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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(2): 244-252, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900398

RESUMO

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a dominant cause of death and disability worldwide. A sharp increase in intracranial pressure after SAH leads to a reduction in cerebral perfusion and insufficient blood supply for neurons, which subsequently promotes a series of pathophysiological responses leading to neuronal death. Many previous experimental studies have reported that excitotoxicity, mitochondrial death pathways, the release of free radicals, protein misfolding, apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, and inflammation are involved solely or in combination in this disorder. Among them, irreversible neuronal apoptosis plays a key role in both short- and long-term prognoses after SAH. Neuronal apoptosis occurs through multiple pathways including extrinsic, mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum, p53 and oxidative stress. Meanwhile, a large number of blood contents enter the subarachnoid space after SAH, and the secondary metabolites, including oxygenated hemoglobin and heme, further aggravate the destruction of the blood-brain barrier and vasogenic and cytotoxic brain edema, causing early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischemia, and ultimately increasing neuronal apoptosis. Even there is no clear and effective therapeutic strategy for SAH thus far, but by understanding apoptosis, we might excavate new ideas and approaches, as targeting the upstream and downstream molecules of apoptosis-related pathways shows promise in the treatment of SAH. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence on molecules and related drugs or molecules involved in the apoptotic pathway after SAH, which provides a possible target or new strategy for the treatment of SAH.

2.
Food Chem ; 399: 133727, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027815

RESUMO

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was conjugated to whey protein isolate (WPI) using alkaline treatment, free radical grafting and tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation. The structure and properties of the obtained conjugates and their application as antioxidant emulsifiers in stabilizing ß-carotene emulsion were systematically characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis verified the covalent linking between WPI and EGCG. The highest grafting efficiency was obtained for enzyme conjugate, followed for alkaline conjugate. Conjugation of EGCG decreased the α-helix content and fluorescence intensity of protein, and these changes depend on both EGCG conjugation and the cross-linking methods. Due to their improved emulsifying properties and antioxidant activity, WPI-EGCG conjugates formed smaller emulsion droplets and protect the encapsulated ß-carotene more effectively, and the protective property is positively correlated with EGCG content in conjugates.


Assuntos
Catequina , beta Caroteno , Antioxidantes/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Emulsões/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , beta Caroteno/química
3.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 429-443, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574058

RESUMO

The imbalance of bone homeostasis is the root cause of osteoporosis. However current therapeutic approaches mainly focus on either anabolic or catabolic pathways, which often fail to turn the imbalanced bone metabolism around. Herein we reported that a SIRT-1 agonist mediated molecular therapeutic strategy to reverse the imbalance in bone homeostasis by simultaneously regulating osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis via locally sustained release of SRT2104 from mineral coated acellular matrix microparticles. Immobilization of SRT2104 on mineral coating (MAM/SRT) harnessing their electrostatic interactions resulted in sustained release of SIRT-1 agonist for over 30 days. MAM/SRT not only enhanced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization, but also attenuated the formation and function of excessive osteoclasts via integrating multiple vital upstream signals (ß-catenin, FoxOs, Runx2, NFATc1, etc.) in vitro. Osteoporosis animal model also validated that it accelerated osteoporotic bone healing and improved osseointegration of the surrounding bone. Overall, our work proposes a promising strategy to treat osteoporotic bone defects by reversing the imbalance in bone homeostasis using designated small molecule drug delivery systems.

4.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 1-11, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35415315

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug treatment resistance presents a hurdle for the successful chemotherapy of tumours. Ferroptosis, resulting from the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxides, has the potential to reverse multidrug resistance. However, simultaneous delivery of the iron sources, ferroptosis inducers, drugs, and enhanced circulation carriers within matrices remains a significant challenge. Herein, we designed and fabricated a defect self-assembly of metal-organic framework (MOF)-red blood cell (RBC) membrane-camouflaged multi-drug-delivery nanoplatform for combined ferroptosis-apoptosis treatment of multidrug-resistant cancer. Ferroptosis and chemotherapeutic drugs are embedded in the centre of the iron (III)-based MOF at defect sites by coordination with metal clusters during a one-pot solvothermal synthesis process. The RBC membrane could camouflage the nanoplatform for longer circulation. Our results demonstrate that this defect self-assembly-enabled MOF-membrane-camouflaged nanoplatform could deplete the glutathione, amplify the reactive oxidative species oxidative stress, and enable remarkable anticancer properties. Our work provides an alternative strategy for overcoming multidrug resistance, which could regulate the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane by ferroptosis to downregulate of P-glycoprotein protein expression by ferroptosis. This defect self-assembly-enabled MOF-membrane-camouflaged multi-drug-delivery nanoplatform has great therapeutic potential.

