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1.
Funct Plant Biol ; 47(4): 318-326, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054564

RESUMO

Organic acids secreted from the roots of plants play important roles in nutrient acquisition and metal detoxification; however, the precise underlying mechanisms of these processes remain poorly understood. In the present study we examined the content of organic acids exuded from roots and the effects of these organic acids on the activation of slowly available potassium (K) at different K levels, including normal K supply and K-deficient conditions. In addition, the study system also comprised a high-K tobacco variety (ND202) and two common ones (K326 and NC89). Our results showed that high-K varieties exhibited significantly higher contents of organic acids in its root exudates and available K in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils than the other varieties. This research also suggested that a cyclic process in which soil was acidified after being complexed by organic acids was involved in the release of slowly available K, and that this process primarily depended on the soil pH at high organic acids concentrations, but the complexation of organic ligands became dominant at low concentrations. In conclusion, tobacco roots secrete organic acids to increase available K content and improve the utilisation rate of soil K. High-K varieties probably enhance slowly available K activation by secreting relatively high amounts of organic acids, thus leading to more available K in soil for absorption by plants.

2.
Nature ; 578(7794): 240-245, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051600

RESUMO

A quantum internet that connects remote quantum processors1,2 should enable a number of revolutionary applications such as distributed quantum computing. Its realization will rely on entanglement of remote quantum memories over long distances. Despite enormous progress3-12, at present the maximal physical separation achieved between two nodes is 1.3 kilometres10, and challenges for longer distances remain. Here we demonstrate entanglement of two atomic ensembles in one laboratory via photon transmission through city-scale optical fibres. The atomic ensembles function as quantum memories that store quantum states. We use cavity enhancement to efficiently create atom-photon entanglement13-15 and we use quantum frequency conversion16 to shift the atomic wavelength to telecommunications wavelengths. We realize entanglement over 22 kilometres of field-deployed fibres via two-photon interference17,18 and entanglement over 50 kilometres of coiled fibres via single-photon interference19. Our experiment could be extended to nodes physically separated by similar distances, which would thus form a functional segment of the atomic quantum network, paving the way towards establishing atomic entanglement over many nodes and over much longer distances.

3.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 1169-1181, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914631

RESUMO

BHLHE40, a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family, has been reported to play an important role in inflammatory diseases. However, the regulation and function of BHLHE40 in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated gastritis is unknown. We observed that gastric BHLHE40 was significantly elevated in patients and mice with H pylori infection. Then, we demonstrate that H pylori-infected GECs express BHLHE40 via cagA-ERK pathway. BHLHE40 translocates to cell nucleus, and then binds to cagA protein-activated p-STAT3 (Tyr705). The complex increases chemotactic factor CXCL12 expression (production). Release of CXCL12 from GECs fosters CD4+ T cell infiltration in the gastric mucosa. Our results identify the cagA-BHLHE40-CXCL12 axis that contributes to inflammatory response in gastric mucosa during H pylori infection.

4.
Ecol Evol ; 9(16): 9376-9384, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463028

RESUMO

Allochthonous (e.g., riparian) plant litter is among the organic matter resources that are important for wetland ecosystems. A compact canopy of free-floating vegetation on the water surface may allow for riparian litter to remain on it for a period of time before sinking to the bottom. Thus, we hypothesized that canopy of free-floating vegetation may slow decomposition processes in wetlands. To test the hypothesis that the retention of riparian leaf litter on the free-floating vegetation in wetlands affects their subsequent decomposition on the bottom of wetlands, a 50-day in situ decomposition experiment was performed in a wetland pond in subtropical China, in which litter bags of single species with fine (0.5 mm) or coarse (2.0 mm) mesh sizes were placed on free-floating vegetation (dominated by Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Salvinia molesta) for 25 days and then moved to the pond bottom for another 25 days or remained on the pond bottom for 50 days. The leaf litter was collected from three riparian species, that is, Cinnamomum camphora, Diospyros kaki, and Phyllostachys propinqua. The retention of riparian leaf litter on free-floating vegetation had significant negative effect on the carbon loss, marginal negative effects on the mass loss, and no effect on the nitrogen loss from leaf litter, partially supporting the hypothesis. Similarly, the mass and carbon losses from leaf litter decomposing on the pond bottom for the first 25 days of the experiment were greater than those from the litter decomposing on free-floating vegetation. Our results highlight that in wetlands, free-floating vegetation could play a vital role in litter decomposition, which is linked to the regulation of nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

