In the past, we mainly focused on the regulation of m6A in tumors such as hematological tumors, cervical cancer, breast cancer. In recent years, it has been found that m6A is enriched in mRNAs of neurogenesis, cell cycle, and neuron differentiation. Its regulation in the nervous system is gradually being recognized. When the level of m6A modification and the expression levels of relevant enzyme proteins are changed, it will cause neurological dysfunction and participate in the occurrence and conversion of neurological diseases. Recent studies have found that the m6A modification and its associated enzymes were involved in major depressive disorder, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Fragile X syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury, and they also play a key role in the development of neurological diseases and many other neurological diseases. This paper mainly reviewed the recent progress of m6A modification-related enzymes, focusing on the impact of m6A modification and related enzyme-mediated regulation of gene expression on the central nervous system diseases, so as to provide potential targets for the prevention of neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adenosina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Metilação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
6.
Angiology ; : 33197221098288, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511114

RESUMO

The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, which can reflect liver and renal function, is associated with poor prognosis. However, the prognostic performance of the modified MELD score in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been fully evaluated and compared. This study retrospectively enrolled 5324 patients. During a median follow-up of 2.85 years, 412 patients died. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves at 3 years indicated that the MELD including albumin (MELD-Albumin) score had the highest prognostic performance (AUC = .721) than the MELD score (AUC = .630), the MELD excluding the international normalized ratio (MELD-XI) score (AUC = .606), and the MELD including sodium (MELD-Na) score (AUC = .656) (all P < .001). The MELD-Albumin score, the MELD score, and the MELD-Na score were independent predictors of long-term mortality; however, the MELD-XI score was not when treated as a categorical variable (P = .254). Adding the MELD-Albumin score to the model of clinical risk factors could improve the prognostic performance. For the subgroup analysis, the association between the MELD-Albumin score and long-term mortality was more pronounced in patients ≤75 years (interaction P value = .005). The MELD-Albumin score showed the strongest prognostic performance than the other versions of the MELD score in patients undergoing elective PCI.

7.
Trials ; 23(1): 329, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the effect of Tai Chi Yunshou motor imagery training (TCY-MIT) on upper extremity motor function (UE-MF) recovery in poststroke patients is lacking, and few studies have examined the neural mechanisms of MIT. The study was designed to assess the effectiveness of TCY-MIT and its possible neural mechanisms. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is an assessor-blinded, parallel, superiority, randomized clinical trial. A total of 78 eligible participants will be randomly assigned to 2 groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the control group will receive (conventional rehabilitation therapies) CRTs for 40 min per day, 6 days per week, for 3 weeks. Participants in the intervention group will receive CRTs combined with TCY-MIT (30 min per day, 6 days per week, for 3 weeks). The primary outcome measure is the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity. Secondary outcome measures are the Box and Block Test, muscle strength test, modified Barthel index, and Pearson correlation coefficients. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, after completion of the intervention (1, 2, and 3 weeks), and at the end of follow-up (2 months). The outcome assessor will be blinded to the group allocation of the participants. DISCUSSION: We expect this assessor-blinded, parallel, superiority, randomized clinical trial to explore the effectiveness of TCY-MIT combined with CRTs compared with CRTs alone for UE-MF in poststroke patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ID: ChiCTR2100048868 . Registered on 19 July 2021.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tai Ji , Hemiplegia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Extremidade Superior
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 114: 1-9, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459475

RESUMO

The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation mechanism and physicochemical properties can highly be influenced by relative humidity (RH) and NOx concentration. In this study, we performed a laboratory investigation of the SOA formation from toluene/OH photooxidation system in the presence or absence of NOx in dry and wet conditions. The chemical composition of toluene-derived SOA was measured using Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). It was found that the mass concentration of toluene decreased with increasing RH and NOx concentration. However, the change of SOA chemistry composition (f44, O/C) with increased RH was not consistent in the condition with or without NOx. The light absorption and mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of the toluene-derived SOA only increased with RH in the presence of NOx. In contrast, MAC is invariant with RH in the absence of NOx. HR-ToF-AMS results showed that, in the presence of NOx, the increased nitro-aromatic compounds and N/C ratio concurrently caused the increase of SOA light absorption and O/C in wet conditions, respectively. The relative intensity of CHON and CHOxN family to the total nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOCs) increased with the increasing RH, and be the major components of NOCs in wet condition. This work revealed a synergy effect of NOx and RH on SOA formation from toluene photooxidation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Tolueno , Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Oxirredução
9.
Food Chem ; 387: 132933, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429936