5.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0169, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394834

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Muscle injury in ski sports training has gradually increased, greatly impairing performance in ice and snow sports competitions. Objective: To study muscle injury and muscle movement during ice and snow sports training and the rehabilitation of muscle injuries. Methods: Thirty skiers with knee muscle injuries were selected as subjects and underwent rehabilitation training for six weeks, and the indicators were statistically evaluated. Results: The ski injuries were mainly muscle strain, muscle or ligament strain, and ligament rupture. The indices after treatment were significantly different from those before treatment (P < 0.05); compared with the three rehabilitation programs, the improvement of each index in group C was significantly different from that in the other two groups (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in the improvement of each index between the multi-angle isometric training treatment in group A and the proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulation technique in group B (P>0.05). Conclusion: The influence of recovery training technology on knee muscle re-education was proposed, and a rehabilitation plan for skiing was presented. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução: O quadro de lesão muscular no treinamento esportivo de esqui tem aumentado gradualmente, prejudicando muito o desempenho das competições esportivas de gelo e neve. Objetivo: Estudar a lesão muscular e o movimento muscular durante o treinamento esportivo no gelo e na neve, bem como a reabilitação das lesões musculares. Métodos: Trinta esquiadores com lesão muscular no joelho foram selecionados como sujeitos e submetidos a treinamento de reabilitação por um total de 6 semanas, tendo os indicadores sido avaliados estatisticamente. Resultados: Os tipos de lesões no esqui foram principalmente tensão muscular, tensão muscular ou ligamentar e ruptura ligamentar. Os índices após o tratamento foram significativamente diferentes daqueles antes do tratamento (P < 0,05); comparado com os três programas de reabilitação, a melhora de cada índice no grupo C foi significativamente diferente da dos outros dois grupos (P < 0,05), enquanto não houve diferença significativa na melhora de cada índice entre o tratamento de treinamento isométrico multiangular no grupo A e a técnica de estimulação neuromuscular proprioceptiva no grupo B (P>0,05). Conclusão: A influência da tecnologia de treinamento de recuperação na reeducação muscular do joelho foi proposta, e foi apresentado um plano de reabilitação para a prática de esqui. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El cuadro de lesiones musculares en el entrenamiento de los deportes de esquí ha ido aumentando progresivamente, lo que perjudica en gran medida el rendimiento en las competiciones de deportes de hielo y nieve. Objetivo: Estudiar las lesiones musculares y el movimiento muscular durante el entrenamiento de los deportes de hielo y nieve, así como la rehabilitación de las lesiones musculares. Métodos: Se seleccionaron como sujetos treinta esquiadores con lesiones musculares en la rodilla y se sometieron a un entrenamiento de rehabilitación durante un total de 6 semanas, y se evaluaron estadísticamente los indicadores. Resultados: Los tipos de lesiones de esquí fueron principalmente la distensión muscular, la distensión muscular o de ligamentos y la rotura de ligamentos. Los índices después del tratamiento fueron significativamente diferentes de los anteriores (P < 0,05); en comparación con los tres programas de rehabilitación, la mejora de cada índice en el grupo C fue significativamente diferente de la de los otros dos grupos (P < 0,05), mientras que no hubo diferencias significativas en la mejora de cada índice entre el tratamiento de entrenamiento isométrico multiángulo en el grupo A y la técnica de estimulación neuromuscular propioceptiva en el grupo B (P>0,05). Conclusión: Se propuso la influencia de la tecnología de entrenamiento de recuperación en la reeducación muscular de la rodilla y se presentó un plan de rehabilitación para el esquí. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

6.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 221-242, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702612