5.
Int J Oncol ; 54(5): 1639-1650, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896828

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis is maintained at a higher level in cancer cells, which promotes tumorigenesis. Oxidative stress induced by anticancer drugs may further increase ROS to promote apoptosis, but can also enhance the metastasis of cancer cells. The effects of ROS homeostasis on cancer cells remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the effect of a reduction in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) on the migration and invasion of A431 cells was investigated. Our previous micro­assay data revealed that the mRNA expression of MnSOD was higher in the invasive A431­III cell line compared with that in the parental A431 cell line (A431­P). In the present study, high protein levels of MnSOD and H2O2 production were observed in A431­III cells; however, catalase protein levels were significantly lower in A431­III cells compared with those in the A431­P cell line. The knockdown of MnSOD increased H2O2 levels, enzyme activity, the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase­1, ­2 and ­9, and the migratory and invasive abilities of the cells. Inducing a reduction in H2O2 using diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N­acetyl­l­cysteine decreased the migratory abilities of the cell lines, and DPI attenuated the migratory ability that had been increased by MnSOD small interfering RNA knockdown. Luteolin (Lu) and quercetin (Qu) increased the expression of catalase and reduced H2O2 levels, but without an observed change in the protein levels of MnSOD. Taken together, these data suggest that reduced MnSOD may induce ROS imbalance in cells and promote the metastatic ability of cancer cells. Lu and Qu may attenuate these processes and may be promising potential anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Luteolina/farmacologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Oniocompostos/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 363: 335-345, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321838

RESUMO

Synthesizing a gas sensor based on heterostructured nanomaterials (NMs) via a controllable morphology by a facile hydrothermal method is an area of frontier research. In the present work, we designed a facile strategy to synthesize a controllable morphology and composition for three component heterojunctions (MoS2-Bi2O3-Bi2S3) NMs using different hydrothermal reaction times. The Bi2S3 easily form as an intermediate phase due to the strong interaction of the Bi2O3 with MoS2 nanosheets (NSs). The as fabricated heterojunctions MB-5 NMs exhibited a sensitive response to NOx gas (Ra/Rg = 10.7 at 50 ppm), with an ultra-fast response time of only 1 s (s) at room temperature (RT) in air. The detection limit was predicted to be as low as 50 ppb. This sensational behaviour of the sensor reveals the outstanding morphological structure and synergistic effect of the MoS2 NSs with Bi2O3 nanoparticles (NPs), which was realized by the flow of electrons across MoS2-Bi2O3-Bi2S3 interfaces through band energy alignment.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(10): 100502, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240268

RESUMO

Periodically driven systems have displayed a variety of fascinating phenomena without analogies in static systems, which enrich the classification of quantum phases of matter and stimulate a wide range of research interests. Here, we employ discrete-time quantum walks to investigate a nontrivial topological effect unique to a two-dimensional periodically driven system: chiral edge states can exist at the interface of Floquet insulators whose Chern numbers vanish. Thanks to a resource-saving and flexible fiber-loop architecture, we realize inhomogeneous two-dimensional quantum walks up to 25 steps, over an effective 51×51 lattice with tunable local parameters. Spin-polarized chiral edge states are observed at the boundary of two distinct quantum walk domains. Our results contribute to establishing a well-controlled platform for exploring nontrivial topological phases.

8.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(4): e1412900, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632726

