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1.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628712

RESUMO

We previously observed decreased expression of rice OsmiR159a.1 on infection with the bacterial blight-causing pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), and identified the OsLRR_RLK (leucine-rich repeat_ receptor like kinase) gene as an authentic target of OsmiR159a.1. Here, we found that a Tos17 insertion mutant of LRR_RLK displayed increasing temporal resistance to Xoo, whereas the LRR_RLK overexpression lines were susceptible to the pathogen early on in the infection, indicating that LRR_RLK encodes a repressor of rice resistance to Xoo infection, and it was renamed as RIR1 (Rice Immunity Repressor 1). RIR1 overexpression plants were more susceptible to Xoo at late growth stage, suggesting that RIR1 mRNA levels are negatively correlated with the resistance of rice against Xoo. We discovered that OsmiR159a.1 repression in Xoo-infected plants was largely dependent on the pathogen's type III secretion system. Co-immunoprecipitation, bimolecular fluoresence complementation, and pull-down assays indicated that RIR1 interacted with the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NUO) 51-kDa subunit of the mitochondrial complex I through its kinase domain. Notably, impairment of RIR1 or overexpression of NUO resulted in reactive oxygen species accumulation and enhanced expression of pathogen-resistance genes, including jasmonic acid pathway genes. We propose that pathogens may inhibit OsmiR159 to interfere with the RIR1-NUO interaction, and subsequently depression of rice immune signalling pathways. The resistance genes manipulated by Xoo can be a probe to explore the regulatory network during host-pathogen interactions.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1096, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most prevalent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with LUAD have a poor 5-year survival rate. The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for the treatment of LUAD has been on the rise in the past decade. This study explored the prognostic role of butyrophilin-like 9 (BTNL9) in LUAD. METHODS: Gene expression profile of buytrophilins (BTNs) was determined using the GEPIA database. The effect of BTNL9 on the survival of LUAD patients was assessed using Kaplan-Meier plotter and OncoLnc. Correlation between BTNL9 expression and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TILs) was explored using TIMER and GEPIA databases. Further, the relationship between BTNL9 expression and drug response was evaluated using CARE. Besides, construction and evaluation of nomogram based on BTNL9 expression and TNM stage. RESULTS: BTNL9 expression was downregulated in LUAD and was associated with a poor probability of 1, 3, 5-years overall survival (OS). In addition, BTNL9 expression was regulated at epigenetic and post-transcriptional modification levels. Moreover, BTNL9 expression was significantly positively correlated with ImmuneScore and ESTIMATEScore. Furthermore, BTNL9 expression was positively associated with infiltration levels of B cells, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that BTNL9 expression in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs) was significantly associated with OS. BTNL9 expression was significantly positively correlated with CARE scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that BTNL9 is a potential prognostic biomarker for LUAD. Low BTNL9 expression levels associated with low infiltration levels of naïve B cells, and DCs in the tumor microenvironment are unfavorable for OS in LUAD patients.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2100128, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617419

RESUMO

Age is a major risk factor for cancer. While the importance of age related genetic alterations in cells on cancer progression is well documented, the effect of aging extracellular matrix (ECM) has been overlooked. This study shows that the aging breast ECM alone is sufficient to drive normal human mammary epithelial cells (KTB21) to a more invasive and cancer-like phenotype, while promoting motility and invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 cells. Decellularized breast matrix from aged mice leads to loss of E-cadherin membrane localization in KTB21 cells, increased cell motility and invasion, and increased production of inflammatory cytokines and cancer-related proteins. The aged matrix upregulates cancer-related genes in KTB21 cells and enriches a cell subpopulation highly expressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes. Lysyl oxidase knockdown reverts the aged matrix-induced changes to the young levels; it relocalizes E-cadherin to cell membrane, and reduces cell motility, invasion, and cytokine production. These results show for the first time that the aging ECM harbors key biochemical, physical, and mechanical cues contributing to invasive and cancer-like behavior in healthy and cancer mammary cells. Differential response of cells to young and aged ECMs can lead to identification of new targets for cancer treatment and prevention.

