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2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 899: 174034, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727056

RESUMO

Glycine receptor is one of the chloride-permeable ion channels composed of combinations of four α subunits and one ß subunit. In adult spinal cord, the glycine receptor α1 subunit is crucial for the generation of inhibitory neurotransmission. The reduced glycinergic inhibition is regarded as one of the key spinal mechanisms underlying pathological pain symptoms. However, the expression and function of glycine receptors in the peripheral system are largely unknown as yet. Here we found that glycine receptor α1 subunit was prevalent in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons as well as in the sciatic nerves of adult mice. Intraganglionar or intraplantar injection of glycine receptor antagonist strychnine caused the hypersensitivity to mechanical, thermal and cold stimuli, suggesting the functional importance of peripheral glycine receptors in the control of nociceptive signal transmission. Our data showed that peripheral inflammation induced by formalin decreased the expression of glycine receptor α1 subunit on the plasma membrane of DRG neurons, which was attributed to the activation of protein kinase C signaling. Intraplantar application of glycine receptor agonist glycine or positive modulator divalent zinc ion alleviated the first-phase painful behaviors induced by formalin. These data suggested that peripheral glycine receptor might serve as an effective target for pain therapy.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786715

RESUMO

Besides the normal hearing pathway known as air conduction (AC), sound can also transmit to the cochlea through the skull, known as bone conduction (BC). During BC stimulation, the cochlear walls demonstrate rigid body motion (RBM) and compressional motion (CPM), both inducing the basilar membrane traveling wave (TW). Despite numerous measuring and modeling efforts for the TW phenomenon, the mechanism remains unclear, especially in the case of BC. This paper proposes a 3D finite element cochlea model mimicking the TW under BC. The model uses a traditional "box model" form, but in a spiral shape, with two fluid chambers separated by the long and flexible BM. The cochlear fluid was enclosed by bony walls, the oval and round window membranes. Contingent boundary conditions and stimulations are introduced according to the physical basis of AC and BC. Particularly for BC, both RBM and CPM of the cochlea walls are simulated. Harmonic numerical solutions are obtained at multiple frequencies among the hearing range. The BM vibration amplitude ([Formula: see text]) and its relation with volume displacement difference between the oval and round windows [Formula: see text], as well as the pressure difference at the base of the cochlea ([Formula: see text]), are analyzed. The simulated BM response at 12 mm from the base is peaked at about 3 k Hz, which is consistent with published experimental data. The TW properties under AC and BC are the same and have a common mechanism. (1) [Formula: see text] is proportional to [Formula: see text] at low frequencies. (2) [Formula: see text] is also proportional to [Formula: see text], within 5 dB error at high frequencies such as 16 k Hz. This study partly reveals the common quantitative relations between the TW and related factors under AC and BC hearing.

4.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600342

RESUMO

This article studies the leader-following consensus of multiagent systems (MASs) with completely event-triggered mechanisms (CETMs) and directed switching topologies. When most event-triggered schemes in MASs only reduce each agent's data transmissions to neighbor agents, CETMs further reduce data transmissions to actuators with one triggered function in each agent. To guarantee the switching links utilized by CETMs contain a directed spanning tree at any time, triggered decisions are improved to include the instants at which each agent's output links or leader link change. Furthermore, a less conservative method based on matrix inequalities is combined to minimize the allowable average dwell time (ADT) of switching topologies under the design conditions of CETMs. Based on multiple Lyapunov functions (MLFs), the sufficient conditions for controller gains that guarantee the leader-following consensus of MASs are proposed when the ADT of switching topologies is larger than the allowable value. Finally, an example of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is given to illustrate the effectiveness of CETMs.