RESUMO

The potential contributions of CD8+ memory stem T cells to anti-tumor immunity and immunotherapy responses in gastric cancer has not been demonstrated. We found that CD8+ memory stem T cell frequencies were increased in the peripheral blood of gastric cancer patients compared to healthy donors and declined in frequency with disease progression. Despite minimal in vitro cytotoxic activity, the adoptive transfer of CD8+ memory stem T cells into Rag1-/- tumor bearing mice enhanced tumor regression compared to CD8+ central or effector memory T cell counterparts. This effect was associated with an increase in splenic, draining lymph node and tumor infiltrating CD8+ T cell numbers and the development of an altered CD8+ T cell phenotype not seen during homeostasis. GSK-3ß inhibition is known to promote memory stem T cell accumulation by arresting effector T cell differentiation in vivo. Surprisingly however, GSK-3ß inhibition conversely increased the cytotoxic capacity of CD8+ memory stem T cells in vitro, and this was associated with the induction of effector T cell-associated effector proteins including FasL. Finally, FasL neutralization following GSK-3ß inhibition directly attenuated the anti-tumoral capacity of CD8+ memory stem T cells both in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, our findings identify the therapeutic potential of modulating CD8+ memory stem T cells for improved anti-tumoral responses against gastric cancer.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(11): 7701-7709, 2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498386

RESUMO

Elucidating atmospheric oxidation mechanisms and the reaction kinetics of atmospheric compounds is of great importance and necessary for atmospheric modeling and the understanding of the formation of atmospheric organic aerosols. While the hydrolysis of aldehydes has been detected in the presence of sulfuric acid, the reaction mechanism and kinetics remain unclear. Herein, we use electronic structure methods with CCSD(T)/CBS accuracy and canonical variational transition state theory combined with small-curvature tunneling to study the reaction mechanism and kinetics of the hydrolysis of CH3CHO. The calculated results show that the hydrolysis of CH3CHO needs to overcome an energy barrier of 37.21 kcal mol-1, while the energy barrier is decreased to -9.79 kcal mol-1 with a sulfuric acid catalyst. In addition, the calculated kinetic results show that the H2SO4H2O + CH3CHO reaction is faster than H2SO4 + CH3CHOH2O. Additionally, the H2SO4H2O + CH3CHO reaction can play an important role in the sink of CH3CHO below 260 K occurring during the night period when OH, H2SO4, and H2O concentrations are 104, 108, and 1017 molecules cm-3, respectively, because it can compete well with the CH3CHO + OH reaction. There are wide implications in atmospheric chemistry from these findings because of the potential importance of the catalytic effect of H2SO4 on the hydrolysis of CH3CHO in the atmosphere and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols.

10.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 130(21): 2527-2534, 2017 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29067950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sacroiliac (SI) screw fixation is a demanding technique, with a high rate of screw malposition due to the complex pelvic anatomy. TiRobot™ is an orthopedic surgery robot which can be used for SI screw fixation. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of robot-assisted placement of SI screws compared with a freehand technique. METHODS: Thirty patients requiring posterior pelvic ring stabilization were randomized to receive freehand or robot-assisted SI screw fixation, between January 2016 and June 2016 at Beijing Jishuitan Hospital. Forty-five screws were placed at levels S1 and S2. In both methods, the primary end point screw position was assessed and classified using postoperative computed tomography. Fisher's exact probability test was used to analyze the screws' positions. Secondary end points, such as duration of trajectory planning, surgical time after reduction of the pelvis, insertion time for guide wire, number of guide wire attempts, and radiation exposure without pelvic reduction, were also assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-three screws were placed in the robot-assisted group and 22 screws in the freehand group; no postoperative complications or revisions were reported. The excellent and good rate of screw placement was 100% in the robot-assisted group and 95% in the freehand group. The P value (0.009) showed the same superiority in screw distribution. The fluoroscopy time after pelvic reduction in the robot-assisted group was significantly shorter than that in the freehand group (median [Q1, Q3]: 6.0 [6.0, 9.0] s vs. median [Q1, Q3]: 36.0 [21.5, 48.0] s; χ2 = 13.590, respectively, P < 0.001); no difference in operation time after reduction of the pelvis was noted (χ2 = 1.990, P = 0.158). Time for guide wire insertion was significantly shorter for the robot-assisted group than that for the freehand group (median [Q1, Q3]: 2.0 [2.0, 2.7] min vs. median [Q1, Q3]: 19.0 [15.5, 45.0] min; χ2 = 20.952, respectively, P < 0.001). The number of guide wire attempts in the robot-assisted group was significantly less than that in the freehand group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.0 [1.0,1.0] time vs. median [Q1, Q3]: 7.0 [1.0, 9.0] times; χ2 = 15.771, respectively, P < 0.001). The instrumented SI levels did not differ between both groups (from S1 to S2, χ2 = 4.760, P = 0.093). CONCLUSIONS: Accuracy of the robot-assisted technique was superior to that of the freehand technique. Robot-assisted navigation is safe for unstable posterior pelvic ring stabilization, especially in S1, but also in S2. SI screw insertion with robot-assisted navigation is clinically feasible.