4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 60-69, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628320

RESUMO

Hollow materials have many advantages when acting as electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorber, such as excellent impedance matching properties, rich micro-interfaces and light weight. In this work, a novel hollow particle with double-shell composed with CuS and Mn(OH)2 is synthesized by coordination etching, precipitation and sulfuration using tetrakaidecahedral Cu2O as template. These hollow particles are expected to be used as improved EMW absorption property at an ultra-wide band. In this hollow particle, tetrakaidecaheral CuS acts as inner shell and Mn(OH)2 acted as outer shell, thus having rich heterogeneous interfaces which induce strong interfacial polarization. Moreover, the lower electrical conductivity and loose structure of the Mn(OH)2 shell facilitates the entry of EMW into the absorbers, and the hollow structure in this particle is beneficial to improve the impedance matching according to Maxwell-Garnett (MG) theory. Therefore, hollow CuS@Mn(OH)2 particles with double-shell exhibit excellent EMW absorption performance. The effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss (RL) ≤ -10 dB) is 6.88 GHz (from 11.12 GHz to 18 GHz) at 2.3 mm thickness of sample.

5.
Phytomedicine ; 92: 153709, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic idiopathic disease that is characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Proper management of IBD requires both early diagnosis and novel therapies and management programs. Many reports have suggested that Chinese medicine has unique properties favorable to the treatment of IBD. However, there are no systematic analyses on this topic. PURPOSE: This review summarizes recent studies that assessed the effects and mechanisms of Chinese medicine in the treatment of IBD in order to fully understand the advantages of Chinese medicine in the management of IBD. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using peer-reviewed and clinical databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Springer LINK, Wan-fang database, the Chinese Biomedicine Database, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Keywords used were inflammatory bowel disease (including Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease) and Chinese medicine. All selected articles were from 1997 to 2021, and each were assessed critically for our exclusion criteria. Studies describing the pathogenesis of IBD, the effects and mechanisms of Chinese medicine in the treatment of IBD, in particular their roles in immune regulation, intestinal flora regulation, and improvement of intestinal barrier function, were included. CONCLUSION: This review highlights recent progress in the use of Chinese medicine in the treatment of IBD. It also provides a reference for further evaluation and exploration of the potential of classical multi-herbal Chinese medicine in the treatment of IBD.

7.
Analyst ; 146(19): 5951-5961, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490872

RESUMO

The stability, repeatability and sensitivity of an electrochemical biosensor material are closely connected with the dispersibility of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) in aqueous media. Herein, a nanocomposite based on Cu-MOF/hemin, which is not only highly water-soluble but also simple and efficient in synthesis, was used for the construction of a non-enzymatic sensor to detect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The Cu-MOF/hemin was characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)-mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), which indicate that hemin and the Cu-MOF were successfully combined. As a H2O2 electrochemical biomimetic enzyme, the Cu-MOF/hemin exhibited excellent electrocatalytic performance, which was confirmed by the electrochemical experiments and chromogenic reactions, and the possible mechanism of the reactions has been deduced. The electrochemical sensor based on the biomimetic enzyme exhibited an extended linear detection range from 0.01-5.0 mM (R = 0.998), low detection limit of 4.14 µM, and high selectivity and stability under the optimized conditions. More importantly, the practical application ability of the sensor was verified by the test of H2O2 in human serum samples and it could be used for the real-time detection of H2O2 released from living cells with satisfactory results. Therefore, this novel nanocomposite has certain potential in preparing electrochemical sensing platforms for nonenzymatic biosensing and provides a new method for clinical diagnosis and real-time monitoring.


Assuntos
Hemina , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Biônica , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
8.
Microsc Microanal ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544517

RESUMO

We present an unsupervised machine learning approach for segmentation of static and dynamic atomic-resolution microscopy data sets in the form of images and video sequences. In our approach, we first extract local features via symmetry operations. Subsequent dimension reduction and clustering analysis are performed in feature space to assign pattern labels to each pixel. Furthermore, we propose the stride and upsampling scheme as well as separability analysis to speed up the segmentation process of image sequences. We apply our approach to static atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images and video sequences. Our code is released as a python module that can be used as a standalone program or as a plugin to other microscopy packages.