5.
Orthop Surg ; 13(1): 202-206, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lumbar spondylolisthesis (LS) is a common lumbar disease, and the prevalence of LS in different countries or regions was not consistent in the past. This study intends to make statistics on the prevalence of lumbar spondylolisthesis in middle-aged people in Beijing community. METHODS: This is an epidemiological study. 4548 people in Beijing community aged 50 to 64 years were recruited from the local communities by advertisements placed in housing estates and community centres for people to take part in a prospective cohort study from August from September 2013 to March 2014. There is no intervention on the subjects. RadiAnt DICOM Viewer is adopted to read the lateral CT positioning images of all the studied objects, adjust the image as bone window, observe and evaluate the slide of L1 to L5 vertebra in the lateral CT positioning image. RESULTS: Among the 4,548 subjects included in the study, 2,490 (54.75%) were male and 2,058 (45.25%) were female. A total of 785 subjects had lumbar spondylolisthesis, with a total incidence of 17.26%. There was no significant difference between prevalence of males and females in the subgroup 50-54 years old (13.55% males / 12.53% females) and 55-59 years old (14.77% males / 14.93% females). But the prevalence of LS in 60-64 years old females (28.57%) increased significantly, compared with 55-59 years old females (14.93%) and 60-64 years old males (18.76%). There were 847 levels that had slipped, L5S1 > L4/5 > L3/4 > L2/3 > L1/2. The retrolisthesis was the most, accounting for 61.51% (521/847), and the anterolisthesis was 38.49% (326/847), including anterolisthesis gradeI for 95.71% (312/326), anterolisthesis gradeII for 4.29% (14/326). Neither of anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis presented more than grade III. Among all the subjects, 318 had anterolisthesis, with a total incidence of 6.99%, and 467 subjects only had retrolisthesis. CONCLUSION: The total prevalence of LS in the middle-aged people in Beijing community was 17.26%, 15.98% in males and 18.80% in females, and women are more likely to suffer from LS after 60 years old.

6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 792, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertebral augmentation is the first-line treatment for the osteoporosis vertebral compression fractures. Bone cement leakage is the most common complication of this surgery. This study aims to assess the risk factors for different types of cement leakage and provides a nomogram for predicting the cement intradiscal leakage. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 268 patients who underwent vertebral augmentation procedure between January 2015 and March 2019. The cement leakage risk factors were evaluated by univariate analysis. Different types of cement leakage risk factors were identified by the stepwise logistic analysis. We provided a nomogram for predicting the cement intradiscal leakage and used the concordance index to assess the prediction ability. RESULTS: A total of 295 levels of vertebrae were included, with a leakage rate of 32.5%. Univariate analysis showed delayed surgery and lower vertebral compression ratio were the independent risk factors of cement leakage. The stepwise logistic analysis revealed percutaneous vertebroplasty was a risk factor in vein cement leakage; delayed surgery, preoperative compression ratio, and upper endplate disruption were in intradiscal cement leakage; age, preoperative fracture severity, and intravertebral vacuum cleft were in perivertebral soft tissue cement leakage; no factor was in spinal canal cement leakage. The nomogram for intradiscal cement leakage had a precise prediction ability with an original concordance index of 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed surgery and more vertebral compression increase the risk of cement leakage. Different types of cement leakage have different risk factors. We provided a nomogram for precise predicting the intradiscal cement leakage.

