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1.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867419872248, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since only 30% or fewer of individuals at clinical high risk convert to psychosis within 2 years, efforts are underway to refine risk identification strategies to increase their predictive power. The clinical high risk is a heterogeneous syndrome presenting with highly variable clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. This study investigated whether subtypes defined by baseline clinical and cognitive features improve the prediction of psychosis. METHOD: Four hundred clinical high-risk subjects from the ongoing ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis program were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Canonical correlation analysis was applied to 289 clinical high-risk subjects with completed Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes and cognitive battery tests at baseline, and at least 1-year follow-up. Canonical variates were generated by canonical correlation analysis and then used for hierarchical cluster analysis to produce subtypes. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed from the three subtypes to test their utility further in predicting psychosis. RESULTS: Canonical correlation analysis determined two linear combinations: (1) negative symptom and functional deterioration-related cognitive features, and (2) Positive symptoms and emotional disorganization-related cognitive features. Cluster analysis revealed three subtypes defined by distinct and relatively homogeneous patterns along two dimensions, comprising 14.2% (subtype 1, n = 41), 37.4% (subtype 2, n = 108) and 48.4% (subtype 3, n = 140) of the sample, and each with distinctive features of clinical and cognitive performance. Those with subtype 1, which is characterized by extensive negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, appear to have the highest risk for psychosis. The conversion risk for subtypes 1-3 are 39.0%, 11.1% and 18.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results define important subtypes within clinical high-risk syndromes that highlight clinical symptoms and cognitive features that transcend current diagnostic boundaries. The three different subtypes reflect significant differences in clinical and cognitive characteristics as well as in the risk of conversion to psychosis.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11248, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375755

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders are highly heterogeneous syndromes often explained by underlying and internalized personality disorder(PD) traits that are affected by externalized childhood trauma experiences(CTE). The present study investigated the differential subtype model by examining the association between PD traits and CTE in a clinical sample with transdiagnostic psychopathology. Outpatients(n = 2090) presenting for psychiatric treatment completed self-reported measures of PD traits(Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire) and the childhood adversity(Child Trauma Questionnaire). Canonical variates were generated by canonical correlation analysis(CCA) and then used for hierarchical cluster analysis to produce subtypes. A support vector machine(SVM) model was used and validated using a linear kernel to assess the utility of the extracted subtypes of outpatients in clinical diagnosis classifications. The CCA determined two linear combinations: emotional abuse related dissociality PD traits(antisocial and paranoid PD) and emotional neglect related sociality PD traits(schizoid, passive-aggressive, depressive, histrionic, and avoidant PD). A cluster analysis revealed three subtypes defined by distinct and relatively homogeneous patterns along two dimensions, and comprising 17.5%(cluster-1, n = 365), 34.8%(cluster-2, n = 727), and 47.8%(cluster-3, n = 998) of the sample, each with distinctive features of PD traits and CTE. These subtypes suggest more distinct PD trait correlates of CTE manifestations than were captured by clinical phenomenological diagnostic definitions. Our results highlight important subtypes of psychiatric patients that highlight PD traits and CTE that transcend current diagnostic boundaries. The three different subtypes reflect significant differences in PD and CTE characteristics and lend support to efforts to develop PD and childhood trauma targeted psychotherapy that extends to clinical diagnosis-based interventions.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-7, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few of the previous studies of clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) have explored whether outcomes other than conversion, such as poor functioning or treatment responses, are better predicted when using risk calculators. To answer this question, we compared the predictive accuracy between the outcome of conversion and poor functioning by using the NAPLS-2 risk calculator. METHODS: Three hundred CHR individuals were identified using the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. Of these, 228 (76.0%) completed neurocognitive assessments at baseline and 199 (66.3%) had at least a 1-year follow-up assessment. The latter group was used in the NAPLS-2 risk calculator. RESULTS: We divided the sample into two broad categories based on different outcome definitions, conversion (n = 46) v. non-conversion (n = 153) or recovery (n = 138) v. poor functioning (n = 61). Interestingly, the NAPLS-2 risk calculator showed moderate discrimination of subsequent conversion to psychosis in this sample with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.631 (p = 0.007). However, for discriminating poor functioning, the AUC of the model increased to 0.754 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the current risk calculator was a better fit for predicting a poor functional outcome and treatment response than it was in the prediction of conversion to psychosis.