RESUMO

Osteochondral defects (OCD) cannot be efficiently repaired due to the unique physical architecture and the pathological microenvironment including enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Conventional strategies, such as the control of implant microstructure or the introduction of growth factors, have limited functions failing to manage these complex environments. Here we developed a multifunctional silk-based hydrogel incorporated with metal-organic framework nanozymes (CuTA@SF) to provide a suitable microenvironment for enhanced OCD regeneration. The incorporation of CuTA nanozymes endowed the SF hydrogel with a uniform microstructure and elevated hydrophilicity. In vitro cultivation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes showed that CuTA@SF hydrogel accelerated cell proliferation and enhanced cell viability, as well as had antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Under the inflammatory environment with the stimulation of IL-1ß, CuTA@SF hydrogel still possessed the potential to promote MSC osteogenesis and deposition of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM). The proteomics analysis further confirmed that CuTA@SF hydrogel promoted cell proliferation and ECM synthesis. In the full-thickness OCD model of rabbit, CuTA@SF hydrogel displayed successfully in situ OCD regeneration, as evidenced by micro-CT, histology (HE, S/O, and toluidine blue staining) and immunohistochemistry (Col I and aggrecan immunostaining). Therefore, CuTA@SF hydrogel is a promising biomaterial targeted at the regeneration of OCD.

7.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 200-206, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799543

RESUMO

We previously combined reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with gelatin-methacryloyl (GelMA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) to create an rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduit and found that the conductivity and biocompatibility were improved. However, the rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduits differed greatly from autologous nerve transplants in their ability to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves and axonal sprouting. Extracellular vesicles derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be loaded into rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduits for repair of rat sciatic nerve injury because they can promote angiogenesis at the injured site. In this study, 12 weeks after surgery, sciatic nerve function was measured by electrophysiology and sciatic nerve function index, and myelin sheath and axon regeneration were observed by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. The regeneration of microvessel was observed by immunofluorescence. Our results showed that rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduits loaded with BMSC-derived extracellular vesicles were superior to rGO-GelMA-PCL conduits alone in their ability to increase the number of newly formed vessels and axonal sprouts at the injury site as well as the recovery of neurological function. These findings indicate that rGO-GelMA-PCL nerve conduits loaded with BMSC-derived extracellular vesicles can promote peripheral nerve regeneration and neurological function recovery, and provide a new direction for the curation of peripheral nerve defect in the clinic.

8.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(6): 837-839, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376760

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction Dynamic stretching is a particular form of training. Currently, there is little research in academia about dynamic stretching in sports dancing. Objective Explore the role of functional dynamic stretching training in dance sports. Methods 60 sports dancers with a history of ankle injuries were randomly divided into a control and experimental group. All performed a training protocol twice a week, lasting 45 minutes, for eight weeks. A functional dynamic stretching training session was added to the control group. The effects were evaluated by the Cumberland scale, bilateral stability comparison, and balance control by the Perkin system. Data were statistically treated for analysis. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of healthy ankle joints and injured ankle joints in the two groups (P>0.05). After eight weeks of functional dynamic stretching training, there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups on injured ankle joints (P<0.05). Conclusion Dynamic stretching training can effectively improve ankle joint stability in sports dancers. Concomitantly, this method effectively prevents injuries to the athlete's ankle joint. Evidence level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução O alongamento dinâmico é uma forma especial de treinamento. Atualmente, existem poucas pesquisas no meio acadêmico sobre alongamento dinâmico na dança esportiva. Objetivo Explorar o papel do treino funcional de alongamento dinâmico na dança esportiva. Métodos 60 bailarinos esportivos com histórico de lesões no tornozelo foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo controle e experimental. Todos realizaram um protocolo de treinamento duas vezes por semana, com duração de 45 minutos, por 8 semanas. Ao grupo controle foi adicionado um treino de alongamento dinâmico funcional. Os efeitos foram avaliados pela escala de Cumberland, comparação de estabilidade bilateral e controle de equilíbrio pelo sistema de Perkin. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente para análise. Resultados Antes do experimento, não houve diferença significativa entre os escores das articulações do tornozelo saudáveis e das articulações do tornozelo lesionadas nos dois grupos (P>0,05). Após 8 semanas de treinamento funcional de alongamento dinâmico, houve diferença significativa entre o grupo experimental e o grupo controle nas articulações do tornozelo lesionadas (P<0,05). Conclusão O treinamento de alongamento dinâmico pode efetivamente melhorar a estabilidade da articulação do tornozelo nos bailarinos esportivos. Concomitantemente, esse método previne efetivamente a ocorrência de lesões na articulação do tornozelo do atleta. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação de resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción El estiramiento dinámico es una forma especial de entrenamiento. Actualmente, existen pocas investigaciones en el ámbito académico sobre los estiramientos dinámicos en el baile deportivo. Objetivo Explorar el papel del entrenamiento funcional de estiramiento dinámico en el baile deportivo. Métodos 60 bailarines deportivos con antecedentes de lesiones de tobillo fueron divididos aleatoriamente en un grupo de control y otro experimental. Todos realizaron un protocolo de entrenamiento dos veces por semana, de 45 minutos, durante 8 semanas. Al grupo de control se le añadió un entrenamiento de estiramiento dinámico funcional. Los efectos fueron evaluados por la escala Cumberland, la comparación de la estabilidad bilateral y el control del equilibrio por el sistema Perkin. Los datos fueron tratados estadísticamente para su análisis. Resultados Antes del experimento, no había diferencias significativas entre las puntuaciones de las articulaciones del tobillo sano y las articulaciones del tobillo lesionado en los dos grupos (P>0,05). Después de 8 semanas de entrenamiento funcional de estiramiento dinámico, hubo una diferencia significativa entre el grupo experimental y el grupo de control en las articulaciones del tobillo lesionadas (P<0,05). Conclusión El entrenamiento de estiramiento dinámico puede mejorar eficazmente la estabilidad de la articulación del tobillo en los bailarines deportivos. Al mismo tiempo, este método previene eficazmente la aparición de lesiones en la articulación del tobillo del deportista. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 313: 120155, 2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130632

