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1.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1170, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is generally evaluated at the time of diagnosis but does not reflect the survival dynamics of patients in the future. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to evaluate the conditional survival (CS) of Chinese patients with GISTs after radical resection. METHODS: This retrospective study included 451 patients who underwent radical surgery for GISTs. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the prognostic factors of disease-free survival (DFS). The 3-year conditional DFS (CDFS3) of patients who survived for x years was expressed as CDFS3=DFS(x + 3)/DFS(x). RESULTS: The traditional 3-year DFS rate decreased gradually from 94.0% at 3 years to 77.3% at 7 years, while the CDFS3 rate increased from 94.0 to 95.2% over the survival time of the patients. In addition, classic clinicopathological prognostic factors had different effects on CDFS3, with changes observed in survival time, but these effects were only slight or moderate (|d|<0.5). Although multivariate analysis showed that age, sex, mitotic index and tumor rupture were independent risk factors for DFS at baseline, all adverse prognostic factors, except for the mitotic index, lost their predictive significance at 5 years after operation. When the Modified NIH criteria were included, the risk staging was found to be an independent risk factor for recurrence or death. Time-dependent Cox regression analysis showed that the modified NIH criteria independently affected the recurrence or death of GIST patients within 2 years after operation. CONCLUSION: CS provides detailed dynamic survival information about Chinese patients with primary resected GISTs. The mitotic index is of great clinical significance for the monitoring and follow-up of patient populations with a high risk of tumor recurrence or death until 5 years after surgery.

2.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(43): 901-905, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745688

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic?: Silica dust and coal dust are the main occupational hazards in coal-fired thermal power plants, which mainly exist in coal transportation workplaces, combustion milling workplaces, and ash removal workplaces. What is added by this report?: The overall environmental and personal dust exposure levels decrease with an increase in the capacity of coal-fired thermal power plants, the overall dust hazard risk level of the workforce in coal-fired is Medium. What are the implications for public health practice?: Dust management should be conducted in the coal-fired thermal power plant in 300 million watt units because it has the highest dust exposure level, and ash removal workplaces and combustion milling workplaces are key control points for dust hazards.

3.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(43): 906-910, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745689

RESUMO

Introduction: Occupational noise exposure is a widespread issue in the manufacturing industry in China. Since 2019, the National Surveillance System for Occupational Hazards in the workplace was established to understand different occupational hazards, especially occupational noise, in workplaces in China. Methods: Both environmental and individual noise exposure levels were measured for 19,378 enterprises according to the Work Plan for Surveillance of Occupational Hazards in the Workplace (2020) issued by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Median and interquartile range (IQR) were calculated to describe the distribution of the noise exposure level by industry classification, enterprise-scale, and ownership type of the enterprise. Results: Overall, 25.14% of the individual noise exposure samples exceeded the Chinese national standard among the selected enterprises. The overall median of environmental noise exposure level was 82.8 dB(A) in selected enterprises, while the median of individual noise exposure level was 81.3 dB(A). The individual noise exposure level in the manufacture of metal products, manufacture of motor vehicles, mini-sized enterprises, collective enterprises and private enterprises was relatively high. Conclusion: Occupational noise is still one of the occupational hazards that cannot be ignored in the manufacturing industry, especially in mini-sized and private enterprises. The risk of noise exposure in the target industry is still high and will pose a threat to the health of workers.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 2): 150632, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606865

RESUMO

Orchard grass coverage has been widely adopted to increase fruit yield by improving soil fertility. However, the impact of the environment on the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks consecutive to orchard grass coverage remain poorly quantified at a large scale. The present study aimed to examine the responses of SOC stocks to grass coverage at a soil depth of 0-30 cm in orchards compared to clean tillage. A total of 342 observations across China from 139 peer-reviewed publications were subjected to meta-analysis. Aggregated boosted tree analysis was performed, evaluating the determinants of SOC stocks, such as plant traits (e.g., fruit tree type, grass type, orchard age, and grass age), edaphic variables (e.g., initial SOC and nitrogen concentration, soil pH, and soil clay content), climatic factors (e.g., mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT)), and management practices (e.g., grass source, grass growing mode, fertilization, grass mowing, placement of mowed residues, and irrigation). On average, orchard grass coverage significantly enhanced SOC stocks by 21.47% (percentage change) compared to clean tillage. Biotic and abiotic factors influenced this increase in SOC stocks following grass coverage in orchards to different extents. Grass age and soil clay content were the main determinants driving the variation in the SOC stocks following grass coverage in orchards. Thus, we propose an efficient way to optimize C sequestration in grass covered orchards, regarding plant traits, climatic factors, edaphic variables, and management practices. Longer than 12 months of surface grass coverage with cultivated grass species in mature deciduous fruit orchards (≥5 years) efficiently increased SOC stocks. This is particularly the case for acidic (pH < 6.5) soils with low C content (SOM < 15 g kg-1) in areas with suitable rainfall and temperature conditions (MAP ≥ 400 mm, MAT ≥ 10 °C). Collectively, this meta-analysis identified orchard grass coverage as a promising practice for significantly increasing SOC stocks at 0-30 cm across large geospatial locations in China.