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 212, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) has never been applied in Chinese clinical practice, and the distribution of NPD in the clinical population of China is largely unknown. The current study uses two-stage clinic-based screening to investigate the frequency and clinical features of NPD in a Chinese help-seeking sample. METHODS: A total of 1402 consecutive outpatients ages 18-60 were recruited during their visit to the Shanghai Mental Health Center and screened with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire Fourth Edition Plus (PDQ-4+) and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) Axis II (SCID-II). The structured clinical interview was administered to estimate the rate of NPD and the frequency of each disorder criterion. RESULTS: The frequency estimate of NPD in the total sample was 4.0%. Among the 56 outpatients who met the criteria for NPD, there were more males than females, and many had a better educational background. The SCID-II interviews revealed high frequencies of diagnostic criterion 1 ("exaggerated sense of self-importance. NPD likely overlaps with Histrionic PD, Borderline PD, and Paranoid PD. This two stage screening method can enhance detection of Chinese NPD patients in clinical settings. CONCLUSIONS: Narcissism pathology is not rare in the Chinese psychiatric community when using the DSM-IV NPD criteria. Existing evidence suggests, at least indirectly, that there are important benefits of NPD diagnosis in psychiatric practice.

5.
Psychiatry ; : 1-11, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multiple and overlapping diagnoses of personality disorders (PDs) have been a major obstacle in clinical practice and research. This study aims to investigate the comorbidity of PDs in a sample of a high-risk clinical population. We propose a diagnostic model to address this critical issue. METHODS: The sample population included 982 PD patients. The PD diagnoses were concluded based on self-reported and face-to-face interviews. To address the issue of overlapping PD diagnoses, we defined the criteria for clinically distinguishing principal and subordinate PDs, and determined the frequency of each condition. RESULTS: Diagnostic overlap among PDs was quite common across all categories. Of all 982 PD patients, 436 (44.4%) met the criteria for more than one PD. In terms of specific PD diagnoses, the comorbidity rate of each PD was nearly 47.1-74.7%. The principal and subordinate PDs were distinguished accordingly. Avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline PD remain the most prevalent types of principal PD in this clinical population. CONCLUSIONS: The principal/subordinate model may be one strategy of resolving the issue of PD comorbidity in Chinese clinical settings.

6.
Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne ; 13(4): 494-500, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524620

RESUMO

Introduction: During the last 3 decades, the standard treatment for stage Ia2-Ib1 cervical cancer has been Piver-Rutledge class II or III radical hysterectomy. However, this surgery is associated with a high rate of urologic morbidity. Aim: To determine the efficacy of class I radical hysterectomy compared with class III radical hysterectomy in terms of morbidity, overall survival, and patterns of relapse in patients with Ia2-Ib1 cervical cancer undergoing primary surgery. Material and methods: A total of 101 patients with stage Ia2-Ib1 cervical cancer < 2 cm were randomized to class I and class III hysterectomy groups. Clinical, pathologic, and follow-up data were prospectively collected. Univariate analysis was carried out. Of the total patients, 45 were randomized to class I surgery and 56 to class III surgery. No significant differences were observed in terms of pathologic findings or adjuvant treatment (p > 0.05). The morbidity rates were higher after class III surgery. Results: The difference in recurrence rate between the class I and class III groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The 5-year overall survival rate was 93% and 91%, respectively (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in terms of recurrence rate or overall survival among patients with stage Ia2-Ib1 cervical cancer < 2 cm who underwent class I or radical (class III) hysterectomy. Morbidity was proportional to the extent of radicality. Conclusions: These data confirm the need for reducing surgical radicality in the treatment of patients with early cervical cancer, by tailoring the extent of resection according to the extent of disease.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 270: 438-442, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316171

RESUMO

Albumin is a metal-binding protein with free-radical scavenging properties and is recognized as a vital antioxidant. Moreover, an excess of free radicals may contribute to depressive symptoms and the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders. This study examined serum albumin levels, depressive symptoms, and their association in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia (diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition) and 136 healthy controls were consecutively enrolled in this case-control study. The clinical psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum albumin levels were measured in all participants using an immunoturbidimetric method. This study was conducted between 2016 and 2017. Serum albumin levels were significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls after adjusting for gender, age and education (F = 16.04, p = 0.000). Serum albumin levels were negatively correlated with the depressive score of PANSS in patients with schizophrenia (r = -0.37, p = 0.03). Additionally, a further stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that serum albumin levels were significantly associated with the depressive score of PANSS in patients with schizophrenia (ß = -0.37, t = -2.25, p = 0.03). Our data suggested that decreased serum albumin levels may contribute to the psychopathology of schizophrenia and that a decline in serum albumin levels was associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

