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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3192, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324803

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein, HBx, interacts with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins through its BH3-like motif to promote HBV replication and cytotoxicity. Here we report the crystal structure of HBx BH3-like motif in complex with Bcl-xL where the BH3-like motif adopts a short α-helix to snuggle into a hydrophobic pocket in Bcl-xL via its noncanonical Trp120 residue and conserved Leu123 residue. This binding pocket is ~2 Å away from the canonical BH3-only binding pocket in structures of Bcl-xL with proapoptotic BH3-only proteins. Mutations altering Trp120 and Leu123 in HBx impair its binding to Bcl-xL in vitro and HBV replication in vivo, confirming the importance of this motif to HBV. A HBx BH3-like peptide, HBx-aa113-135, restores HBV replication from a HBx-null HBV replicon, while a shorter peptide, HBx-aa118-127, inhibits HBV replication. These results provide crucial structural and functional insights into drug designs for inhibiting HBV replication and treating HBV patients.

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 724-733, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130075

RESUMO

Anti-HBs is a well-known marker of protective capability against HBV. However, little is known about the association between the qAnti-HBs determined by immunoassays and the neutralization activity (NAT) derived from functional assays. We developed an in vitro assay for direct measurement of the NAT of human sera. The new assay was highly sensitive, with an analytical sensitivity of 9.6 ± 1.3 mIU/mL for the HBIG standard. For serum detection, the maximum fold dilution required to produce ≥50% inhibition (MDF50) of HBV infection was used as the quantitative index. In vitro NAT evaluations were conducted for a cohort of 164 HBV-free healthy individuals. The results demonstrated that the NAT positively correlated with the qAnti-HBs (R2 = 0.473, p < 0.001). ROC analysis indicated that the optimal cutoff value of the qAnti-HBs to discriminate significant NAT (MDF50 ≥ 8) was 62.9 mIU/mL, with an AUROC of 0.920. Additionally, we found that the qAnti-HBc was another independent parameter positively associated with the NAT (R2 = 0.300, p < 0.001), which suggested that antibodies against other HBV proteins generated by previous HBV exposure possibly also contribute to the NAT. In summary, the new cell-based assay provides a robust tool to analyse the anti-HBV NAT. Abbreviations: HBV: Hepatitis B virus; HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen; Anti-HBs: Hepatitis B surface antibody; HBeAg: Hepatitis B e antigen; Anti-HBc: Hepatitis B core antibody; qAnti-HBs: quantitative hepatitis B surface antibody; qAnti-HBc: quantitative hepatitis B core antibody; qHBeAg: quantitative hepatitis B e antigen; NAT: neutralization activity; HBIG: hepatitis B immune globulin; NTCP: Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide; IRES: internal ribosome entry site; ccHBV: cell culture derived hepatitis B virus; GE/cell: genome equivalent per cell; MOI: multiplicity of infection; Dpi: day post infection; HepG2-TetOn: a HepG2-derived cell line that expresses the doxycycline-regulated transactivator; ROC: receiver operating characteristic curve; AUROC: area under receiver operating characteristic curve; LLOQ: the lower limits of quantification; MDF50: the maximum fold dilution required to produce ≥50% inhibition; IC50: half maximal inhibitory concentration.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Soro/imunologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Gut ; 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a novel therapeutic vaccine based on a unique B cell epitope and investigate its therapeutic potential against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in animal models. METHODS: A series of peptides and carrier proteins were evaluated in HBV-tolerant mice to obtain an optimised therapeutic molecule. The immunogenicity, therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of the candidate were investigated systematically. RESULTS: Among the HBsAg-aa119-125-containing peptides evaluated in this study, HBsAg-aa113-135 (SEQ13) exhibited the most striking therapeutic effects. A novel immunoenhanced virus-like particle carrier (CR-T3) derived from the roundleaf bat HBV core antigen (RBHBcAg) was created and used to display SEQ13, forming candidate molecule CR-T3-SEQ13. Multiple copies of SEQ13 displayed on the surface of this particulate antigen promote the induction of a potent anti-HBs antibody response in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Sera and purified polyclonal IgG from the immunised animals neutralised HBV infection in vitro and mediated efficient HBV/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance in the mice. CR-T3-SEQ13-based vaccination induced long-term suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV transgenic mice and eradicated the virus completely in hydrodynamic-based HBV carrier mice. The suppressive effects on HBsAg were strongly correlated with the anti-HBs level after vaccination, suggesting that the main mechanism of CR-T3-SEQ13 vaccination therapy was the induction of a SEQ13-specific antibody response that mediated HBV/HBsAg clearance. CONCLUSIONS: The novel particulate protein CR-T3-SEQ13 suppressed HBsAg effectively through induction of a humoural immune response in HBV-tolerant mice. This B cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine may provide a novel immunotherapeutic agent against chronic HBV infection in humans.

