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1.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268968

RESUMO

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is widely used as laxative drugs, cosmetics, and functional food due to a variety of therapeutic effects. However, several studies indicated a colonic carcinogenic activity of Aloe vera. But the underline mechanism has not been well clarified. This study aimed to explore the potential mechanism at the post-transcriptional level. Identification of Differential Expressed Alternative Splicing (DEAS) genes and events and the corresponding functional enrichment analyses were conducted on RKO cells after treated with Aloe vera aqueous extract and its two active components, aloin and aloesin. And RT-qPCR was conducted for validation. Results indicated that they induced 2200, 2342 and 2133 DEAS events, respectively. The GO enrichment and the COG classification results of DEAS genes showed that they were associated with transcription, as well as functions like signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover, DEAS genes related to the two colorectal cancerous pathways, Wnt and Notch pathways, were annotated. In conclusion, aloe extract, aloin and aloesin significantly regulated the DEAS profile of RKO cells. The colonic carcinogenicity of Aloe vera may due to its post-transcriptional regulatory activity through Alternative Splicing (AS) on genes, especially on Wnt-related and Notch-related key genes.

2.
Biomolecules ; 10(3)2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188162

RESUMO

Marine environments are generally characterized by low bulk concentrations of nutrients that are susceptible to steady or intermittent motion driven by currents and local turbulence. Marine bacteria have therefore developed strategies, such as very fast-swimming and the exploitation of multiple directional sensing-response systems in order to efficiently migrate towards favorable places in nutrient gradients. The magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) even utilize Earth's magnetic field to facilitate downward swimming into the oxic-anoxic interface, which is the most favorable place for their persistence and proliferation, in chemically stratified sediments or water columns. To ensure the desired flagella-propelled motility, marine MTBs have evolved an exquisite flagellar apparatus, and an extremely high number (tens of thousands) of flagella can be found on a single entity, displaying a complex polar, axial, bounce, and photosensitive magnetotactic behavior. In this review, we describe gene clusters, the flagellar apparatus architecture, and the swimming behavior of marine unicellular and multicellular magnetotactic bacteria. The physiological significance and mechanisms that govern these motions are discussed.

3.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125166, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756653

RESUMO

Microorganisms and microbial products can be highly efficient in uptaking soluble and particulate forms of heavy metals, particularly from solutions. In this study, the removal efficiency, oxidative damage, antioxidant system, and the possible removal mechanisms were investigated in Rhodobacter (R.) sphaeroides SC01 under mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) stress. The results showed that SC01 had the highest removal rates (98%) of Pb among three heavy metals. Compared with Hg and Cd stress, Pb stress resulted in a lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death. In contrast, the activities of four antioxidant enzymes in SC01 under Pb stress was higher than that of Hg and Cd stress. Furthermore, the analysis from fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that complexation of Pb with hydroxyl, amid and phosphate groups was found in SC01 under Pb stress. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis showed that precipitate of lead phosphate hydroxide was produced on the cell surface in SC01 exposed to Pb stress. Therefore, these results suggested that SC01 had good Pb removal ability by biosorption and precipitation and will be potentially useful for removal of Pb in industrial effluents.

4.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(2): 996-1004, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452254

RESUMO

The aim is to investigate the mechanism of miR-499a-5p on the damage of cardiomyocyte induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), apoptosis rate and the expression of miR-499a-5p and cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) in hypoxia-reoxygenation model cells were detected by LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit, flow cytometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis, respectively. Apoptosis, the activity of LDH was detected after overexpression of miR-499a-5p or silencing of CD38 in H9c2 cells. The target relationship between miR-499a-5p and CD38 was verified by Targetscan online prediction and dual-luciferase assay. Apoptosis, the activity of LDH was detected after overexpression of miR-499a-5p and CD38. Apoptosis, the activity of LDH and the expression of CD38 were increased (P < .05) while expression of miR-499a-5p was decreased (P < .05) in hypoxia/reoxygenation model cells. Apoptosis and the activity of LDH in H9c2 cells after overexpression of miR-499a-5p or silence of CD38 were decreased (P < .05). The results of Targetscan online prediction and dual-luciferase assay indicated that CD38 was a potential target gene of miR-499a-5p. Overexpression of CD38 could reverse the inhibition of miR-499a-5p on LDH activity and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. miR-499a-5p could relief the injury of cardiomyocytes induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation via targeting CD38.