7.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 460, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) promote tissue regeneration and repair. Cryoprotective agents (CPAs) protect cells from cryodamage during cryopreservation. Safe and efficient cryopreservation of ADSCs is critical for cell-based therapy in clinical applications. However, most CPAs are used at toxic concentrations, limiting their clinical application. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop a non-toxic xeno-free novel CPA aiming at achieving high-efficiency and low-risk ADSC cryopreservation. METHODS: We explored different concentrations of trehalose (0.3 M, 0.6 M, 1.0 M, and 1.25 M) and glycerol (10%, 20%, and 30% v/v) for optimization and evaluated and compared the outcomes of ADSCs cryopreservation between a combination of trehalose and glycerol and the commonly used CPA DMSO (10%) + FBS (90%). All samples were slowly frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for 30 days. The effectiveness was evaluated by the viability, proliferation, migration, and multi-potential differentiation of the ADSCs after thawing. RESULTS: Compared with the groups treated with individual reagents, the 1.0 M trehalose (Tre) + 20% glycerol (Gly) group showed significantly higher efficiency in preserving ADSC activities after thawing, with better outcomes in both cell viability and proliferation capacity. Compared with the 10% DMSO + 90% FBS treatment, the ADSCs preserved in 1.0 M Tre + 20% Gly showed similar cell viability, surface markers, and multi-potential differentiation but a significantly higher migration capability. The results indicated that cell function preservation can be improved by 1.0 M Tre + 20% Gly. CONCLUSIONS: The 1.0 M Tre + 20% Gly treatment preserved ADSCs with a higher migration capability than 10% DMSO + 90% FBS and with viability higher than that with trehalose or glycerol alone but similar to that with 10% DMSO + 90% FBS and fresh cells. Moreover, the new CPA achieves stemness and multi-potential differentiation similar to those in fresh cells. Our results demonstrate that 1.0 M Tre + 20% Gly can more efficiently cryopreserve ADSCs and is a non-toxic CPA that may be suitable for clinical applications.

8.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 13(10): 1538-1545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078102

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the alleviation of scutellarein (SN) against inner blood-retinal-barrier (iBRB) dysfunction in microglia cells stimulated by hyperglycemia and to elucidate the engaged mechanism. METHODS: Microglia BV2 cells were stimulated by using 25 mmol/L D-glucose. The same concentration of mannitol (25 mmol/L) was applied as an isotonic contrast. Real-time PCR, Western-blot assay and immunofluorescence staining assay was performed. The dysfunction of iBRB in vitro was detected by using transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay. Additionally, the leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran (70 kDa) was detected. RESULTS: SN abrogated microglia BV2 cells activation and reduced the phosphorylated activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2. SN also decreased the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1ß in BV2 cells treated with D-glucose (25 mmol/L). SN attenuated iBRB dysfunction in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) or choroid-retinal endothelial RF/6A cells when those cells were treated with TNFα, IL-1ß or IL-6, or co-cultured with microglia cells stimulated by D-glucose. Moreover, SN restored the decreased protein expression of tight junctions (TJs) in TNFα-treated HRECs and RF/6A cells. CONCLUSION: SN not only alleviate iBRB dysfunction via directly inhibiting retinal endothelial injury caused by TNFα, IL-1ß or IL-6, but also reduce the release of TNFα, IL-1ß and IL-6 from microglia cells by abrogating hyperglycemia-mediated the activation of microglia cells.

9.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 137: 110233, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a measurement method for external auditory canal (EAC), especially in congenital aural stenosis (CAS). METHODS: High-resolution CT (HRCT) datasets of CAS were imported into the MIMICS 15.0 software for image processing. We used two methods to evaluate the degree of CAS. One is sagittal reconstruction measurement method, the minor axis of the bony ear canal was measured in each layer using sagittal reconstruction. The other is Matlab procedure calculation, we calculated the midpoint axis values of the EAC in each Frankfurt plane. Finally, we compared the minimum value of each method, and verified the sagittal reconstruction measurement method retrospectively in the CAS cases without cholesteatoma who had undergone meatoplasty. RESULTS: Twenty CAS cases were selected using the sagittal reconstruction measurement method and Matlab procedure calculation to evaluate the degree of CAS. The mean age was 9.55 ± 2.85 years old (range: 6-15). The mean degree of CAS was 2.09 ± 0.50 mm by sagittal reconstruction measurement method and 2.03 ± 0.58 mm by Matlab procedure calculation. There were no significant differences in the two groups (t = -1.371, p = 0.186). A total of 94 HRCT datasets were imported into MIMICS for verification. The mean age was 11.66 ± 6.56 years old (range: 6-39). Mean stenosis of EAC at surgery was 2.88 ± 0.93 mm (range: 1-4) by using sagittal reconstruction measurement method. CONCLUSIONS: Matlab procedure calculation is precise but relatively complicated and is only for scientific research. The sagittal reconstruction measurement method to calculate the most stenotic part of the bony ear canal is relatively simple and accurate to evaluate the degree of CAS. In cases of CAS without cholesteatoma, the precise measurement was critical for the next consultation.