5.
Theranostics ; 8(2): 549-562, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290826

RESUMO

Rationale: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) mostly targeting extracellular or cell surface molecules have been widely used in the treatment of various diseases. However, mAbs cannot pass through the cell membrane as efficiently as small compounds, thus limiting their use against intracellular targets. Methods to shuttle antibodies into living cells may largely expand research and application in areas based on mAbs. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is an important intracellular multi-functional viral protein in the life cycle of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBx plays essential roles in virus infection and replication and is strongly associated with HBV-related carcinogenesis. Methods: In this study, we developed a cell-penetrating whole molecule antibody targeting HBx (9D11-Tat) by the fusion of a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) on the C-terminus of the heavy chain of a potent mAb specific to HBx (9D11). The anti-HBV effect and mechanism of 9D11-Tat were investigated in cell and mouse models mimicking chronic HBV infection. Results: Our results demonstrated that the recombinant 9D11-Tat antibody could efficiently internalize into living cells and significantly suppress viral transcription, replication, and protein production both in vitro and in vivo. Further analyses suggested the internalized 9D11-Tat antibody could greatly reduce intracellular HBx via Fc binding receptor TRIM21-mediated protein degradation. This process simultaneously stimulated the activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and IFN-ß, which promoted an antiviral state of the host cell. Conclusion: In summary, our study offers a new approach to target intracellular pathogenesis-related protein by engineered cell-penetrating mAb expanding their potential for therapeutic applications. Moreover, the 9D11-Tat antibody may provide a novel therapeutic agent against human chronic HBV infection.

6.
Hepatol Res ; 48(3): E133-E145, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707778

RESUMO

AIM: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are not free from significant hepatic lesions. Recently, there has been an improved understanding of the clinical significance of quantitative hepatitis B core antibody levels (qAnti-HBc) during CHB management. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the utility of qAnti-HBc in identifying significant liver inflammation in CHB patients. METHODS: A total of 469 patients (training set, n = 363; validation set, n = 106) who underwent liver biopsy (LB) were included. The qAnti-HBc levels were quantified and the relationship between histology and serum markers was systematically analyzed. RESULTS: In the training set, qAnti-HBc levels were found to have significant diagnostic value for moderate to severe liver inflammation (≥G2) in all patients (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] = 0.768; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.721-0.810; P < 0.001) and in patients with normal or near-normal ALT levels (AUROC = 0.767; 95% CI, 0.697-0.828; P < 0.001). Our novel index (AC index) for the identification of ≥G2 inflammation, which combined the qAnti-HBc and ALT levels, significantly improved diagnostic performance (AUROC = 0.813; 95% CI, 0.768-0.852) compared to the use of ALT alone (AUROC = 0.779; 95% CI, 0.732-0.821) in all patients. In the validation set, the AC index showed an improved AUROC of 0.890 (95% CI, 0.814-0.942) and 0.867 (95% CI, 0.749-0.943) in all patients and patients with normal ALT levels, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The qAnti-HBc level predicts significant liver inflammation well, even in patients with normal or near-normal ALT levels. Compared with the conventional ALT level, the AC index is a more reliable non-invasive biomarker for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients.

7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 13(8): 1768-1773, 2017 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28521640

RESUMO

The currently available drugs to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogs, which can only induce disease remission and are inefficient for the functional cure of patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB). Since high titers of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may be essential to exhaust the host anti-HBV immune response and they cannot be significantly reduced by current drugs, new antiviral strategies aiming to suppress serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could help restore virus-specific immune responses and promote the eradication of the virus. As an alternative strategy, immunotherapy with HBsAg-specific antibodies has shown some direct HBsAg suppression effects in several preclinical and clinical trial studies. However, most described previously HBsAg-specific antibodies only had very short-term HBsAg suppression effects in CHB patients and animal models mimicking persistent HBV infection. More-potent antibodies with long-lasting HBsAg clearance effects are required for the development of the clinical application of antibody-mediated immunotherapy for CHB treatment. Our recent study described a novel mAb E6F6 that targets a unique epitope on HBsAg. It could durably suppress the levels of HBsAg and HBV DNA via Fcγ receptor-dependent phagocytosis in vivo. In this commentary, we summarize the current research progress, including the therapeutic roles and mechanisms of antibody-mediated HBV clearance as well as the epitope-determined therapeutic potency of the antibody. These insights may provide some clues and guidance to facilitate the development of therapeutic antibodies against persistent viral infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , DNA Viral/sangue , Epitopos/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40199, 2017 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079152