RESUMO

The fruit juice food industry produces huge waste annually, mainly Citrus peel and seeds. We investigated their chemical composition using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC-) and reverse phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS/MS), revealing 277 compounds, mainly containing flavonoids and limonoids. As the primary representative component in Citrus waste, limonin was selected to be explored new bio-functions. We applied Zebrafish larvae to study the metabolomic response invoked by limonin. The differential metabolites (DMs) varied depending on the exposing concentration of limonin. Enrichment analysis indicated that the identified DMs related to inflammation and neurologic disorders, including epilepsy which were newly discovered for limonoids and Citrus waste. Limonin was found to restore amino acids disorder to take neuroprotection against epilepsy. Our findings provided a new bio-function and purpose for Citrus waste and limonoids. Also, we demonstrated a concise case to repurpose food waste for new applications under metabolome investigation.


Assuntos
Citrus , Limoninas , Eliminação de Resíduos , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Citrus/química , Frutas/química , Limoninas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
10.
Cell Rep ; 39(3): 110698, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443182

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC infects bladder epithelial cells (BECs) via fusiform vesicles, escapes into the cytosol to evade exocytosis, and establishes intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) for the next round of infection. The UPEC vesicle escape mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that UPEC senses host immune responses and initiates escape by upregulating a key phospholipase. The UPEC phospholipase PldA disrupts the vesicle membrane, and pldA expression is activated by phosphate reduction in vesicles. The host phosphate transporter PIT1 is located on the fusiform vesicle membrane, transporting phosphate into the cytosol. UPEC infection upregulates PIT1 via nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), resulting in phosphate reduction. Silencing PIT1 blocks UPEC vesicle escape in BECs, inhibits IBC formation in mouse bladders, and protects mice from UPEC infection. Our results shed light on pathogenic bacteria responding to intracellular phosphate shortage and tackling host defense and provide insights for development of new therapeutic agents to treat UPEC infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica , Animais , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Camundongos , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfolipases/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/metabolismo
11.
Exp Eye Res ; 219: 109068, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398207

RESUMO

In adult mammals, only minimal regeneration of the optic nerve (ON) is possible. Both the low levels of intrinsic regeneration ability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the inhibitory glial environment of ON contribute to it. To explore the influence of these two factors on the extent of axon regeneration, two ON injury models were established. A conventional optic nerve crush model (ONC) is considered a high-inhibitory environment. A long-range optic nerve injury model (LI) is considered a low-inhibitory environment. Zymosan (Zy) was used to regulate the intrinsic regeneration capability of RGCs: the injection of zymosan represented a high state; no injection represented a low state. In the low-inhibitory environment, zymosan (LI + Zy group) significantly increased both the number of regenerated axons and the number of surviving RGCs, however the Relative A/R (representing the proportion of regenerated RGCs) was similar to the LI group (no zymosan injection).Furthermore, in the highly-inhibitory environment, although zymosan (ONC + Zy group) significantly increased the number of regenerated axons and the number of surviving RGCs, the relative A/R was significantly lower than that in the low-inhibitory environment (LI or LI + Zy groups). The results suggest that the low inhibitory environment may be more important for optic nerve regeneration. Binary regression analysis also demonstrated the similar results. Also, there was a clear synergy between the two factors. These indicate that both low inhibitory environments and high regeneration capability can enhance the regeneration of ON. A low inhibitory environment is greater essential.

12.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(5): e14904, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362222

RESUMO

In this report, we discovered a new entity named cataract, alopecia, oral mucosal disorder, and psoriasis-like (CAOP) syndrome in two unrelated and ethnically diverse patients. Furthermore, patient 1 failed to respond to regular treatment. We found that CAOP syndrome was caused by an autosomal recessive defect in the mitochondrial membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase/site-1 protease (MBTPS1, S1P). Mitochondrial abnormalities were observed in patient 1 with CAOP syndrome. Furthermore, we found that S1P is a novel mitochondrial protein that forms a trimeric complex with ETFA/ETFB. S1P enhances ETFA/ETFB flavination and maintains its stability. Patient S1P variants destabilize ETFA/ETFB, impair mitochondrial respiration, decrease fatty acid ß-oxidation activity, and shift mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory lesions in patient 1 were significantly ameliorated by riboflavin supplementation, which restored the stability of ETFA/ETFB. Our study discovered that mutations in MBTPS1 resulted in a new entity of CAOP syndrome and elucidated the mechanism of the mutations in the new disease.