10.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 137: 110234, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autogenous costal cartilage grafts have gained the golden standard method in microtia reconstruction. Right now, there was no useful method to assess the quality of costal cartilage before microtia reconstruction surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasonography in assessing costal cartilage in patients who were ready to do microtia reconstruction surgery. METHODS: A prospective controlled study was conducted to collect 65 patients who underwent microtia reconstruction and underwent ultrasonography of costal cartilage before operation. The results of costal cartilage calcification and honeycombed phenomenon measured by ultrasonography were compared with those during operation. The age-specific patterns in calcification and honeycombed phenomenon were explored. RESULTS: According to the results of ultrasonography, the positive rate of calcification was 10.9% in patients under 18 years old, while 80% in patients over 18 years old. The positive rate of honeycombed phenomenon was 2.8% in patients under 12 years old, 42.9% in patients between 12 and 18 years old, and 25% in patients over 18 years old. Compared with intraoperative results, the accuracy rate of ultrasonography for calcification was 100%. The accuracy rate for honeycombed phenomenon was 83.3%. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography has high accuracy rate in assessing the calcification and honeycombed phenomenon of the costal cartilage, which was of vital importance for microtia reconstruction. The quality of costal cartilage changed with the age.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809049

RESUMO

Dendritic cell (DC) vaccine has been proved to be an effective way in cancer immunotherapy in both preclinical and clinical studies. However, limitations in DC isolation and culture have hampered its practice and promoted the development of other antigen-presenting cells (APCs) sources to fulfill that role. Our previous studies have shown that B cells loaded by tumor cell-derived autophagosomes, which we named as DRibbles (defective ribosomal products-containing blebs), could reactivate DC-induced effector T cell response. In this study, the roles of DRibble-loaded B cells in priming naïve CD8+ T cell responses and controlling tumors were investigated. We found that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) on DRibbles was involved in DRibble-induced B cell activation, and the DRibble-triggered B cell phagocytosis via the caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathway. By using OT-I mouse-derived T cells, we demonstrated that DRibble-loaded B cells could activate specific naïve CD8+ T cells in vitro and ex vivo. In a tumor-bearing mouse model, DRibble-loaded B cells elicited systemic antitumor immunity and significantly suppressed the tumor growth. Moreover, the antitumor efficacy of DRibble-loaded B cells was enhanced when they were combined with CpG and anti-CD40 stimulation. These results suggest that DRibble-loaded B cells represent a viable and practical therapeutic vaccination strategy that might have important clinical implications for tumor immunotherapy.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643319

RESUMO

The direct, nonoxidative conversion of methane on a silica-confined single-atom iron catalyst is a landmark discovery in catalysis, but the proposed gas-phase reaction mechanism is still open to discussion. Here, we report a surface reaction mechanism by computational modeling and simulations. The activation of methane occurs at the single iron site, whereas the dissociated methyl disfavors desorption into gas phase under the reactive conditions. In contrast, the dissociated methyl prefers transferring to adjacent carbon sites of the active center (Fe1 ©SiC2 ), followed by C-C coupling and hydrogen transfer to produce the main product (ethylene) via a key -CH-CH2 intermediate. We find a quasi Mars-van Krevelen (quasi-MvK) surface reaction mechanism involving extracting and refilling the surface carbon atoms for the nonoxidative conversion of methane on Fe1 ©SiO2 and this surface process is identified to be more plausible than the alternative gas-phase reaction mechanism.