5.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(8): 608-615, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472898

RESUMO

In an effort to understand the molecular events contributing to the cytotoxicity activity of resveratrol (RSV), we investigated its effects on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 at different concentrations. Cellular nucleoside metabolic profiling was determined by an established liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method in A549 cells. RSV resulted in significant decreases and imbalances of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) pools suppressing subsequent DNA synthesis. Meanwhile, RSV at high concentration caused significant cell cycle arrest at S phase, in which cells required the highest dNTPs supply than other phases for DNA replication. The inhibition of DNA synthesis thus blocked subsequent progression through S phase in A549 cells, which may partly contribute to the cytotoxicity effect of RSV. However, hydroxyurea (HU), an inhibitor of RNR activity, caused similar dNTPs perturbation but no S phase arrest, finally no cytotoxicity effect. Therefore, we believed that the dual effect of high concentration RSV, including S phase arrest and DNA synthesis inhibition, was required for its cytotoxicity effect on A549 cells. In summary, our results provided important clues to the molecular basis for the anticancer effect of RSV on epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxirribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8525, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411316

RESUMO

Many compounds of ginsenosides show anti-inflammatory properties. However, their anti-inflammatory effects in intervertebral chondrocytes in the presence of inflammatory factors have never been shown. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are generally associated with the degradation and death of chondrocytes; therefore, finding an effective and nontoxic substance that attenuates the inflammation is worthwhile. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from the nucleus pulposus tissues, and the cells were treated with ginsenoside compounds and IL-1ß, alone and in combination. Cell viability and death rate were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry methods, respectively. PCR, western blot, and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression, and the interactions between proteins, respectively. Monomeric component of ginsenoside Rd had no toxicity at the tested range of concentrations. Furthermore, Rd suppressed the inflammatory response of chondrocytes to interleukin (IL)-1ß by suppressing the increase in IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and retarding IL-1ß-induced degradation of chondrocytes by improving cell proliferation characteristics and expression of aggrecan and COL2A1. These protective effects of Rd were associated with ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), blocking the stimulation of IL-1ß to NF-κB. Bioinformatics analysis showed that NEDD4, CBL, CBLB, CBLC, and ITCH most likely target IL1RAP. Rd increased intracellular ITCH level and the amount of ITCH attaching to IL1RAP. Thus, IL1RAP ubiquitination promoted by Rd is likely to occur by up-regulation of ITCH. In summary, Rd inhibited IL-1ß-induced inflammation and degradation of intervertebral disc chondrocytes by increasing IL1RAP ubiquitination.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Proteína Acessória do Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Agrecanas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Dor Lombar/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Núcleo Pulposo/citologia , Núcleo Pulposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Pulposo/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 243: 112092, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319122