Assuntos
Catarata , Psoríase , Alopecia/genética , Catarata/genética , Flavoproteínas Transferidoras de Elétrons/genética , Flavoproteínas Transferidoras de Elétrons/metabolismo , Humanos , Riboflavina/metabolismo
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 682, 2022 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the impact of fertility during the childbearing period on the longevity of older rural Chinese women and verifies whether any trade-off exists between women's longevity and their number of children to provide empirical evidence for improving health intervention policies and formulating active fertility policies in low-fertility countries. METHODS: Based on the data of the deaths of 1623 older adults aged 65 and above during 2014-2018 in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, this study explores the relationship between the number of children born and older rural women's longevity using the ordinary least squares method. Furthermore, the impact of fertility on the longevity of men and women in rural and urban areas, along with other reproductive behaviours on older rural women's longevity, were analysed. RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the number of children born and women's longevity (ß = - 0.555, p < 0.05). Additionally, their longevity exhibited a decreasing trend with having birthed more sons and an increasing trend with more daughters. Age at first and last births had a significant positive relationship with rural women's longevity; however, the effect of fertility on the longevity of older rural and urban men and older urban women was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: It is confirmed that there is a trade-off between fertility and longevity for rural women in China. Future research should focus on compensating for the decline in female longevity caused by the number of children born and promote the concept of a healthy pregnancy, scientific nurture, and gender equality in fertility.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , População Rural , Idoso , Criança , China , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
15.
Nat Cancer ; 3(2): 156-172, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228749

RESUMO

The folate metabolism enzyme MTHFD2 (methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase) is consistently overexpressed in cancer but its roles are not fully characterized, and current candidate inhibitors have limited potency for clinical development. In the present study, we demonstrate a role for MTHFD2 in DNA replication and genomic stability in cancer cells, and perform a drug screen to identify potent and selective nanomolar MTHFD2 inhibitors; protein cocrystal structures demonstrated binding to the active site of MTHFD2 and target engagement. MTHFD2 inhibitors reduced replication fork speed and induced replication stress followed by S-phase arrest and apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo, with a therapeutic window spanning four orders of magnitude compared with nontumorigenic cells. Mechanistically, MTHFD2 inhibitors prevented thymidine production leading to misincorporation of uracil into DNA and replication stress. Overall, these results demonstrate a functional link between MTHFD2-dependent cancer metabolism and replication stress that can be exploited therapeutically with this new class of inhibitors.


Assuntos
Aminoidrolases , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Aminoidrolases/genética , Humanos , Hidrolases , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Enzimas Multifuncionais/genética , Timidina
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 777178, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35284360

RESUMO

Purpose: The social support theory suggested that involving older people in social activities could increase their level of social participation and interaction, which in turn improved their well-being. However, there has been a heated controversy about whether participating in volunteer services could enhance the well-being of older people, especially for the Chinese sample. Method: Based on the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2013, this paper used an ordered probit model to examine the impact of older people's participation in volunteer services on their well-being, as well as the differences in the impact across groups and the specific transmission mechanism. Result: The empirical study found that Chinese older people's participation in volunteerism significantly enhanced their well-being, which remained robust after eliminating the possible effects of self-selection. Further heterogeneity analysis revealed that for female, non-party members and older adults with good economic status, participation in volunteerism has a higher increase in well-being. The mediating effect test indicated that older people's participation in volunteerism affected well-being mainly through enhancing positive emotions. Conclusion: It is necessary to promote the participation of older people in volunteer services and to clarify the role of government support and advocacy. Proper guidance is given to change the role of older people as care recipients to that of service providers and caregivers, and to continuously enrich the programmes and content of volunteer service to safeguard the well-being of older people.