Assuntos
Parafusos Ósseos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Robótica/métodos , Sacro/cirurgia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983474

RESUMO

Cytotoxin-associated-gene A (CagA) of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a virulence factor that plays critical roles in H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation. In the present study, gastric biopsies were used for genotyping cagA and vacA genes, determining the autophagic activity, and the severity of gastric inflammation response. It was revealed that autophagy in gastric mucosal tissues infected with cagA+H. pylori strains was lower than the levels produced by cagA-H. pylori strains, accompanied with accumulation of SQSTM1 and decreased LAMP1 expression. In vitro, deletion mutant of cagA gene resulted in increased autophagic activity, and decreased expression of SQSTM1 and cytokines, whereas over-expression of CagA down-regulated the starvation-induced autophagy, and induced more production of the cytokines. Moreover, the production of the cytokines was increased by inhibition of autophagy, but decreased by enhancement of autophagy. Deletion of CagA decreased the ability to activate Akt kinase at Ser-473 site and increased autophagy. c-Met siRNA significantly affected CagA-mediated autophagy, and decreased the level of p-Akt, p-mTOR, and p-S6. Both c-Met siRNA and MK-2206 could reverse inflammatory response. H. pylori CagA protein negatively regulates autophagy and promotes the inflammation in H. pylori infection, which is regulated by c-Met-PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway activation.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Citocinas/análise , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
12.
J Pain Res ; 10: 121-128, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to develop a culturally appropriate and functional Standard Mandarin Chinese translation of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2) and to assess its reliability and validity for characterizing chronic visceral pain in Chinese patients. BACKGROUND: The SF-MPQ-2 has been widely used in studies of pain epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, and even pathophysiologic mechanisms to assess the major symptoms of clinical pain. Previous reports have shown favorable reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SF-MPQ-2 in diverse samples of patients with chronic and acute pain. However, a culturally appropriate, functional Chinese version of the scale has never been developed. METHODS: Beaton's guidelines were used for the translation and back-translation procedures. Patients (n=145) with chronic visceral pain were recruited to complete the Standard Mandarin Chinese version of the SF-MPQ-2 (SF-MPQ-2-CN), of which 41 were asked to complete the SF-MPQ-2-CN a second time, 3 days after the initial visit. The test-retest reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency. Possible components were determined by exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and a value of 0.4 was considered requisite for the loading of each factor. RESULTS: The ICC for subscales ranged from 0.909 to 0.952, and that of the total scale was 0.927, suggesting excellent reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN. Cronbach's alpha for subscales ranged from 0.896 to 0.916, and that of the total scale was 0.836 and 0.831 for primary and secondary visits, respectively. The factor loading matrix of the SF-MPQ-2-CN ranged from 0.734 to 0.901 for each of the following subscales: continuous, intermittent, neuropathic, and affective, revealing four components similar to the original scale. CONCLUSION: The reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN scale are statistically acceptable for the evaluation of Chinese patients with chronic visceral pain.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 38(3): 1151-1158, 2017 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965589

RESUMO

The evolution of sludge filteration dewaterability, floc structure and hydrolytic kinetics with calcium peroxide oxidation pre-treatment was investigated in this study. The effect of sludge characteristics with combined process of ferrous ion and calcium peroxide was deeply analyzed and the result suggested that the sludge dewatering performance was improved first and then worsened after CaO2 addition. When the dosage was 20 mg·g-1, sludge reached its optimal dewaterability. At the same time, sludge was effectively dissolved and the floc structure became loose and broken with the increase of organic matters in the supernatant. Moreover, sludge solubilization process followed the pseudo-zero-order kinetic equation well and the reaction rate of sludge with CaO2 treatment was 15.2 mg·L-1·h-1. In addition, sludge floc lysis was enhanced by the treatment of ferrous ion and calcium peroxide oxidation, whilst sludge dewaterability was improved due to the reconstruction of sludge floc structure by the iron ions produced. This study provided theoretical basis for application of calcium peroxide pre-treatment and its combining technique in sludge treatment.