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe vera) is a common Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recorded in Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (version 2015). It has been traditionally used for treatment of constipation. Aloe vera requires much attention for its safety evaluation because several studies have reported the association between oral consumption of Aloe vera and the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However the material basis and molecular mechanism are.still less well elucidated. Although Wnt/ß-catenin and Notch signaling pathway have been known to be closely related to the initiation and development of CRC, the impacts of Aloe vera on these cancerous pathways have not been completely determined yet. AIM OF THIS STUDY: Hence, this study aimed to study the impacts of Aloe vera on the Wnt/ß-catenin and Notch signaling pathway, as well as proliferation of CRC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the effects of Aloe vera aqueous extract and its two active components (aloin and aloesin) on the Wnt/ß-catenin and Notch signaling pathway were studied by luciferase reporter, RT-qPCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence assays, respectively. Furthermore, RNA sequencing analysis (RNA-seq) was then performed to verify their regulatory activities on the Wnt-related and Notch-related genes expression. Finally, their impacts on RKO cell proliferation and cell cycle phase were also evaluated via MTT assay and cell cycle analysis. RESULTS: Our results indicate that the aqueous extract of Aloe vera and its active component aloin activated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and inhibited the Notch signaling pathway only in the presence of Wnt3a. While aloesin was characterized to directly activate the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and inhibit the Notch pathway independent of Wnt3a. Within 24h, the Aloe vera extract and its two components were failed to affect the proliferation or cell cycle phase of RKO cells. Nevertheless, in the presence of Wnt3a, the aqueous extract of Aloe vera with the concentration of 33.3 µg/ml start to promote the cell proliferation of RKO cells after 48h incubation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study showed that Aloe vera extract and its active component aloin activated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and inhibited the Notch pathway in the presence of Wnt3a. While another active component, aloesin, activated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and inhibited the Notch signaling pathway independent of Wnt3a. Given that Wnt/ß-catenin and Notch pathway are closely associated with the progression of CRC, these findings would be helpful to better understand the colonic carcinogenicity of Aloe vera.


Assuntos
Aloe , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Emodina/análogos & derivados , Emodina/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/genética
8.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 47, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mariana Trench is the deepest known site in the Earth's oceans, reaching a depth of ~ 11,000 m at the Challenger Deep. Recent studies reveal that hadal waters harbor distinctive microbial planktonic communities. However, the genetic potential of microbial communities within the hadal zone is poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, implementing both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, we perform extensive analysis of microbial populations and their genetic potential at different depths in the Mariana Trench. Unexpectedly, we observed an abrupt increase in the abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at depths > 10,400 m in the Challenger Deep. Indeed, the proportion of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at > 10,400 m is the highest observed in any natural environment on Earth. These bacteria were mainly Oleibacter, Thalassolituus, and Alcanivorax genera, all of which include species known to consume aliphatic hydrocarbons. This community shift towards hydrocarbon degraders was accompanied by increased abundance and transcription of genes involved in alkane degradation. Correspondingly, three Alcanivorax species that were isolated from 10,400 m water supplemented with hexadecane were able to efficiently degrade n-alkanes under conditions simulating the deep sea, as did a reference Oleibacter strain cultured at atmospheric pressure. Abundant n-alkanes were observed in sinking particles at 2000, 4000, and 6000 m (averaged 23.5 µg/gdw) and hadal surface sediments at depths of 10,908, 10,909, and 10,911 m (averaged 2.3 µg/gdw). The δ2H values of n-C16/18 alkanes that dominated surface sediments at near 11,000-m depths ranged from - 79 to - 93‰, suggesting that these sedimentary alkanes may have been derived from an unknown heterotrophic source. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms are present in great abundance in the deepest seawater on Earth and shed a new light on potential biological processes in this extreme environment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Plâncton , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia da Água
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3042, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816178

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a continuing major threat to global health and a leading cause of death, particularly in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to identify a specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarker and develop a vaccine to prevent this disease. We investigated membrane proteins to reveal biomarkers in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from TB patients. We employed Western blotting to evaluate serological immunoglobulin G levels, and Enzyme Linked Immunospot (ELISpot) to assess the antigen-specific cellular interferon-γ secretion from PBMCs after membrane protein stimulation. A total of 219 membrane proteins were identified, 52 exhibited at a higher levels than the 38-kDa prositive control. Of these 18 exhibited reacted ratios above 1, especially Rv1111c (427-981), with a ratios at 3.38. Accuracy and sensitivity were markedly higher for the top two antigen candidates, Rv0232 and Rv1115, after two rounds of ELISpot tests than ESAT-6 in the commercial kit (42.15 and 43.62%, respectively). These two proteins were administered to mice to detect whether they acted as effective antigens in vivo. These data provide a comprehensive view of the membranes involved in humoural and cellular immune responses that may be used as biomarkers for TB and candidates for a vaccine.