9.
Brain Stimul ; 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered as an effective treatment for adults with major depressive disorder. However, it remains unknown whether rTMS has comparable or better efficacy in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The current naturalistic study aimed to investigate the efficacy and clinical outcome of add-on rTMS in a large sample of adolescent patients compared to adult patients. METHODS: This study included 117 patients (42 adolescents vs. 75 adults) with mood or anxiety disorders who were treated with at least 10 sessions of rTMS. rTMS was applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (10 Hz). Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) respectively, at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of follow-up. Comparisons of clinical improvement and rates of response/remission were made across age groups. MAJOR FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: All the age groups showed significant improvements in clinical symptoms. No safety or tolerability concerns were identified. Symptomatic improvements and response/remission rates were more significant in adolescent patients than in adults. Decrease in HAMD and HAMA scores after 2 weeks and 4 weeks of rTMS treatment were positively correlated in adolescents, but not in adults. General linear model repeated measures demonstrated significant effect of time × age group interaction on the HAMD score, in response to 10 sessions of rTMS. Add-on rTMS is feasible, tolerable, effective and more applicable to adolescents with mood or anxiety disorders. However, double-blinded and sham-controlled trials are needed for validating this conclusion.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13962, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228293

RESUMO

Perceptual abnormalities (PAs) such as auditory hallucinations are one of the most common symptoms of psychotic patients. However, it remains unclear whether symptoms of sub-clinical PAs also play a key role in predicting psychosis. In an ongoing prospective follow-up study of individuals at a clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, we evaluated the potential of first-time experience of PAs and/or thought content disorders (TCDs) to predict psychosis. Conversion to psychosis was the major focus of this follow-up study. A total of 511 CHRs were recruited, of whom 443 (86.7%) completed the clinical follow-up of at least 6 months and up to 2 years. CHRs were divided into four groups according to the presence of PAs and/or TCDs. At the follow-up endpoint, 39 (19.9%) CHRs in the "TCDs-only" group, 2 (8.3%) in the "PAs-only" group, 45 (17.0%) in the "TCDs-and-PAs" group, and 1 (3.8%) in the "None" group converted to psychosis. Survival analysis revealed a higher conversion rate in CHRs with TCDs compared with those with PAs only. CHRs with isolated PAs had shown a higher level of dysphoric mood at baseline compared with those with TCDs. About 89% TCDs contents were related with their experienced PAs. Compared with TCDs, the isolated PAs are not strongly associated with increased susceptibility to psychosis.

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR). METHODS: From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC. RESULTS: Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662-0.951]. CONCLUSION: The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.

13.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929774

RESUMO

Two-stage screening, involving a self-rating report, followed by a structured interview, has been proposed for identifying clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) for nearly two decades. This study used PRIME Screen-Revised (PS-R) and Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) to investigate the predictive validity of the two-stage screening. Of 566 participants who completed two-stage screening in this study, 192 were PS-R(-) and 374 were PS-R(+). After being interviewed with SIPS, 112 were rated as CHR(+), 109 were diagnosed with psychosis, and the other 345 individuals were CHR(-). Those who were rated through SIPS as CHR(+) and CHR(-) were followed up within 2 years to observe their clinical outcome. Ninety one (81.3%) CHR(+) and 171 (49.6%) CHR(-) individuals completed the investigation at baseline and the two-year follow-up. The cumulative conversion rate to psychosis was 27.5% in CHR(+) group, but only 1.7% in CHR(-) group, with a significant difference between the two groups (log-rank test, χ2 = 30.07, p < 0.001). In terms of two-stage screening, PS-R(-)/CHR(-), PS-R(-)/CHR(+), and PS-R(+)/CHR(-) groups were viewed as expected negative (EN), and the PS-R(+)/CHR(+) group as expected positive (EP), and the sensitivity and specificity was 64.3% and 79.1%, respectively. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis showed that EP group were more likely to convert to psychosis than EN group (log-rank test, χ2 = 16.702, p < 0.001). Two-stage screening indeed saves much time and alleviates the workload, but may exclude some target individuals. Optimizing self-report scale, and forming a nurse-doctor-interviewer coalition are likely to improve the use of self-rating report and structured interview.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942980