5.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 719011, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616731

RESUMO

The role of autophagy in lung cancer is context-dependent and complex. Recent studies have reported the important role of autophagy in tumor immune escape. However, the association between autophagy and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate the autophagy-related gene pair index (ATGPI) and autophagy clinical prognostic index (ACPI) in multiple LUAD cohorts, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort, Gene Expression Omnibus cohorts, and one cohort from Union Hospital, Wuhan (UH cohort), using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that there was a significant difference in overall survival (OS) between patients with high and low ATGPI in the testing [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.97; P < 0.001] and TCGA validation (HR = 2.25; P < 0.001) cohorts. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was also performed. We found that high ATGPI could accurately identify patients with early-stage LUAD with shorter OS, with the areas under the curve of 0.703 and 0.676 in the testing and TCGA validation cohorts, respectively. Concordance index (C-index) was used to evaluate the efficiency of ATGPI and ACPI. The C-index of ACPI was higher than that of ATGPI in the testing (0.71 vs. 0.66; P < 0.001), TCGA validation (0.69 vs. 0.65; P = 0.028), and UH (0.80 vs. 0.70; P = 0.015) cohorts. TIL analysis demonstrated that the proportions of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T cells were lower in the high-ATGPI group than in the low-ATGPI group in both the TCGA validation and UH cohorts. These results indicate the potential clinical use of ATG signatures which are associated with TILs, in identifying patients with early-stage LUAD with different OS.

6.
Metabolites ; 11(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564383

RESUMO

Asthma is a highly heterogeneous disease, but the pathogenesis of asthma is still unclear. It is well known that the airway inflammatory immune response is the pathological basis of asthma. Metabolomics is a systems biology method to analyze the difference of low molecular weight metabolites (<1.5 kDa) and explore the relationship between metabolic small molecules and pathophysiological changes of the organisms. The functional interdependence between immune response and metabolic regulation is one of the cores of the body's steady-state regulation, and its dysfunction will lead to a series of metabolic disorders. The signal transduction effect of specific metabolites may affect the occurrence of the airway inflammatory immune response, which may be closely related to the pathogenesis of asthma. Emerging metabolomic analysis may provide insights into the pathogenesis and diagnosis of asthma. The review aims to analyze the changes of metabolites in blood/serum/plasma, urine, lung tissue, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples, and further reveals the potential pathogenesis of asthma according to the disordered metabolic pathways.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502163

RESUMO

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important vegetable and is cultivated and consumed worldwide for its economic and medicinal values. Garlic cloves, the major reproductive and edible organs, are derived from the axillary meristems. KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) proteins, such as SHOOT MERISTEM-LESS (STM), play important roles in axillary meristem formation and development. However, the KNOX proteins in garlic are still poorly known. Here, 10 AsKNOX genes, scattered on 5 of the 8 chromosomes, were genome-wide identified and characterized based on the newly released garlic genome. The typical conserved domains of KNOX proteins were owned by all these 10 AsKNOX homologs, which were divided into two Classes (Class I and Class II) based on the phylogenetic analysis. Prediction and verification of the subcellular localizations revealed the diverse subcellular localization of these 10 AsKNOX proteins. Cis-element prediction, tissue expression analysis, and expression profilings in responding to exogenous GA3 and 6-BA showed the potential involvement of AsKNOX genes in the gibberellin and cytokinin signaling pathways. Overall, the results of this work provided a better understanding of AsKNOX genes in garlic and laid an important foundation for their further functional studies.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Alho/genética , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alho/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1003, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies in head and neck. Platinum-based chemotherapy is an important treatment for NPC. However, the molecular mechanism of resistance to platinum drug remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44(ERp44), an unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced endoplasmic reticulum(ER) protein, is induced during ER stress. This research explored the mechanism of ERp44 in strengthening cisplatin resistance in NPC. METHODS: Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression of ERp44 and Glucose-Regulated Protein 78(GRP78) in NPC. We took CCK8 to detect the role of ERp44 on cell chemosensitivity. Flow cytometric analysis and western blot were taken to analyze cell apoptosis. We performed differential centrifugation to isolate exosomes from serum or conditioned media of cells and analyzed the impact of exosomal ERp44 on cells cisplatin sensitivity. Finally, the results were confirmed in vivo. RESULTS: We found the increased expression of ERp44 and GRP78 in NPC and ERp44 was highly expressed in ER-stressed tissues. Cell proliferation was inhibited after cisplatin treatment when ERp44 was knocked down and ERp44 strengthened cisplatin resistance by influencing cell apoptosis and pyroptosis. Then we also collected exosomes and cell viability was increased after the addition of NPC-derived-exosomes with cisplatin treatment. More importantly, our results showed under ERS, NPC cells secreted exosomes containing ERp44 and could transfer them to adjacent cells to strengthen chemoresistance. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that exosomal ERp44 derived from ER-stressed NPC cells took an inevitable role in NPC chemoresistance and might act as a treatment target.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Exossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Exossomos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577458