RESUMO

Iron-based materials have been widely investigated because of their high surface reactivity, which has shown potential for the remediation of metal(loid)s in groundwater. However, the disadvantages of structural stability and economic feasibility always limit their application in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology. In this study, zeolite-supported iron particles (Zeo-Fe) were synthesized by an innovative low-cost physical preparation method that is suitable for mass production. The removal efficiency and mechanism of typical metal(loid)s (Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr6+ and As3+) were subsequently investigated using various kinetic and equilibrium models and characterization methods. The results of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that zero valent iron (Fe0) and oxidation product (Fe3O4) were successfully loaded and efficiently dispersed on zeolite. The synthesized Zeo-Fe exhibited excellent adsorption and redox capacities for the cations Pb2+, Cd2+ and anions Cr6+, As3+. The increase in the pH resulting from Fe0 corrosion also enhanced the precipitation of Fe-metal(loid)s. The maximum removal capacity for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr6+ and As3+ was up to 70.00, 9.12, 2.35 and 0.36 mg/g, respectively. The removal processes were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for Pb2+ and Cd2+, Lagergren pseudo first-order kinetics model for As3+ and double phase first order kinetics model l for Cr6+. Cr6+ was rapidly reduced to Cr3+ by the Fe0 stabilized on Zeo-Fe, and the oxidation of As3+ to As5+ was attributed to the Fe0/Fe2+ oxidation process at the interface over time, which was further demonstrated by the mineral phase and element valence analyses of reacted Zeo-Fe. The removal mechanism for metal(loid)s was a combination of physical and chemical processes, including adsorption, co-precipitation and reduction-oxidation. Conclusively, Zeo-Fe has been shown to have potential as an effective and economical material for removing various metal(loid)s used in PRB.

10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 994, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131123

RESUMO

Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) confers Th17-cells immunosuppressive features by activating aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor, a modulator of toxin and adaptive immune responses. In Crohn's disease, Th17-cells fail to acquire regulatory properties in response to UCB, remaining at an inflammatory/pathogenic state. Here we show that UCB modulates Th17-cell metabolism by limiting glycolysis and through downregulation of glycolysis-related genes, namely phosphoglycerate-kinase-1 (PGK1) and aldolase-A (ALDOA). Th17-cells of Crohn's disease patients display heightened PGK1 and ALDOA and defective response to UCB. Silencing of PGK1 or ALDOA restores Th17-cell response to UCB, as reflected by increase in immunoregulatory markers like FOXP3, IL-10 and CD39. In vivo, PGK1 and ALDOA silencing enhances UCB salutary effects in trinitro-benzene-sulfonic-acid-induced colitis in NOD/scid/gamma humanized mice where control over disease activity and enhanced immunoregulatory phenotypes are achieved. PGK1 and/or ALDOA blockade might have therapeutic effects in Crohn's disease by favoring acquisition of regulatory properties by Th17-cells along with control over their pathogenic potential.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Células Th17 , Animais , Benzeno/metabolismo , Bilirrubina , Doença de Crohn/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD
11.
Nanoscale Adv ; 4(3): 952-966, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131817