RESUMO

Our previous study has found that a long duration of untreated prodromal symptoms (DUPrS) does not increase the conversion risk to psychosis in individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). However, whether a long DUPrS will lead to other poor outcomes remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between the DUPrS and outcomes (symptomatic and functional recovery) in APS population. A post hoc analysis was performed in 391 individuals with APS as identified by the structured interview. APS subjects had follow-up interviews every 6 months for 2 years following diagnosis. Poor functional outcome was defined as a Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score less than 60 at the time of follow-up. Poor symptomatic outcome was defined as at least one of the positive symptoms rated scores of 3 or higher. A post hoc analysis was performed in 391 individuals with APS as identified by the structured interview. APS subjects had follow-up interviews every 6 months for 2 years following diagnosis. Poor functional outcome was defined as a Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score less than 60 at the time of follow-up. Poor symptomatic outcome was defined as at least one of the positive symptoms rated scores of 3 or higher. Of total 391 individuals, 334 were followed up for 2 years to assess clinical outcome, 82 (24.6%) had shown conversion to psychosis, 79 (23.7%) met the criteria of poor functioning outcome, and 145 (43.4%) met the criteria of poor symptomatic outcome. A significant correlation between GAF scores and DUPrS was observed in the non-converter group, but not in the converters. Individuals with APS who had a longer DUPrS were correlated with poorer functional outcome. However, it was not correlated with poorer symptomatic outcome. While a longer DUPrS was not related to poor symptomatic outcome, it was significantly related to poor functional outcome. Our findings highlight the importance of reducing DUPrS to decrease future functional impairment in populations at risk for psychosis.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6230, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670200

RESUMO

Although recent studies focused on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia have reported that it may be beneficial, there is still lack of convincing evidence and critical meta-analytic work regarding its effectiveness as an adjunctive therapy. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effectiveness of TCM in combination with antipsychotics for refractory schizophrenia. Fourteen articles involving 1725 patients published as of December 2016 were included which compared antipsychotic therapies to either TCM alone, or TCM as an adjunctive therapy. TCM was observed to have beneficial effects on aspects of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) including total score changes and negative score changes, as well as clinical effects estimated with PANSS or the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The changes in extrapyramidal side effects (RSESE) scores from baseline to the end of the treatment period were similar in two groups of related trials. TCM was also reported to mitigate some anti-psychotic related side-effects and overall, TCM adjuvant therapy was generally safe and well tolerated. While, the results indicated the potential utility of TCM as an alternative adjunctive therapeutic for refractory schizophrenia treatment, there remains a need for further high-quality studies.

16.
Psychiatry Res ; 262: 168-174, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453035

RESUMO

There is a strong correlation between neurocognition and social cognition. However, none of these studies have examined the key role of time consumption during social cognition tasks. Participants included 84 individuals with clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR), 95 healthy controls (HC), and 66 case controls (schizophrenia patients, SZ), who were assessed through the Reading-Mind-in-Eyes Tasks (RMET) with computerized recording of the response time (RT). Neurocognitive tests were also performed for the HC and CHR groups. A comparison of RMET performance revealed significantly lower scores in the SZ group compared to the HC group, with CHR individuals scoring between these two. However, both CHR and SZ subjects spent almost twice as long of the time on RMET compared to the HC subjects. Significant positive correlation was found between RMET accuracy and RT, though only in SZ patients. Taking the RT into consideration, the RMET performances were impacted by different neurocognition domains. Our findings provide new evidence about how time consumption in mind-reading may impact the relationship between social cognition and neurocognition, and we discuss the potential importance of recording the response time during social cognition assessment in individuals with early psychosis.