RESUMO

Seasonally frozen soil where uneven freeze-thaw damage is a major cause of highway deterioration has attracted increased attention in China with the rapid development of infrastructure projects. Based on Darcy's law of unsaturated soil seepage and heat conduction, the thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) coupling model is established considering a variety of effects (i.e., ice-water phase transition, convective heat transfer, and ice blocking effect), and then the numerical solution of thermal-hydraulic fields of subgrade can be obtained. Then, a new concept, namely degree of freeze-thaw damage, is proposed by using the standard deviation of the ice content of subgrade during the annual freeze-thaw cycle. To analyze the freeze-thaw characteristics of highway subgrade, the model is applied in the monitored section of the Golmud to Nagqu portion of China National Highway G109. The results show that: (1) The hydrothermal field of subgrade has an obvious sunny-shady slopes effect, and its transverse distribution is not symmetrical; (2) the freeze-thaw damage area of subgrade obviously decreased under the insulation board measure; (3) under the combined anti-frost measures, the maximum frost heave amount of subgrade is significantly reduced. This study will provide references for the design of highway subgrades in seasonally frozen soil areas.


Assuntos
Solo , Água , China , Congelamento
10.
Front Physiol ; 12: 732578, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512400

RESUMO

High chemosensitivity of insects to volatile organic compounds (VOC) stimuli is mediated by odorant binding proteins (OBPs). In aphids, three OBPs (OBP3, OBP7 and OBP9) are E-ß-farnesene (EBF)-binding proteins. Winged aphids are generally more sensitive than wingless aphids to VOCs, thus, wing presence is a phenotypic correlate of olfaction sensitivity. Here, we investigate the detailed temporal expression of these EBF-binding proteins and two other OBPs (OBP6 and OBP10), in the grain aphid Sitobion miscanthi 0 h, 2 h, 1 day, 3 days, 10 days, and 20 days after adult emergence. Both winged and wingless aphids were examined to further uncover phenotypic specification. Then, the expression patterns before and after EBF induction were analyzed. Throughout adulthood, only OBP7 had significantly higher antennal expression in winged aphids; however, there was no significant difference in the antennal expression of OBP3 between wing morphs at most time points. Except it was lower in newly emerged winged aphids but increased rapidly to the same level in wingless aphids at 1 day. OBP9 did not differ in expression between the morphs and was the only OBP that did not exhibit an expression trough at the beginning of the adult stage (0 h). The expression of OBP9 remained relatively stable and high throughout the adult stage in both phenotypes, showing the highest level among the three EBF-binding proteins. After EBF induction, its expression was further up-regulated in both morphs. Therefore, this protein may be an important molecule for EBF recognition in aphids. OBP7 strongly responded to EBF but only in winged aphids, suggesting that this protein is important in the more sensitive EBF recognition process of winged aphids. In addition, the antennal expression level of OBP3 did not respond to EBF induction. These findings revealed a temporal expression pattern of OBPs in aphids and showed that figuring out the pattern is critical for correctly selecting morphs and sampling times, which will support the discovery of reliable findings and allow solid conclusions to be drawn. Our findings also inspire on the interaction mode of the three EBF-binding proteins in relation to EBF perception in aphids.