RESUMO

Liposomal nanomedicine represents a common and versatile carrier for the delivery of both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. However, the direct formulation of many chemotherapeutics into a liposomal system remains an enormous challenge. Using the topoisomerase I inhibitor 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38) as a model drug, we combined lipophilic prodrug construction with subsequent integration into an exogenous liposomal scaffold to assemble a prodrug-formulated liposome for systemic administration. Reconstructing SN38 with lipid cholesterol via the esterase-activatable bond endows the resulting prodrug with elevated miscibility with liposomal compositions and esterase-responsive drug release in cancerous cells. The systemic administration of the prodrug-based nanoassemblies (Chol-SN38@LP) exhibited preferential accumulation of therapeutic payloads in tumor lesions. Compared to the SN38 clinical counterpart irinotecan, our prodrug-based nanoassemblies with adaptive features showed elevated therapeutic efficacy (∼1.5 times increase of tumor inhibition) in a preclinical A549 lung carcinoma cell-derived mouse model and improved drug tolerability (i.e., alleviated bloody diarrhea and liver damage) in multiple mice models. These results may be ascribed to extended systemic circulation and preferential tumor accumulation of our nanodrugs. Hence, our findings demonstrate that rational engineering of therapeutic nanomedicine is a promising approach for effective and safe delivery of antitumor chemotherapeutics, especially to rescue drug candidates that have failed in clinical trials owing to poor PK properties or severe toxicity in patients.

12.
Nanoscale Adv ; 4(15): 3142-3148, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36132811

RESUMO

Thin films of few-layer WS2 nanosheets and WSe2 nanosheets were directly grown on W substrates via a scalable infrared-heating CVD method. The WSe2 nanosheets are in a unique feather-like assembly, and mainly composed of the 2H phase, while the presence of a metallic 1T phase was confirmed through atomic resolution TEM observation. Feather-like WSe2 nanosheets delivered excellent electrocatalytic performances for the HER in acid, including a low overpotential of 141 mV to yield a current at 10 mA cm-2, and superb long-term stability at high currents. The highly efficient electrocatalysis is mainly attributed to the unique feather-like morphology of the WSe2 nanosheets with numerous sharp barbules to help maximize the exposed edge sites, along with other beneficial factors including the presence of a 1T phase and slight O-doping.

13.
Nanoscale Adv ; 4(15): 3121-3130, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36132816

RESUMO

Highly processible graphene oxide (GO) has a diversity of applications as a material readily dispersed in aqueous media. However, methods for preparing such free-standing GO use hazardous and toxic reagents and generate significant waste streams. This is an impediment for uptake of GO in any application, for developing sustainable technologies and industries, and overcoming this remains a major challenge. We have developed a robust scalable continuous flow method for fabricating GO directly from graphite in 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide which dramatically minimises the generation of waste. The process features the continuous flow thin film microfluidic vortex fluidic device (VFD), operating at specific conditions while irradiated sequentially by UV LED than a NIR pulsed laser. The resulting 'green' graphene oxide (gGO) has unique properties, possessing highly oxidized edges with large intact sp2 domains which gives rise to exceptional electrical and optical properties, including purple to deep blue emission of narrow full width at half maximum (<35 nm). Colloidally stable gGO exhibits cytotoxicity owing to the oxidised surface groups while solid-state films of gGO are biocompatible. The continuous flow method of generating gGO also provides unprecedented control of the level of oxidation and its location in the exfoliated graphene sheets by harnessing the high shear topological fluid flows in the liquid, and varying the wavelength, power and pulse frequency of the light source.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36133788