9.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 195(2): 69-74, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341830

RESUMO

A radioluminescence (RL) study of dose characteristics of tissue-equivalent LiF:Mg,Ti was carried out to determine the possible application as a real-time dosemeter. An RL measurements system based on LiF:Mg,Ti coupled with optical fiber was developed, and a blank fiber was set to remove the stem effect generated by the optical fiber due to direct radiation. A slight increase of RL sensitivity with accumulated dose and the afterglow effect due to shallow traps in LiF:Mg,Ti were observed, thus a set of algorithms was adopted to correct measured dose rate. A good linearity of dose-rate response using RL in LiF:Mg,Ti over more than four orders of magnitude (from 0.76 mGy/h to 8.02 Gy/h) was shown, and the deviation of calibrated dose rate is within 20%. Moreover, a satisfactory reproducibility (1.45%) of the measured dose rate after correction was represented. The results indicated that LiF:Mg,Ti might be promising for real-time dose monitoring.


Assuntos
Dosimetria Termoluminescente , Titânio , Algoritmos , Fluoretos , Compostos de Lítio , Doses de Radiação , Dosímetros de Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Med Phys ; 48(9): 5130-5141, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245012

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In current clinical practice, noisy and artifact-ridden weekly cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are only used for patient setup during radiotherapy. Treatment planning is performed once at the beginning of the treatment using high-quality planning CT (pCT) images and manual contours for organs-at-risk (OARs) structures. If the quality of the weekly CBCT images can be improved while simultaneously segmenting OAR structures, this can provide critical information for adapting radiotherapy mid-treatment as well as for deriving biomarkers for treatment response. METHODS: Using a novel physics-based data augmentation strategy, we synthesize a large dataset of perfectly/inherently registered pCT and synthetic-CBCT pairs for locally advanced lung cancer patient cohort, which are then used in a multitask three-dimensional (3D) deep learning framework to simultaneously segment and translate real weekly CBCT images to high-quality pCT-like images. RESULTS: We compared the synthetic CT and OAR segmentations generated by the model to real pCT and manual OAR segmentations and showed promising results. The real week 1 (baseline) CBCT images which had an average mean absolute error (MAE) of 162.77 HU compared to pCT images are translated to synthetic CT images that exhibit a drastically improved average MAE of 29.31 HU and average structural similarity of 92% with the pCT images. The average DICE scores of the 3D OARs segmentations are: lungs 0.96, heart 0.88, spinal cord 0.83, and esophagus 0.66. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate an approach to translate artifact-ridden CBCT images to high-quality synthetic CT images, while simultaneously generating good quality segmentation masks for different OARs. This approach could allow clinicians to adjust treatment plans using only the routine low-quality CBCT images, potentially improving patient outcomes. Our code, data, and pre-trained models will be made available via our physics-based data augmentation library, Physics-ArX, at https://github.com/nadeemlab/Physics-ArX.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico Espiral , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Órgãos em Risco , Física , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are important measures of success after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and being able to predict their improvements could enhance preoperative decision-making. Our study aims to compare the predictive performance of machine learning (ML) algorithms and preoperative PROM thresholds in predicting minimal clinically important difference (MCID) attainment at 2 years after TKA. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of 2840 primary TKA performed between 2008 and 2018 was extracted from our joint replacement registry and split into a training set (80%) and test set (20%). Using the training set, ML algorithms were developed using patient demographics, comorbidities and preoperative PROMs, whereas the optimal preoperative threshold was determined using ROC analysis. Both methods were used to predict MCID attainment for the SF-36 PCS, MCS and WOMAC at 2 years postoperatively, with predictive performance evaluated on the independent test set. RESULTS: ML algorithms and preoperative PROM models performed similarly in predicting MCID for the SF-36 PCS (AUC: 0.77 vs 0.74), MCS (AUC: 0.95 vs 0.95) and WOMAC (AUC: 0.89 vs 0.88). For each outcome, the most important predictor of MCID attainment was the patient's preoperative PROM score. ROC analysis also identified optimal preoperative threshold values of 33.6, 54.1 and 72.7 for the SF-36 PCS, MCS and WOMAC, respectively. CONCLUSION: ML algorithms did not perform significantly better than preoperative PROM thresholds in predicting MCID attainment after TKA. Future research should routinely compare the predictive ability of ML algorithms with existing methods and determine the type of clinical problems which may benefit the most from it. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240604