11.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112920, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487980

RESUMO

Eleven previously unreported sesquiterpenes, including nine eudesmane-type (agalleudesmanol A-I) and two agarospirane-type sesquiterpenes (agarospiranic aldehyde A-B), together with eight known sesquiterpenes, were isolated from the agarwood of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. The structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analyses, including infrared (IR), high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction, quantum chemical calculations based on empirical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data, and DP4+ probability analysis. The bioactivity of these undescribed compounds against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells was evaluated. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities, with IC50 values of 5.46-14.07 µM (aminoguanidine as positive control, IC50 20.33 ± 1.08 µM).


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano , Sesquiterpenos , Thymelaeaceae , Animais , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Células RAW 264.7 , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano/farmacologia
12.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372568

RESUMO

Influenza viruses are still a serious threat to human health. Cytokines are essential for cell-to-cell communication and viral clearance in the immune system, but excessive cytokines can cause serious immune pathology. Deaths caused by severe influenza are usually related to cytokine storms. The recent literature has described the mechanism behind the cytokine-storm network and how it can exacerbate host pathological damage. Biological factors such as sex, age, and obesity may cause biological differences between different individuals, which affects cytokine storms induced by the influenza virus. In this review, we summarize the mechanism behind influenza virus cytokine storms and the differences in cytokine storms of different ages and sexes, and in obesity.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Influenza Humana/fisiopatologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Obesidade/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Fatores Sexuais
13.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113605, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454203

RESUMO

Multifunctional cultivated land has both sides of supply and demand, and their matches are very important to boost the high-quality development of agriculture and rural areas. The supply-demand match index and GIS spatial analysis were employed to explore the supply-demand mismatches and synergic strategies of multifunctional cultivated land. Taking the Wuhan Metropolitan Area (WMA), China as an example, we obtained the following results: (1) There were obvious supply-demand mismatches of multifunctional cultivated land in the production function, ecological function, and landscape culture function. The spatial distribution of supply-demand mismatches of the three different functions of cultivated land is different. The supply of cultivated land production function is less than the demand, while the supply of landscape culture function is greater than the demand. The supply matches the demand of cultivated land in the ecological function. (2) The supply-demand mismatches of multifunctional cultivated land have scale effects. From the 1 km × 1 km grid scale to the township, county (district), and prefecture-level city scales, the proportion of deficit regions of production function and ecological function decreases with increasing scale. In contrast, the deficit regions of landscape culture function are always concentrated in the center of the WMA. It is considered that we should improve the supply of cultivated land in the production function, protect ecological function and enhance the demand of landscape culture function. Moreover, the management of multifunctional cultivated land needs to strengthen the multiscale spatial linkage and differential strategies of the supply side and demand side.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , China , Cidades , Análise Espacial
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmembrane proteins are vital for intercellular signalling and play important roles in the control of cell fate. However, their physiological functions and mechanisms of action in myogenesis and muscle disorders remain largely unexplored. It has been found that transmembrane protein 182 (TMEM182) is dramatically up-regulated during myogenesis, but its detailed functions remain unclear. This study aimed to analyse the function of TMEM182 during myogenesis and muscle regeneration. METHODS: RNA sequencing, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence approaches were used to analyse TMEM182 expression during myoblast differentiation. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the promoter region of the TMEM182 gene, and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to investigate the regulation TMEM182 transcription by MyoD. We used chickens and TMEM182-knockout mice as in vivo models to examine the function of TMEM182 in muscle growth and muscle regeneration. Chickens and mouse primary myoblasts were used to extend the findings to in vitro effects on myoblast differentiation and fusion. Co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to identify the interaction between TMEM182 and integrin beta 1 (ITGB1). The molecular mechanism by which TMEM182 regulates myogenesis and muscle regeneration was examined by Transwell migration, cell wound healing, adhesion, glutathione-S-transferse pull down, protein purification, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS: TMEM182 was specifically expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and was regulated at the transcriptional level by the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD1. Functionally, TMEM182 inhibited myoblast differentiation and fusion. The in vivo studies indicated that TMEM182 induced muscle fibre atrophy and delayed muscle regeneration. TMEM182 knockout in mice led to significant increases in body weight, muscle mass, muscle fibre number, and muscle fibre diameter. Skeletal muscle regeneration was accelerated in TMEM182-knockout mice. Furthermore, we revealed that the inhibitory roles of TMEM182 in skeletal muscle depend on ITGB1, an essential membrane receptor involved in cell adhesion and muscle formation. TMEM182 directly interacted with ITGB1, and this interaction required an extracellular hybrid domain of ITGB1 (aa 387-470) and a conserved region (aa 52-62) within the large extracellular loop of TMEM182. Mechanistically, TMEM182 modulated ITGB1 activation by coordinating the association between ITGB1 and laminin and regulating the intracellular signalling of ITGB1. Myogenic deletion of TMEM182 increased the binding activity of ITGB1 to laminin and induced the activation of the FAK-ERK and FAK-Akt signalling axes during myogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal that TMEM182 is a novel negative regulator of myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration.