Assuntos
Peróxidos/química , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Oxirredução
14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(19): 190501, 2016 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27858431

RESUMO

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) with the decoy-state method negates security threats of both the imperfect single-photon source and detection losses. Lengthening the distance and improving the key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) are vital issues in practical applications of QKD. Herein, we report the results of MDIQKD over 404 km of ultralow-loss optical fiber and 311 km of a standard optical fiber while employing an optimized four-intensity decoy-state method. This record-breaking implementation of the MDIQKD method not only provides a new distance record for both MDIQKD and all types of QKD systems but also, more significantly, achieves a distance that the traditional Bennett-Brassard 1984 QKD would not be able to achieve with the same detection devices even with ideal single-photon sources. This work represents a significant step toward proving and developing feasible long-distance QKD.

15.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0165131, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27760202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been identified as an adverse prognostic variable which associated with an increased mortality in various cancers, including colorectal, lung, and breast cancers. However, previous studies provided inconsistent results on the association between diabetes and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between diabetes mellitus and the survival of NPC patients. METHODS: This study was designed as a 1:2 matched case-control study. Cases were patients who met the criteria for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) below. Controls, matched 1:2, were patients who were normoglycemic (NDM). The survival rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the survival curves were compared using a log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: Both locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the NDM group were higher than that in the DM group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.033). Additionally, subset analyses revealed that the differences in OS, LRRFS, and DFS were all significant between the two groups in the N0-N1 subset (p = 0.007, p =.000 and p = 0.002). The LRRFS was higher in the NDM group in the III-IV, T3-T4 and N0-N1 subsets (p = 0.004, p = 0.002 and p =.000). In T3-T4 subset, the NDM group experienced higher DFS than the DM group (p = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, T stage and N stage were found to be independent predictors for OS, DMFS and DFS; chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for DMFS and DFS, age for OS, and diabetes for LRRFS and DFS. CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetic mellitus is associated with poorer prognosis among patients with NPC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(24): 240502, 2016 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27367371

RESUMO

Quantum communication has historically been at the forefront of advancements, from fundamental tests of quantum physics to utilizing the quantum-mechanical properties of physical systems for practical applications. In the field of communication complexity, quantum communication allows the advantage of an exponential reduction in the transmitted information over classical communication to accomplish distributed computational tasks. However, to date, demonstrating this advantage in a practical setting continues to be a central challenge. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting protocol that for the first time surpasses the ultimate classical limit to transmitted information. Ultralow noise superconducting single-photon detectors and a stable fiber-based Sagnac interferometer are used to implement a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the classical proven lower bound over 20 km standard telecom fiber for input sizes of up to 2 Gbits. The results pave the way for experimentally exploring the advanced features of quantum communication and open a new window of opportunity for research in communication complexity and testing the foundations of physics.

17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 37(6): 2243-2251, 2016 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964892

RESUMO

The effect of the different forms of titanium salt coagulant conditioning on sludge dewatering performance was studied. The result showed that the sludge dewaterability was the best and the specific resistance to filtration (SRF), the compressibility and the content of organic content in EPS were the lowest when B=0.5 compared with others. The optimal dosage of polymeric titanium chloride (PTC) was 0.005 g·g-1, which was far less than those of the traditional iron salts and aluminum coagulants. When the dosage of PTC with different B values was 0.005 g·g-1, the order of dewaterability was:PTC 0.5> PTC1.5> TiCl4> PTC2.5. In addition, the variations of characteristics such as particle size (d0.5) and fractal dimension(DF) of sludge during conditioning were analyzed. The effect of titanium salt coagulant conditioning on the distribution and composition of the sludge extracellular polymeric substance(EPS) was characterized by Three-dimensional Excitation Emission Matrix Fluorescence (3DEEM) and High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography(HPSEC).The decrease of fluorescent intensity and molecular weight of peak distribution and intensity of organics in EPS was highly correlated to the improvement of the dewatering performance and change of sludge properties.