RESUMO

Background: The pathogenesis of slow transit constipation (STC) is associated with exosomal miR-34c-5p. Electroacupuncture (EA) improves gastrointestinal motility in gastrointestinal disorders, especially STC. Our study aimed to explore the mechanism by which EA improves intestinal motility by modulating the release of exosomes and the transmission of exosomal miR-34c-5p. Methods: Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups. STC model rats were induced, and GW4869, the exosome release inhibitor, was used to inhibit the release of exosome. The serum exosomes were authenticated under a transmission electron microscope and nanoparticle tracking analysis. RT-qPCR detected the expression of miR-34c-5p in serum exosomes and colonic tissues. The fecal number in 24 hours, Bristol scores, and intestinal transit rates were used to assess intestinal motility. Subsequently, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to examine the colonic mucosal histology. Finally, the expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) protein was measured using immunohistochemistry staining. Results: We found that EA upregulated exosomal miR-34c-5p in serum and downregulated miR-34c-5p in colonic tissues (P < 0.01). EA improved fecal numbers in 24 hours, Bristol scores, and intestinal transit rates in STC rats (P < 0.01). EA recovered the colonic histological structure and enhanced the expression of SCF and c-Kit protein (P < 0.01). The therapeutic effect of EA was attenuated after inhibiting the release of the exosome. Conclusion: Our results indicated that EA improves intestinal motility in STC rats by transporting of exosomal miR-34c-5p targeting the SCF/c-Kit signaling pathway.

15.
Biomimetics (Basel) ; 7(3)2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134935

RESUMO

Tissue engineering to develop alternatives for the maintenance, restoration, or enhancement of injured tissues and organs is gaining more and more attention. In tissue engineering, the scaffold used is one of the most critical elements. Its characteristics are expected to mimic the native extracellular matrix and its unique topographical structures. Recently, the topographies of scaffolds have received increasing attention, not least because different topographies, such as aligned and random, have different repair effects on various tissues. In this review, we have focused on various technologies (electrospinning, directional freeze-drying, magnetic freeze-casting, etching, and 3-D printing) to fabricate scaffolds with different topographic orientations, as well as discussed the physicochemical (mechanical properties, porosity, hydrophilicity, and degradation) and biological properties (morphology, distribution, adhesion, proliferation, and migration) of different topographies. Subsequently, we have compiled the effect of scaffold orientation on the regeneration of vessels, skin, neural tissue, bone, articular cartilage, ligaments, tendons, cardiac tissue, corneas, skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle. The compiled information in this review will facilitate the future development of optimal topographical scaffolds for the regeneration of certain tissues. In the majority of tissues, aligned scaffolds are more suitable than random scaffolds for tissue repair and regeneration. The underlying mechanism explaining the various effects of aligned and random orientation might be the differences in "contact guidance", which stimulate certain biological responses in cells.

16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 244: 114044, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055044

RESUMO

Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), a widely used novel brominated flame retardant, is gaining concerns due to rapidly increased contents in various environmental and biota samples. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 2.91, 9.71, 29.14 and 97.12 µg/L of DBDPE until 120 h post-fertilization (hpf) to investigate the potential developmental neurotoxicity and underlying mechanisms. Chemical analysis revealed concentration-dependently increased body burdens of DBDPE in zebrafish larvae, with bioaccumulation factors (BCFs) ranging from 414 to 726. Embryonic exposure to DBDPE caused hyperactivity without affecting the development of secondary motoneuron axons and muscle fibers. However, further results implicated that DBDPE may affect the locomotor regulatory network via different mechanisms at lower and higher concentrations. On the one hand, embryonic exposure to 2.91 µg/L DBDPE transiently promoted spontaneous coiling contractions, but showed no effects on touch-response and swimming activity in zebrafish larvae. The whole-body contents of neurotransmitters were significantly decreased. Significant decreased protein abundances of α1-TUBULIN and SYN2a and molecular docking results pointed out possible interactions of DBDPE with these two proteins. However, these changes may be unconcerned with the transient hyperactivity, and the exact molecular mechanisms need further investigation. On the other hand, 29.14 and 97.12 µg/L DBDPE exposure caused longer-lasting effects in promoting spontaneous coiling contractions, and also touch-response and swimming activity. At the same time, increased ACh contents (without changes of other neurotransmitters) and ChAT activity and inhibited transcription of nAChRs were observed at higher concentrations. Molecular docking indicated direct interaction of DBDPE with ChAT. The results suggested that DBDPE induced hyperactivity at higher concentrations was probably involved with disrupted cholinergic system, with ChAT as a potential target. Given that the body burden of DBDPE in lower concentration group was comparable with those detected in wild fish, the current results may provide useful information for ecological risk assessment.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 853: 158385, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055512