15.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411276

RESUMO

The metabolic syndrome has become one of the major public health challenges in the world, and adjusting glucose and lipid levels to their normal values is crucial for treating the metabolic syndrome. Olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in extra-nasal tissues participate in diverse biological processes, including the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ectopic ORs can regulate a variety of metabolic events including insulin secretion, glucagon secretion, fatty acid oxidation, lipogenesis and thermogenesis. Understanding the physiological function and deciphering the olfactory recognition code by suitable ligands make ectopic ORs potential targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we delineate the roles and mechanisms of ectopic ORs in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, summarize the corresponding natural ligands, and discuss existing problems and the therapeutic potential of targeting ORs in the metabolic syndrome.

16.
Front Chem ; 9: 728066, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395388

RESUMO

Photothermal therapy is a very promising treatment method in the field of cancer therapy. The photothermal nanomaterials in near-infrared region (NIR-I, 750-900 nm) attracts extensive attention in recent years because of the good biological penetration of NIR light. However, the penetration depth is still not enough for solid tumors due to high tissue scattering. The light in the second near-infrared region (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) allows deeper tissue penetration, higher upper limit of radiation and greater tissue tolerance than that in the NIR-I, and it shows greater application potential in photothermal conversion. This review summarizes the photothermal properties of Au nanomaterials, two-dimensional materials, metal oxide sulfides and polymers in the NIR-II and their application prospects in photothermal therapy. It will arouse the interest of scientists in the field of cancer treatment as well as nanomedicine.

17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(20): e0138321, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378947

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) metabolism genes are generally present in soils, but their diversity, relative abundance, and transcriptional activity in response to different As concentrations remain unclear, limiting our understanding of the microbial activities that control the fate of an important environmental pollutant. To address this issue, we applied metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to paddy soils showing a gradient of As concentrations to investigate As resistance genes (ars) including arsR, acr3, arsB, arsC, arsM, arsI, arsP, and arsH as well as energy-generating As respiratory oxidation (aioA) and reduction (arrA) genes. Somewhat unexpectedly, the relative DNA abundances and diversities of ars, aioA, and arrA genes were not significantly different between low and high (∼10 versus ∼100 mg kg-1) As soils. Compared to available metagenomes from other soils, geographic distance rather than As levels drove the different compositions of microbial communities. Arsenic significantly increased ars gene abundance only when its concentration was higher than 410 mg kg-1. In contrast, metatranscriptomics revealed that relative to low-As soils, high-As soils showed a significant increase in transcription of ars and aioA genes, which are induced by arsenite, the dominant As species in paddy soils, but not arrA genes, which are induced by arsenate. These patterns appeared to be community wide as opposed to taxon specific. Collectively, our findings advance understanding of how microbes respond to high As levels and the diversity of As metabolism genes in paddy soils and indicated that future studies of As metabolism in soil or other environments should include the function (transcriptome) level. IMPORTANCE Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid pervasively present in the environment. Microorganisms have evolved the capacity to metabolize As, and As metabolism genes are ubiquitously present in the environment even in the absence of high concentrations of As. However, these previous studies were carried out at the DNA level; thus, the activity of the As metabolism genes detected remains essentially speculative. Here, we show that the high As levels in paddy soils increased the transcriptional activity rather than the relative DNA abundance and diversity of As metabolism genes. These findings advance our understanding of how microbes respond to and cope with high As levels and have implications for better monitoring and managing an important toxic metalloid in agricultural soils and possibly other ecosystems.