RESUMO

O3-type sodium-layered oxides (such as antimony-based O3 structures) have been suggested as one of the most fascinating cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Honeycomb-ordered antimony-based O3 structures, however, unsatisfactorily exhibit complex phase transitions and sluggish Na+ kinetics during cycling. Herein, we prepared a completely cationic-disordered O3-type Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2 compound by composition regulation for SIBs. Surprisingly, the measured redox potentials for typical O3-P3 phase transition are located at 3.4 V. Operando X-ray diffraction confirms a reversible phase transition process from the O3 to P3 structure accompanied with a very small volume change (1.0%) upon sodium extraction and insertion. The low activation barrier energy of 400 meV and the fast Na+ migration of 10-11 cm2·s-1 are further obtained by first-principles calculations and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique, respectively. As a result, the O3-Na0.8Ni0.6Sb0.4O2 cathode displays a reversible capacity of 106 mA h g-1 at 0.1C (12 mA g-1), smooth charge-discharge curves, and a high average working voltage of 3.5 V during battery cycling. The results highlight the importance of searching for a new O3-type structure with cation-disordering and high working voltage for realizing high energy SIBs.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3281-3290, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212654

RESUMO

In this study, indoor simulation experiments were performed to elucidate the effects of migration and transformation of dissolving organic matter (DOM) during the decay of algal blooms. Based on ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis) and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs), spectral characterizations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in overlying water were evaluated with analyses of the physical and chemical indexes, variation in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Results showed that at the early stage of decay, a large amount of organic matter was released, and dissolved oxygen (DO) decreased sharply. With the extension of reaction time, DOC gradually changed into DIC, which further changed the oxidation-reduction and acid-base characteristics of the water. UV-vis spectra showed that a large amount of DOM was released with high aromaticity and a high degree of humification, and the released DOM was gradually degraded. With the application of parallel factor analysis in excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEM-PARAFAC), three fluorescence components were analyzed:refractory humic-like substances (C1), protein-like tryptophan substances (C2) produced by algae, and fulvic-like substances (C3) related to microbial activities. Most protein-like tryptophan substances were degraded into fulvic-like substances by microorganisms during the decaying process. Heterotrophic microorganisms promoted the release of algae-derived DOM and accelerated the degradation of DOM. The DOM born during algae blooms decaying process was eventually converted into humic-like substance, which was difficult to be degraded. We analyzed correlations of water quality, UV-vis spectrum, and EEMs parameters. Results showed that ORP was positively correlated (P<0.05) with DO. There was a significant negative correlation (P<0.05) between pH and DOC, which was consistent with the trend of the transformation to from DOC to DIC; C1 was positively correlated (P<0.05) with Fn355; and C2 was significantly positively correlated (P<0.05) with DOC and Fn280; C3 was positively correlated (P<0.05) with FI, BIX and ß:α. The variation trend of these spectral parameters was consistent with that of DOM components. In summary, with the analyses of water quality characteristics and spectral characteristics of DOM in overlying water during algae blooms decaying process, it was expected that our results could contribute to the further exploration of the dynamic migration and transformation of lake DOM and the changes of carbon cycling.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Água , Eutrofização , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Lagos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
14.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211026397, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281408

RESUMO

Greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSPN) schwannomas are an exceedingly rare nerve sheath tumor. The current literature search was conducted using Medline and Embase database by key search terms. Only 31 cases have been reported in the literature so far. Facial palsy, hearing loss, and xerophthalmia accounted for 48.4% (15), 41.9% (13), and 29% (9) of all cases, respectively. The middle cranial fossa approach was used in all previous reports. A retrospective review of 2 GSPN schwannomas patients treated by endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) in our center was collected. Clinical records, including clinical features, pre- and postoperative images, surgery, and follow-up information, were reviewed. In all cases, clinical features including facial numbness and headache were found, with tinnitus in case 1, hearing loss, xerophthalmia in case 2. Imaging studies showed a solid mass that originated in the anterior of the petrous bone. Two patients were treated by EEA. Furthermore, no recurrence was found during the follow-up period (15-29 months) in both of the 2 cases after the operation. Complete resection of GSPN schwannomas can be achieved via the pure EEA. Endoscopic endonasal approach for radical removal of tumors is safe and feasible.

15.
Chemistry ; 27(45): 11600-11608, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060158

RESUMO

Amorphous Tix Oy with high surface area has attracted significant interest as photocatalyst with higher activity in ultraviolet (UV) light-induced water splitting applications compared to commercial nanocrystalline TiO2 . Under photocatalytic operation conditions, the structure of the molecular titanium alkoxide precursor rearranges upon hydrolysis and leads to higher connectivity of the structure-building units. Structurally ordered domains with sizes smaller than 7 Šform larger aggregates. The experimental scattering data can be explained best with a structure model consisting of an anatase-like core and a distorted shell. Upon exposure to UV light, the white Tix Oy suspension turns dark corresponding to the reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+ as confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Heat-induced crystallisation was followed by in situ temperature-dependent total scattering experiments. First, ordering in the Ti-O environment takes place upon to 350 °C. Above this temperature, the distorted anatase core starts to grow but the structure obtained at 400 °C is still not fully ordered.