13.
Sci Signal ; 13(638)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606037

RESUMO

N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors (NMDARs) containing GluN2B subunits are prevalent early after birth in most brain regions in rodents. Upon synapse maturation, GluN2B is progressively removed from synapses, which affects NMDAR function and synaptic plasticity. Aberrant recruitment of GluN2B into mature synapses has been implicated in several neuropathologies that afflict adults. We found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b was enriched in the spinal cord dorsal horn neurons of mice and rats and suppressed GluN2B abundance during development and inflammatory pain. Cbl-b abundance increased from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P14, a critical time period for synapse maturation. Through its N-terminal tyrosine kinase binding domain, Cbl-b interacted with GluN2B. Ubiquitination of GluN2B by Cbl-b decreased the synaptic transmission mediated by GluN2B-containing NMDARs. Knocking down Cbl-b in vivo during P1 to P14 led to sustained retention of GluN2B at dorsal horn synapses, suggesting that Cbl-b limits the synaptic abundance of GluN2B in adult mice. However, peripheral inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant resulted in the dephosphorylation of Cbl-b at Tyr363, which impaired its binding to and ubiquitylation of GluN2B, enabling the reappearance of GluN2B-containing NMDARs at synapses. Expression of a phosphomimic Cbl-b mutant in the dorsal horn suppressed both GluN2B-mediated synaptic currents and manifestations of pain induced by inflammation. The findings indicate a ubiquitin-mediated developmental switch in NMDAR subunit composition that is dysregulated by inflammation, which can enhance nociception.

14.
Neuropharmacology ; 176: 108219, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579955

RESUMO

Glycine receptor α1ins subunit is located at inhibitory synapses in the superficial dorsal horn of adult spinal cord and is engaged in the glycinergic inhibition of nociceptive neuronal excitability and transmission. The α1ins phosphorylation at Ser380 by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) has been shown to decrease glycinergic synaptic currents and contribute to spinal disinhibition. Here we found that peripheral inflammation induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant increased Ser380 phosphorylation in spinal cord dorsal horn of mice, which was repressed by specific activation of adenosine A1 receptor (A1R). Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), a ubiquitously-distributed serine/threonine phosphatase, was required for A1R to reduce Ser380 phosphorylation. Our data showed that Gßγ dimer, when released after activation of Gi protein-coupled A1R, interacted with PP1 and directed this phosphatase to α1ins, allowing for the full dephosphorylation of Ser380 residue. Sequestration of Gßγ dimer by viral expression of the C-terminal tail of ß-adrenergic receptor kinase (ßARKct) dissociated PP1 from α1ins complex, leading to robust Ser380 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, Gßγ inhibition compromised the ability of A1R to alleviate inflammatory pain. The inhibitory effect of A1R on Ser380 phosphorylation was also attributed to the inactivation of ERK in CFA mice. Our data thus identified glycine receptor α1ins subunit as an important target for adenosinergic suppression of inflammatory pain.

15.
Toxicol Lett ; 330: 167-175, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454083

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA), a feed mycotoxin, tends to impair the reproductive performance of animals. Our previous studies have demonstrated that OTA exposure inhibits porcine ovarian granulosa cell (GC) proliferation and induces their apoptosis, but the underlying toxic mechanism is still uncertain. In this study, we explored the OTA exposure on porcine GCs in vitro and found that OTA exposure inhibited the proliferation of porcine GCs and arrested cell cycle of GCs in the G2/M phase. The results based on RNA-Seq revealed that 20 µM and 40 µM OTA exposure increase DNA damage of porcine GCs in vitro. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of 40 µM OTA exposure were enriched in the pathways of mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination in DNA replication compared with control group and 20 µM OTA exposure group. Meanwhile, OTA exposure increased the expression levels of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) gene γ-H2AX, and DNA repair related genes, such as BRCA1, XRCC1, PARP1, and RAD51. Above all, our research revealed that OTA might exert deleterious effects on porcine ovarian GCs, influencing DNA repair-related biological processes and causing DNA damage response.