RESUMO

Cooking oil fume (COF) is an important source of indoor and outdoor air pollutants. COF generates a large number of organic compounds through volatilization and thermal oxidation, mainly including acids, alcohols, aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can contribute 10 %-35 % to airborne organic particles in urban areas. COF not only affects human health owning to their small sizes, but also may absorb incident light due to the presence of brown carbon (BrC) chromophores in organic components. Therefore, we investigated size distributions and light absorption properties of particles produced from heating four types of edible oil. Results showed over 75 % of COF particles belonged to ultrafine particles (UFPs) and capable of absorbing light. The particle number size distributions for heating all edible oils were bimodal lognormal distribution, and the two mode diameters were within 27.9-32.2 nm and 187.7-299.6 nm. Both real-time monitoring and offline analyzing results show the average absorption coefficients of particles generated from heating soybean oil were much greater compare to those of heating other three edible oils. The mean AAE370/520 for heating soybean oil, olive oil, corn oil and peanut oil were 1.877, 1.669, 1.745 and 1.288, respectively, indicating the presence of BrC chromophores. A large proportion of BrC identified by HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS only contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which are CnH2nO2, CnH2n-2O2, CnH2n-4O2 and CnH2n-6O2 (9

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 853: 158510, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063954

RESUMO

Conductive materials have been widely used to establish direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) for enhancing methane production potential from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). However, the roles of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) affected by conductive materials on anaerobic digestion have been rarely reported. This study selected four widely used conductive materials, i.e., granular active carbon (GAC), biochar (BC), zero-valent iron (ZVI), and magnetite (Mag), to reveal the roles of EPSs. Results showed that methane production potentials were increased by BC, ZVI and Mag compared to that of control, with increase ratios of 13.4 %, 22.2 %, and 12.2 %, while a decrease was observed by GAC. The contents, components and characteristics of EPSs were all affected by conductive materials. The contents of EPSs were increased by ZVI and Mag, while they were decreased by BC and GAC. The ratios between proteins and polysaccharides (PN/PS) in loosely bound EPSs (LB-EPSs) were reduced in all groups, while they were similar in tightly bound EPSs (TB-EPSs) of ZVI and Mag groups. In addition, the cytochrome C and redox properties were remarkably promoted in suspension rather than in LB- and TB-EPSs. It was found that the correlation relationships between the maximal methane production potential (Pmax) and PN/PS in EPSs were positive, as well as fluorescent substances, especially tyrosine-like and tryptophan-like substances, with R2 of 0.96 and 0.98. Furthermore, the correlation relationships also existed between EPSs and microbial communities. Clostridium and Methanobacterium, potential DIET partners, presented significant positive correlation relationships (P < 0.05) with Pmax, PN/PS and fluorescent substances in EPSs. The findings may provide some new insights for mechanism investigation of anaerobic digestion induced by conductive materials.

19.
Chemosphere ; 308(Pt 2): 136372, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087718

RESUMO

In this work, a systematical investigation on the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the transformation of tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ) under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (at 253.7 nm) in aqueous solution has been conducted through quantum chemical calculations. Under the UV irradiation, with the forward energy barrier (Ea,f, 11.7 kcal mol-1) much lower than the reverse one (Ea,r, 22.3 kcal mol-1), the first triplet state of TCBQ was kinetically feasible to react with bisulfide anion (HS-) via the Michael addition, and the addition of HS- could promote the release of Cl- and the formation of primary dechlorination product (HS-TriCBQ). During the UV photolysis of the primary dechlorination products (HO-TriCBQ and HS-TriCBQ) in the presence of H2O and H2S, the addition of nucleophile (OH- or HS-) to the ortho-position of the hydroxyl or thiol group might be the most efficient pathway for the dechlorination, and their respective Ea,f were 9.2 kcal mol-1 (for HS--hydroxyl), 1.1 kcal mol-1 (for OH--thiol) and 8.9 kcal mol-1 (for HS--thiol). Moreover, the electron transfer from HS- to the first triplet states could generate hydrosulfide radical for the dechlorination of TCBQ. The findings in the present study may provide some important theoretical foundation for the dehalogenation of TCBQ as well as other halobenzoquinones.

20.
HLA ; 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114732

RESUMO

HLA-DRB1*04:316 differs from HLA-DRB1*04:03:01:01 by one nucleotide substitution at position 161 in exon 2.

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