17.
Cell Rep ; 35(11): 109235, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133924

RESUMO

T regulatory (Treg) cells are crucial to maintain immune tolerance and repress antitumor immunity, but the mechanisms governing their cellular redox homeostasis remain elusive. We report that glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) prevents Treg cells from lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis in regulating immune homeostasis and antitumor immunity. Treg-specific deletion of Gpx4 impairs immune homeostasis without substantially affecting survival of Treg cells at steady state. Loss of Gpx4 results in excessive accumulation of lipid peroxides and ferroptosis of Treg cells upon T cell receptor (TCR)/CD28 co-stimulation. Neutralization of lipid peroxides and blockade of iron availability rescue ferroptosis of Gpx4-deficient Treg cells. Moreover, Gpx4-deficient Treg cells elevate generation of mitochondrial superoxide and production of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) that facilitates T helper 17 (TH17) responses. Furthermore, Treg-specific ablation of Gpx4 represses tumor growth and concomitantly potentiates antitumor immunity. Our studies establish a crucial role for Gpx4 in protecting activated Treg cells from lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis and offer a potential therapeutic strategy to improve cancer treatment.

19.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; PP2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793396

RESUMO

GOAL: Typical SRUS images are reconstructed by localizing ultrasound microbubbles (MBs) injected in a vessel using normalized 2-dimensional cross-correlation (2DCC) between MBs signals and the point spread function of the system. However, current techniques require isolated MBs in a confined area due to inaccurate localization of densely populated MBs. To overcome this limitation, we developed the 1-homotopy based compressed sensing (L1H-CS) based SRUS imaging technique which localizes densely populated MBs to visualize microvasculature in vivo. METHODS: To evaluate the performance of L1H-CS, we compared the performance of 2DCC, interior-point method based compressed sensing (CVX-CS), and L1H-CS algorithms. Localization efficiency was compared using axially and laterally aligned point targets (PTs) with known distances and randomly distributed PTs generated by simulation. We developed post-processing techniques including clutter reduction, noise equalization, motion compensation, and spatiotemporal noise filtering for in vivo imaging. We then validated the capabilities of L1H-CS based SRUS imaging technique with high-density MBs in a mouse tumor model, kidney, and zebrafish dorsal trunk, and brain. RESULTS: Compared to 2DCC and CVX-CS algorithms, L1H-CS achieved faster data acquisition time and considerable improvement in SRUS image quality. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that the L1H-CS based SRUS imaging technique has the potential to examine microvasculature with reduced acquisition and reconstruction time to acquire enhanced SRUS image quality, which may be necessary to translate it into clinics.

20.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; : 102933, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857684

RESUMO

AIMS: Non-union is a known and much-dreaded complication of paediatric lateral condyle fractures. This systematic review aims to pool together individual studies to find out if the timing of fixation and method of fixation impacts surgical outcomes (postoperative union and elbow ROM) in paediatric lateral condyle non-union. METHODS: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. All surgical studies with original data on pediatric lateral humeral condyle non-union were included. Patients who did not undergo surgical fixation were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies with 177 patients were included. In total, 159 patients (89.8%) achieved bony union postoperatively while 18 patients (10.2%) did not. Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that percutaneous fixation (p-value=0.020) was associated with lower rates of postoperative union compared to open fixation, whereas the age at surgery did not have a significant impact (p-value=0.401). For elbow ROM, mixed-effects linear regression showed that increased age at surgery (p-value=0.007) and reduction of the fracture fragment (vs. in situ fixation) (p-value=0.041) were associated with reduced postoperative ROM whereas female sex (p-value=0.009) and corrective osteotomy (p-value=0.045) were associated with increased postoperative ROM. CONCLUSION: While the timing of surgical fixation did not significantly impact postoperative bony union, undergoing fixation at an older age was associated with reduced postoperative elbow ROM. In addition, percutaneous fixation may be associated with poorer postoperative union compared to open fixation while anatomical reduction may be associated with reduced postoperative elbow ROM compared to in situ fixation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

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