16.
Water Res ; 178: 115834, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339865

RESUMO

Bioactivity and settleability of activated sludge are essential for the operation of activated sludge systems in wastewater treatment. In this work, the fractal dimension of sludge image is proposed as a tool to evaluate these two factors. The specific endogenous respiration rate (SOURe) and the specific quasi-endogenous respiration rate (SOURq) are found to be more dependent on the 3D structure of sludge than the specific total respiration rate (SOURt). The relationship between the fractal structure and bioactivity suggests that the bioactivity governs the acceptable upper bound of the fractal dimension (Df), as at its theoretical maximum of 2.0, the non-porous compact flocs are predominant. The settleability or the biomass concentration determines the acceptable lower bound of Df, as at its theoretical minimum of 1.0, the free-swimming microbes are predominant. Our data reveal that the activated sludge has an acceptable fractal dimension Df in a range of 1.07-1.68. In practice, the fractal dimension should be controlled at a reasonable value as there is a trade-off between the bioactivity and physical structure to achieve better performance. A decrease or increase in the fractal dimension can serve as a signal for the change of the operational status, and this is further elucidated from the perspective of settling tanks using state point analysis. Compared with respirogram measurement, measuring fractal dimension is a complex process and its online implementation is challenging. Also, the measured value varies with the methods used. In addition, the difference in their theoretical values depends on the homogeneity of the sludge structure. Since the fractal dimension Df reflects both bioactivity and settleability of the sludge but is difficult to measure, in this work a relationship between Df and the easily measurable respirogram is established, and a method using the respirogram as a proxy of Df is proposed to control the bioactivity and settleability simultaneously. This respiration-based method is able to simultaneously control aeration and settling tanks, and could serve as an efficient tool for the management of wastewater treatment plants.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Fractais
18.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 50(7): 3094-3103, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142466

RESUMO

In this article, the security problem in cyber-physical systems (CPSs) against denial-of-service (DoS) attacks is studied from the perspectives of the designs of communication topology and distributed controller. To resist the DoS attacks, a new construction algorithm of the k -connected communication topology is developed based on the proposed necessary and sufficient criteria of the k -connected graph. Furthermore, combined with the k -connected topology, a distributed event-triggered controller is designed to guarantee the consensus of CPSs under mode-switching DoS (MSDoS) attacks. Different from the existing distributed control schemes, a new technology, that is, the extended Laplacian matrix method, is combined to design the distributed controller independent on the knowledge and the dwell time of DoS attack modes. Finally, the simulation example illustrates the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed construction algorithm and a distributed control scheme.

19.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 50(6): 2338-2345, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170086

RESUMO

In this paper, from the perspectives of defenders, we consider the detection problems of false data-injection attacks in cyber-physical systems (CPSs) with white noise. The false data-injection attacks usually modify the sensor data to make CPSs unstable and keep stealth for the χ2 detector. To guarantee system security, a novel detector, that is, the summation (SUM) detector, is proposed to detect the false data-injection attacks. Different from the χ2 detector, the SUM detector not only utilizes the current compromise information but also collects all historical information to reveal the threat. Its evaluation value also satisfies χ2 distribution when no attacks compromise the systems, and the false alarm rate can be restricted to less than any given value by choosing the proper threshold value. Furthermore, an improved false data-injection attack with a time-variable increment coefficient is introduced based on the existing approaches. The effects of the SUM detector are also verified for the traditional and the improved false data-injection attacks, respectively. Finally, some simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the SUM detector.

20.
Soft Matter ; 15(43): 8790-8799, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595944

RESUMO

In the present work, the evaporation-induced interfacial self-assembly behavior of an amphiphilic conjugated polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (P3HT-b-PAA), at the oil-water interface is explored. Novel 2D nanotapes of P3HT-b-PAA are prepared via the interfacial self-assembly. It is inferred that P3HT segments adopt a special conformation at the oil-water interface, which facilitates the packing of alkyl side chains and π-π interaction. The UV-vis spectrum further confirms that the ordering degree of P3HT segments is increased while transmission IR and Raman spectroscopic studies suggest that the P3HT chains adopt a more planar conformation at the oil-water interface. It is proposed that the formation of the nanotapes is driven by the ordered packing of the P3HT chains at the oil-water interface. Finally, the packing model of the P3HT chains inside the nanotapes is roughly proposed.

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