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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 2053149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885775

RESUMO

Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which are sensitive to oxidative stress due to their anatomical and structural characteristics, play a complex role in the initiation and progression of diabetic bladder neuropathy. We investigated the hypothesis that the antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of CGRP may be partly related to the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1, via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, thus reducing apoptosis and oxidative stress responses. This study shows that CGRP activates the PI3K/AKT pathway, thereby inducing increased expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 and resulting in the decrease of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels and reduced neuronal apoptosis. These effects were suppressed by LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Therefore, regulation of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression by the PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the regulation of the antioxidant and antiapoptotic responses in DRG cells in a high-glucose culture model.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(6): 1004-1012, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762012

RESUMO

When watching someone performs an action, mirror neurons are activated in a way that is very similar to the activation that occurs when actually performing that action. Previous single-sample case studies indicate that hand-action observation training may lead to activation and remodeling of mirror neuron systems, which include important language centers, and may improve language function in aphasia patients. In this randomized-block-design experiment, we recruited 24 aphasia patients from, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, China. The patients were divided into three groups where they underwent hand-action observation and repetition, dynamic-object observation and repetition, or conventional speech therapy. Training took place 5 days per week, 35 minutes per day, for 2 weeks. We assessed language function via picture naming tests for objects and actions and the Western Aphasia Battery. Among the participants, one patient, his wife and four healthy student volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to analyze changes in brain activation during hand-action observation and dynamic-object observation. Results demonstrated that, compared with dynamic-object observation, hand-action observation led to greater performance with respect to the aphasia quotient and affiliated naming sub-tests and a greater Western Aphasia Battery test score. The overall effect was similar to that of conventional aphasia training, yet hand-action observation had advantages compared with conventional training in terms of vocabulary extraction and spontaneous speech. Thus, hand-action observation appears to more strongly activate the mirror neuron system compared with dynamic-object observation. The activated areas included Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the supramarginal gyrus. These results suggest that hand-action observation combined with repetition might better improve language function in aphasia patients compared with dynamic-object observation combined with repetition. The therapeutic mechanism of this intervention may be associated with activation of additional mirror neuron systems, and may have implications for the possible repair and remodeling of damaged nerve networks. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of Nanjing Medical University, China (approval number: 2011-SRFA-086) on March 11, 2011. This trial has been registered in the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN84827527).

3.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 38(1): 81-86, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411811

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the protective effects of caffeine in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) by using urodynamics. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were divided into four groups: control group, DM group, DM + caffeine (5 mg/kg/day), and DM + caffeine (10 mg/kg/day). DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Cystometric studies were conducted on all rats. After 8 weeks of treatment with caffeine, the urodynamic parameters, including bladder capacity, residual urine volume, voiding time, and peak voiding pressure, were measured. RESULTS: DM rats had a higher bladder capacity and post-void residual urine volume (PVR), an increased voiding time and peak voiding pressure, and a markedly lower voiding efficiency than the control group rats. After treatment with caffeine, bladder capacity, post-void residual urine volume, and peak voiding pressure were significant lower than those in the DM group, but voiding efficiency was markedly higher. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that caffeine (5 or 10 mg/kg/day) may improve the bladder function at 8 weeks after STZ induction. Thus, this may represent a potential strategy to increase voiding efficiency in diabetes.


Assuntos
Cafeína/uso terapêutico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retenção Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Retenção Urinária/etiologia , Retenção Urinária/fisiopatologia , Micção/efeitos dos fármacos , Urodinâmica
4.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 37(8): 2470-2479, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present work evaluated preventive effect of curcumin on cisplatin-induced bladder cystopathy. METHODS: Fifteen female rats were divided into (i) Control group administered with physiological saline solution for 5 days; (ii) Cis-P group injected with cisplatin (6 mg/kg); and (iii) Cis-Cur group given cisplatin (6 mg/kg) with curcumin for 5 consecutive days. The function of bladder was measured by means of urodynamic analysis. Furthermore, hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson trichrome staining were performed for morphological analysis. The cell apoptosis was evaluated through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and flow cytometry. The expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), NF-E2-related factor 2, and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels were measured through Western blotting. RESULTS: Urodynamic assay and histopathological manifestations revealed that curcumin ameliorated the bladder dysfunction induced by cisplatin. The level of cisplatin-induced apoptosis in the bladder decreased following curcumin treatment. Also, the increased protein expression of NGF indicated that the curcumin could offer neuroprotection for bladder against cisplatin. Curcumin also activated NRF2, and elevated the expression of HO-1, but curcumin could not rescue cisplatin-induced apoptosis in the cell lines with knockdown of NRF2. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results of this paper showed that curcumin could ameliorate cisplatin-induced cystopathy and inhibit the apoptosis of bladder cell in cisplatin-treated rats. This may be attributed to curcumin's broad biological functions, particularly antioxidant effect, and to its ability to activate the NRF2 protein.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Oncol Lett ; 15(4): 5533-5544, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29552192