Assuntos
Arsênio/metabolismo , Genes Arqueais , Genes Bacterianos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Arsênio/análise , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101310, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298381

RESUMO

In China, the low egg production rate is a major challenge to Muscovy duck farmers. Hypothalamus and ovary play essential role in egg production of birds. However, there are little or no reports from these tissues to identify potential candidate genes responsible for egg production in White Muscovy ducks. A total of 1,537 laying ducks were raised; the egg production traits which include age at first egg (days), number of eggs at 300 d, and number of eggs at 59 wk were recorded. Moreover, 4 lowest (LP) and 4 highest producing (HP) were selected at 59 wk of age, respectively. To understand the mechanism of egg laying regulation, we sequenced the hypothalamus and ovary transcriptome profiles in LP and HP using RNA-Seq. The results showed that the number of eggs at 300 d and number of eggs at 59 wk in the HP were significantly more (P < 0.001) than the LP ducks. In total, 106.98G clean bases were generated from 16 libraries with an average of 6.68G clean bases for each library. Further analysis showed 569 and 2,259 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the hypothalamus and ovary between LP and HP, respectively. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed 114 and 139 pathways in the hypothalamus and ovary, respectively which includes Calcium signaling pathway, ECM-receptor interaction, Focal adhesion, MAPK signaling pathway, Apoptosis and Apelin signaling pathways that are involved in egg production. Based on the GO terms and KEGG pathways results, 10 potential candidate genes (P2RX1, LPAR2, ADORA1, FN1, AKT3, ADCY5, ADCY8, MAP3K8, PXN, and PTTG1) were identified to be responsible for egg production. Further, protein-protein interaction was analyzed to show the relationship between these candidate genes. Therefore, this study provides useful information on transcriptome of hypothalamus and ovary of LP and HP Muscovy ducks.


Assuntos
Patos , Ovário , Animais , Galinhas , Patos/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Hipotálamo , Óvulo , Transcriptoma
19.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 653798, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249911

RESUMO

Lipid biosynthesis is a complex process, which is regulated by multiple factors including lncRNA. However, the role of lncRNA in chicken abdominal fat accumulation is still unclear. In this research, we collected liver tissues from six high abdominal fat rate Sanhuang broilers and six low abdominal fat rate Sanhuang broilers to perform lncRNA sequencing and small RNA sequencing. A total of 2,265 lncRNAs, 245 miRNAs, and 5,315 mRNAs were differently expressed. Among of them, 1,136 differently expressed genes were enriched in the metabolic process. A total of 36 differently expressed genes, which were considered as differently expressed lncRNAs' targets, were enriched in the metabolic process. In addition, we also found out that eight differently expressed miRNAs could target 19 differently expressed genes. FNIP2 and PEX5L were shared in a cis-regulatory network and a differently expressed miRNA target relationship network. LncRNA-FNIP2/miR-24-3p/FNIP2 axis was considered as a potential candidate that may participate in lipid synthesis. Experimentally, the objective reality of lncRNA-FNIP2/miR-24-3p/FNIP2 axis was clarified and the regulation effect of lncRNA-FNIP2/miR-24-3p/FNIP2 axis on synthesis was validated. In brief, our study reveals a potential novel regulatory mechanism that lncRNA-FNIP2/miR-24-3p/FNIP2 axis was considered as being involved in lipid synthesis during chicken adipogenesis in liver.

20.
Biochem Genet ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169384

RESUMO

This study combined with bioinformatics analysis and investigated the expression pattern of miR-181b-5p, as well as explored its role and mechanism in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA or CHOL). Several bioinformatics databases were used to analyze the expression of miR-181b and the enrichment of miR-181b in biological activities and biological pathways in CCA. The RT-qPCR analysis was used to examine the expression levels of miR-181b-5p. A receiver operation characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and the Kaplan-Meier survival assay were conducted to validate the diagnostic and prognostic implication of miR-181b-5p. Cell experiments were used to explore the possible functional role of miR-181b-5p in CCA progression. The bioinformatics assay was used to predict the target gene of miR-181b-5p and Western blot was used to confirm the related signaling pathway. The bioinformatics analysis results suggest that miR-181b-5p was highly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma and its expression was negatively related to PARK2 expression in CCA tissues. miR-181b-5p expression in the serum and tissues was upregulated and associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. Increased expression of miR-181b-5p had relatively high diagnostic accuracy and showed poor prognosis in CCA patients. In addition, miR-181b-5p overexpression enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting PARK2. Overexpression of miR-181b-5p activated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, while knockdown of miR-181b-5p suppressed the signaling pathway. Increased expression of miR-181b-5p in CCA may be a potential diagnostic or/and prognostic indicator for CCA patients. The present data indicated miR-181b-5p acted as an oncogene in CCA through promoting tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of CCA via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by targeting PARK2, which might be a promising therapeutic target or biomarker for CCA.

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