17.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 268(1): 49-56, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761988

RESUMO

Neurological soft signs (NSS) are one of the biomarkers for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, a few studies have examined the prevalence of NSS across the schizophrenia spectrum. The present study adopted a quasi-longitudinal study design and examined the prevalence of NSS and their associations with clinical and behavioural manifestations in participants in different stages of the illness. The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory was administered to 39 patients with the first-episode schizophrenia, 39 individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, 39 individuals with schizotypy, and 39 healthy controls. Patients with the first-episode schizophrenia had a higher prevalence of NSS in motor coordination than healthy controls as well as individuals with UHR and schizotypy. Individuals with UHR exhibited a higher prevalence of sensory integration items than individuals with schizotypy and healthy controls. Discriminant analysis classified the membership of the individuals correctly across the spectrum with an accuracy of up to 60.9%. In particular, NSS could discriminate individuals with UHR from healthy controls at up to 85.9% accuracy. These findings suggest that NSS are robust biomarkers to detect and discriminate individuals in different stages of the schizophrenia spectrum from healthy controls.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Exame Neurológico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Int Med Res ; 46(1): 335-347, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851258

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of hypothermia on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nimodipine in rabbits using in vivo and in vitro methods. Methods Five healthy New Zealand rabbits received a single dose of nimodipine (0.5 mg/kg) intravenously under normothermic and hypothermic conditions. Doppler ultrasound was used to monitor cerebral blood flow, vascular resistance, and heart rate. In vitro evaluations of protein binding, hepatocyte uptake and intrinsic clearance of liver microsomes at different temperatures were also conducted. Results Plasma concentrations of nimodipine were significantly higher in hypothermia than in normothermia. Nimodipine improved cerebral blood flow under both conditions, but had a longer effective duration during the hypothermic period. Low temperature decreased the intrinsic clearance of liver microsomes, with no change in protein binding or hepatocyte uptake of nimodipine. Conclusion Nimodipine is eliminated at a slower rate during hypothermia than during normothermia, mainly due to the decreased activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. This results in elevated system exposure with little enhancement in pharmacological effect.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacocinética , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotermia Induzida , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nimodipina/farmacocinética , Vasodilatadores/farmacocinética , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/sangue , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Temperatura Corporal , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Nimodipina/sangue , Nimodipina/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Ligação Proteica , Coelhos , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/sangue , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
19.
Schizophr Res ; 195: 554-559, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823722

RESUMO

The association between neurocognition and the theory of mind (ToM) abilities during the progression of psychosis is unclear. This study included 83 individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), from which 26 converted to psychosis (converters) after a follow up period of 18months. Comprehensive cognitive tests (including MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, Faux-Pas Task, and Reading-Mind-in-Eyes Tasks) were administered at baseline. A structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of neurocognition on the ToM functioning in both APS and healthy controls (HC) datasets. At baseline, the converters and non-converters groups differed significantly on several domains of cognitive performance. The SEM analysis demonstrated that the path from neurocognition to ToM was statistically significant in the APS dataset (p<0.001). However, in the HC dataset, the result of the same analysis was not significant (p=0.117). Positive correlations between neurocognition and ToM were observed, and the most obvious correlations were found in the converters group compared with the non-converters group (p=0.064) and compared with the HC group (p=0.002). The correlation between ToM abilities and neurocognition may be increased during the progression of the condition, especially for individuals who convert to psychosis after a short period.

20.
Psychol Med ; 48(8): 1274-1281, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been widely studied. However, for individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), it is unclear whether the duration of untreated prodromal symptoms (DUPrS) also has a negative effect on the progression of psychosis. Our aim was to identify demographic and clinical factors contributing to the DUPrS in a large sample of individuals with APS, and to evaluate the association between DUPrS and the conversion to psychosis. METHOD: A sample of 391 individuals with APS, who were identified through a structured interview for prodromal syndromes, were included in this study, of whom a total of 334 patients had completed at least a 1-year clinical follow-up. A total of 57 individuals had converted to psychosis. RESULTS: The average DUPrS was 4.8 months for the whole sample. Individuals with a longer DUPrS were likely to be men, non-local residents, with abnormal thought symptoms, a higher severity level of negative symptoms, the lower severity level of general symptoms, and lower level of general function before the onset of attenuated positive symptoms. A DUPrS of less than 2 months, or more than 6 months, lowered the risk for conversion to psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that the association between the DUPrS and outcome in individuals with APS were likely to be different, which is either long or short DUPrS was not related to future psychosis onset. Individuals with APS were more likely to have a group of features associated with a longer DUPrS.

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