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. A total of 40 hypopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and 15 benign lesion tissues were retrospectively analyzed. DWI, and T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of conventional MRI were 97.5, 66.7, and 89.1%, respectively. The mean ADC value [diffusion sensitive factor (b)=1,000× sec/mm2) for hypopharyngeal carcinomas was (1.0285±0.0328)×10-3 mm2/sec, which was significantly lower than the mean ADC value for benign lesions [(1.5333±0.1061)×10-3 mm2/sec; P<0.001]. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.921 while the optimal threshold for the cut-off point of the ADC was 1.075×10-3 mm2/sec. The mean ADC value of the metastatic nodes was (0.9184±0.0538)×10-3 mm2/sec, lower than the mean value for the benign nodes [(1.2538±0.1145)×10-3 mm2/sec; P=0.005]. Two groups were created according to the mean of the ADC value of hypopharyngeal carcinomas [≤(1.0285±0.0328)×10-3 mm2/sec vs. >(1.0285±0.0328)×10-3 mm2/sec]. The 2-year survival rates of the two groups were 55.6 and 100.0%, respectively (P=0.024). ADC values may aid in distinguishing hypopharyngeal carcinomas from benign lesions and differentiating metastatic lymph nodes of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas from reactive cervical lymph nodes. In conclusion, mean ADC values may be useful prognostic factors in univariate analysis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

6.
Oncol Lett ; 10(2): 749-753, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26622564

RESUMO

The present study describes the first reported case of a sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that presented as a cancer of unknown primary in the English-language literature. In July 2010, a 66-year old male presented with a 6-month history of a painless, progressive mass in the right submandibular region. Physical examination revealed a 3×4-cm smooth, non-tender mass and subsequently, excision of the right submandibular gland was performed. Post-operative pathological examination indicated poorly-differentiated SCC of the submandibular lymph node. Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was unable to identify the primary tumour site in this case, and 14 months later the patient presented with nasal obstruction, leading to the diagnosis of right sinonasal IP with coexistent SCC. The patient received pre-operative radiotherapy, a right total maxillectomy and post-operative radiotherapy. However, the patient succumbed to a distant metastasis 37 months after the initial presentation. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on PET/CT may be not a reliable predictor of malignancy in sinonasal IPs. Therefore, we suggest emphasis of the use of multiple biopsies for suspected sinonasal IPs in order to improve diagnostic accuracy.

7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(5): 1513-7, 2014 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25129956

RESUMO

To evaluate the influence of different host plants including apple, wild jujube, jujube, pear and hawthorn on the cold-tolerance substances in overwintering larvae of the peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii Matsumura, we measured the larvae super-cooling capacity, the water content (W), total fat content (TFC), total protein content (TPC) and total glycogen content (TGC) in the body. Results showed that the mean super-cooling point (SCPs) and freezing point (FPs) of overwintering larvae from the 5 host plant fruits differed significantly, ranging from -15.53 to -8.50 degrees C and -11.31 to -4.04 degrees C, respectively. The overwintering larvae fed on hawthorn owned the highest SCP, FP, TGC and the lowest W, while those fed on apple had the lowest SCP, FP, TFC and TGC but the highest W and TPC. The fresh mass (FM) of the overwintering larvae fed on pear was the highest, while those fed on jujube was very low. Those fed on jujube accumulated the highest TFC but the lowest TPC.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Mariposas/fisiologia , Animais , Congelamento , Frutas , Glicogênio , Proteínas de Insetos , Larva , Malus , Prunus , Estações do Ano , Ziziphus
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 23(7): 1933-9, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23173470

RESUMO

To understand the resistance risks of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande against phoxim, this paper studied the resistance mechanisms of phoxim-resistant F. occidentalis population against phoxim and the cross-resistance of the population against other insecticides. The phoxim-resistant population had medium level cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and methomyl, low level cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, emamectin-benzoate, and spinosad, but no cross-resistance to acetamiprid and abamectin. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), s, s, s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) had significant synergism (P < 0.05) on the toxicity of phoxim to the resistant (XK), field (BJ), and susceptible (S) populations, while diethyl maleate (DEM) had no significant synergism to XK and S populations but had significant synergism to BJ population. As compared with S population, the XK and BJ populations had significantly increased activities of mixed-functional oxidases P450 (2.79-fold and 1.48-fold), b, (2.88-fold and 1.88-fold), O-demethylase (2.60-fold and 1.68-fold), and carboxylesterase (2.02-fold and 1.61-fold, respectively), and XK population had a significantly increased acetylcholine esterase activity (3.10-fold). Both XK and BJ population had an increased activity of glutathione S-transferases (1.11-fold and 1.20-fold, respectively), but the increment was not significant. The increased detoxification enzymes activities in F. occidentalis could play an important role in the resistance of the plant against phoxim.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Tisanópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Metomil/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Tisanópteros/enzimologia
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