Assuntos
Participação Social , Voluntários , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Apoio Social
17.
Exp Neurol ; 352: 114033, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259351

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity characterized by hallmark impairments in social functioning and repetitive behaviors. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading single-gene form of autism spectrum disorder, is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Environmental enrichment has been shown to improve several aspects of brain development and affect histopathological, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. However, the optimal time window to initiate it and improve cognitive and emotional development is largely unexplored. In the current study, we determined the longitudinal trends of BDNF-TrkB expression and dendritic development in FXS mice. Additionally, FXS mice were housed in an enriched environment when they showed significantly different BDNF-TrkB pathways and the phenotype of dendritic spines on postnatal day 10 (P10) until P60. The environmental enrichment delayed and attenuated some neurological alterations in FXS mice and prevented the development of cognitive and anxiety-related abnormalities and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. The correlation between neurotrophin-related pathways and multiple autistic-like behaviors was confirmed. Transcriptional profiling indicates that environmental enrichment increases the differences in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal gene expression associated with the neural system and behavioral development. Our results provide novel evidence on the usefulness of early intervention for neurodevelopmental disorders as a strategy to facilitate positive effects on neural development and behaviors by acting on the BDNF/TrkB-PLCγ1-CaMKII pathway.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(7): 3915-3924, 2022 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298139

RESUMO

Partitioning gaseous water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) to the aerosol phase is a major formation pathway of atmospheric secondary organic aerosols (SOA). However, the fundamental mechanism of the WSOC-partitioning process remains elusive. By simultaneous measurements of both gas-phase WSOC (WSOCg) and aerosol-phase WSOC (WSOCp) and formic and acetic acids at a rural site in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China during winter 2019, we showed that WSOCg during the campaign dominantly partitioned to the organic phase in the dry period (relative humidity (RH) < 80%) but to aerosol liquid water (ALW) in the humid period (RH > 80%), suggesting two distinct SOA formation processes in the region. In the dry period, temperature was the driving factor for the uptake of WSOCg. In contrast, in the humid period, the factors controlling WSOCg absorption were ALW content and pH, both of which were significantly elevated by NH3 through the formation of NH4NO3 and neutralization with organic acids. Additionally, we found that the relative abundances of WSOCp and NH4NO3 showed a strong linear correlation throughout China with a spatial distribution consistent with that of NH3, further indicating a key role of NH3 in WSOCp formation at a national scale. Since WSOCp constitutes the major part of SOA, such a promoting effect of NH3 on SOA production by elevating ALW formation and WSOCg partitioning suggests that emission control of NH3 is necessary for mitigating haze pollution, especially SOA, in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Água , Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Gases/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Estações do Ano , Água/química
19.
J Vis Exp ; (180)2022 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285825

RESUMO

The optic nerve collects axons signals from the retinal ganglion cells and transmits visual signal to the brain. Large animal models of optic nerve injury are essential for translating novel therapeutic strategies from rodent models to clinical application due to their closer similarities to humans in size and anatomy. Here we describe some in vivo methods to evaluate the function and structure of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerve (ON) in large animals, including visual evoked potential (VEP), pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Both goat and non-human primate were employed in this study. By presenting these in vivo methods step by step, we hope to increase experimental reproducibility among different labs and facilitate the usage of large animal models of optic neuropathies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Nervo Óptico , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrorretinografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
20.
J Affect Disord ; 306: 174-181, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Odor identification (OI) impairment increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease and brain abnormalities in patients with late-life depression (LLD). However, it remains unclear whether abnormal functional connectivity (FC) of olfactory regions is involved in the relationship between OI impairment and dementia risk in LLD patients. The current study aims to explore the olfactory FC patterns of LLD patients and how olfactory FCs mediate the relationship between OI and cognition. METHODS: A total of 150 participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychometric and olfactory assessments. The primary and secondary olfactory regions were selected as regions of interest to investigate olfactory FC patterns and their association with OI and cognitive performance in LLD patients. RESULTS: Compared with LLD patients without OI impairment and normal controls, LLD patients with OI impairment exhibited increased FC between the left orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and left calcarine gyrus, between the left OFC and right lingual gyrus, between the right OFC and right rectus gyrus, and decreased FC between the right piriform cortex and right superior parietal lobule. Additionally, these abnormal FCs were associated with scores of OI, global cognition and language function. Finally, the FC between the right piriform cortex and right superior parietal lobule exhibited a partially mediated effect on the relationship between OI and MMSE scores. LIMITATIONS: The present study did not exclude the possible effect of drugs. CONCLUSION: LLD patients with OI impairment exhibited more disrupted olfactory FC (a decrease in the primary olfactory cortex and an increase in the secondary olfactory cortex) than LLD patients with intact OI, and these abnormal FCs may serve as potential targets for neuromodulation in LLD patients to prevent them from developing dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Depressão , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Olfato
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