Assuntos
Sais/química , Esgotos/química , Titânio/química , Filtração , Tamanho da Partícula , Água
18.
Lancet ; 386(10002): 1457-64, 2015 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26142048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common gastric pathogens, affecting at least half the world's population, and is strongly associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, and lymphoma. We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a three-dose oral recombinant H pylori vaccine in children in China. METHODS: We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at one centre in Ganyu County, Jiangsu Province, China. Healthy children aged 6-15 years without past or present H pylori infection were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation codes in blocks of ten, to receive the H pylori vaccine or placebo. Participants, their guardians, and study investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary efficacy endpoint was the occurrence of H pylori infection within 1 year after vaccination. We did analysis in the per-protocol population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02302170. FINDINGS: Between Dec 2, 2004, and March 19, 2005, we randomly assigned 4464 participants to either the vaccine group (n=2232) or the placebo group (n=2232), of whom 4403 (99%) participants completed the three-dose vaccination schedule and were included in the per-protocol efficacy analysis. We extended follow-up to 3 years. We recorded 64 events of H pylori infection within the first year (14 events in 2074·3 person-years at risk in the vaccine group vs 50 events in 2089·6 person-years at risk in the placebo group), resulting in a vaccine efficacy of 71·8% (95% CI 48·2-85·6). 157 (7%) participants in the vaccine group and 161 (7%) participants in the placebo group reported at least one adverse reaction. Serious adverse events were reported in five (<1%) participants in the vaccine group and seven (<1%) participants in the placebo group, but none was considered to be vaccination related. INTERPRETATION: The oral recombinant H pylori vaccine was effective, safe, and immunogenic in H pylori-naive children. This vaccine could substantially reduce the incidence of H pylori infection; however, follow up over a longer period is needed to confirm the protection of the vaccine against H pylori-associated diseases. FUNDING: Chongqing Kangwei Biological Technology.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Vacinas Bacterianas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Ativa/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Autophagy ; 11(8): 1293-307, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26151773

RESUMO

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease with high mortality, which is prevalent in tropical regions of the world. A recent study shows that B. pseudomallei can survive inside mammalian cells because of its ability to actively evade cell autophagy. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, based on microarray screening, we found that ATG10 was downregulated following B. pseudomallei infection in A549 human lung epithelial cells. Forced expression of ATG10 accelerated the elimination of intracellular B. pseudomallei by enhancing the process of autophagy. Moreover, MIR4458, MIR4667-5p, and MIR4668-5p were found, by microarray screening, to be upregulated in response to B. pseudomallei infection. These 3 novel miRNAs, MIR4458, MIR4667-5p, and MIR4668-5p, targeted to the 3'-untranslated region of ATG10 in different time-course and spatial manners. Upregulation of these miRNAs reduced the level of ATG10 and inhibited autophagy, leading to increasing survival rate of intracellular B. pseudomallei. Furthermore, the increase of these miRNAs was correlated with the reduced promoter methylation status in A549 cells in response to B. pseudomallei infection. Our results reveal that 3 novel miRNAs regulate autophagy-mediated elimination of B. pseudomallei by targeting ATG10, and provide potential targets for clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Burkholderia pseudomallei/patogenicidade , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1 , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Regulação para Cima
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi ; 35(4): 394-400, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26043559

RESUMO

The field of integrative medicine (IM) has grown tremendously in the United States over last two decades, in terms of clinical practice, research, and education. Its growing popularity among patients has led to increased need for physicians with appropriate counseling skills and a knowledge base of the efficacy and safety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Family medicine is the first specialty as a whole to embrace IM, which encounters similar ailing conditions and emphasizes similar core values-person centered, evidence based, proactive, and continuous in nature. As integrative family medicine emerges, family medicine educators have developed suggested curriculum guidelines and approved measurable competencies to implement the best of evidence-based CAM and principles of IM. There are currently over 40 family medicine residencies that officially advertise CAM/IM in their programs. Meanwhile, IM centers have also been developing their own primary care programs based on their unique characteristics. This physician-led IM workforce is similar to that of China's IM in the early 1960s. As the Chinese government embarks on repeating its efforts to educate more Western medicine trained physicians in Chinese medicine in primary care training programs, the process and insights related to implementation of their practice in the United States would provide useful food for thought.


Assuntos
Medicina Integrativa/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , China , Terapias Complementares , Currículo , Educação Médica , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Médicos , Estados Unidos
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