RESUMO

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its life cycle. The in vitro HDV infection system is widely used as a surrogate model to study cellular infection with both viruses owing to its practical feasibility. However, previous methods for running this system were less efficient for high-throughput screening and large-scale studies. Here, we developed a novel method for the production of infectious HDV by adenoviral vector (AdV)-mediated transduction. We demonstrated that the AdV-based method yields 10-fold higher viral titers than the transient-transfection approach. The HDV-containing supernatant derived from AdV-infected Huh7 cells can be used as the inoculum in infectivity assays without requiring further concentration prior to use. Furthermore, we devloped a chemiluminescent immunoassay (HDV-CLEIA) to quantitatively determine intracellular HDAg with a dynamic range of 5-11,000 pg/mL. HDV-CLEIA can be used as an alternative approach to assess HDV infection. The advantages of our updated methodology were demonstrated through in vitro HDV infection of HepaRG cells and by evaluating the neutralization activity using antibodies that target various regions of the HBV/HDV envelope proteins. Together, the methods presented here comprise a novel toolbox of in vitro assays for studying HDV infection.


Assuntos
Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Hepatite D/patologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Adenoviridae/genética , Linhagem Celular , Vetores Genéticos , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Transdução Genética
9.
J Virol Methods ; 234: 96-100, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091097

RESUMO

The stable HBV-replicating cell lines, which carry replication-competent HBV genome stably integrated into the genome of host cell, are widely used to evaluate the effects of antiviral agents. However, current methods to generate HBV-replicating cell lines, which are mostly dependent on random integration of foreign DNA via plasmid transfection, are less-efficient and time-consuming. To address this issue, we constructed an all-in-one Sleeping Beauty transposon system (denoted pTSMP-HBV vector) for robust generation of stable cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of different genotype. This vector contains a Sleeping Beauty transposon containing HBV 1.3-copy genome with an expression cassette of the SV40 promoter driving red fluorescent protein (mCherry) and self-cleaving P2A peptide linked puromycin resistance gene (PuroR). In addition, a PGK promoter-driven SB100X hyperactive transposase cassette is placed in the outside of the transposon in the same plasmid.The HBV-replicating stable cells could be obtained from pTSMP-HBV transfected HepG2 cells by red fluorescence-activated cell sorting and puromycin resistant cell selection within 4-week. Using this system, we successfully constructed four cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of genotypes A-D. The replication and viral protein expression profiles of these cells were systematically characterized. In conclusion, our study provides a high-efficiency strategy to generate HBV-replicating stable cell lines, which may facilitate HBV-related virological study.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Transposases/genética , Replicação Viral , Técnicas de Cultura , Replicação do DNA , Citometria de Fluxo , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes
10.
Gut ; 65(4): 658-71, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26423112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody (mAb) against HBV as a novel treatment approach to chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in mouse models. METHODS: Therapeutic effects of mAbs against various epitopes on viral surface protein were evaluated in mice mimicking persistent HBV infection. The immunological mechanisms of mAb-mediated viral clearance were systematically investigated. RESULTS: Among 11 tested mAbs, a novel mAb E6F6 exhibited the most striking therapeutic effects in several HBV-persistent mice. Single-dose administration of E6F6 could profoundly suppress the levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA for several weeks in HBV-transgenic mice. E6F6 regimen efficiently prevented initial HBV infection, and reduced viral dissemination from infected hepatocytes in human-liver-chimeric mice. E6F6-based immunotherapy facilitated the restoration of anti-HBV T-cell response in hydrodynamic injection (HDI)-based HBV carrier mice. Immunological analyses suggested that the Fcγ receptor-dependent phagocytosis plays a predominant role in E6F6-mediated viral suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that E6F6 recognises an evolutionarily conserved epitope (GPCK(R)TCT) and only forms a smaller antibody-viral particle immune complex with limited interparticle crosslinking when it binds to viral particles. This unique binding characteristic of E6F6 to HBV was possibly associated with its effective in vivo opsonophagocytosis for viral clearance. CONCLUSIONS: These results provided new insight into understanding the therapeutic role and mechanism of antibody against persistent viral infection. The E6F6-like mAbs may provide a novel immunotherapeutic agent against human chronic HBV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Animais , DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fagocitose , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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