10.
Anal Chem ; 91(1): 1019-1026, 2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525455

RESUMO

Investigation into intracellular ribonucleotides (RNs) and deoxyribonucleotides (dRNs) is important for studies of the mechanism of many biological processes, such as RNA and DNA synthesis and DNA repair, as well as metabolic and therapeutic efficacy of nucleoside analogues. However, current methods are still unsatisfactory for determination of nucleotides in complex matrixes. Here we describe a novel method for the determination of RN and dRN pools in cells based on fast derivatization with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane (TMSD) followed by quantification using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Derivatization was accomplished in 3 min, and each derivatized nucleotide not only had a sufficient retention on reversed-phase column by introduction of methyl groups but also exhibited a unique ion transition which consequently eliminated mutual interference in LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with a simple acetonitrile-water gradient elution system, which avoided contamination and ion suppression caused by ion-pairing reagents. The developed method was fully validated and applied to the analysis of RNs and dRNs in cell samples. Moreover, results demonstrated that the applicability of this method could be extended to nucleoside analogues and their metabolites and could facilitate many applications in future studies.

11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8525, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011614

RESUMO

Many compounds of ginsenosides show anti-inflammatory properties. However, their anti-inflammatory effects in intervertebral chondrocytes in the presence of inflammatory factors have never been shown. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are generally associated with the degradation and death of chondrocytes; therefore, finding an effective and nontoxic substance that attenuates the inflammation is worthwhile. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from the nucleus pulposus tissues, and the cells were treated with ginsenoside compounds and IL-1β, alone and in combination. Cell viability and death rate were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry methods, respectively. PCR, western blot, and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression, and the interactions between proteins, respectively. Monomeric component of ginsenoside Rd had no toxicity at the tested range of concentrations. Furthermore, Rd suppressed the inflammatory response of chondrocytes to interleukin (IL)-1β by suppressing the increase in IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and retarding IL-1β-induced degradation of chondrocytes by improving cell proliferation characteristics and expression of aggrecan and COL2A1. These protective effects of Rd were associated with ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), blocking the stimulation of IL-1β to NF-κB. Bioinformatics analysis showed that NEDD4, CBL, CBLB, CBLC, and ITCH most likely target IL1RAP. Rd increased intracellular ITCH level and the amount of ITCH attaching to IL1RAP. Thus, IL1RAP ubiquitination promoted by Rd is likely to occur by up-regulation of ITCH. In summary, Rd inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammation and degradation of intervertebral disc chondrocytes by increasing IL1RAP ubiquitination.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1569, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065707

RESUMO

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a diverse group of microorganisms capable of using geomagnetic fields for navigation. This magnetotactic behavior can help microorganisms move toward favorable habitats for optimal growth and reproduction. A comprehensive understanding of the magnetotactic mechanism at molecular levels requires highly efficient genomic editing tools, which remain underdeveloped in MTB. Here, we adapted an engineered CRISPR-Cas9 system for efficient inactivation of genes in a widely used MTB model strain, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. By combining a nuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) and single-guide RNA (sgRNA), a CRISPR interference system was successfully developed to repress amb0994 expression. Furthermore, we constructed an in-frame deletion mutant of amb0994 by developing a CRISPR-Cas9 system. This mutant produces normal magnetosomes; however, its response to abrupt magnetic field reversals is faster than wild-type strain. This behavioral difference is probably a consequence of altered flagella function, as suggested with our dynamics simulation study by modeling M. magneticum AMB-1 cell as an ellipsoid. These data indicate that, Amb0994 is involved in the cellular response to magnetic torque changes via controlling flagella. In summary, this study, besides contributing to a better understanding of magnetotaxis mechanism, demonstrated the CRISPR-(d)Cas9 system as a useful genetic tool for efficient genome editing in MTB.

13.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 31(3): 208-214, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) rapidly and distinguish its genotypes, a TaqMan-based reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection system was developed. METHODS: By aligning the full-length sequences of JEV (G1-G5), six sets of highly specific TaqMan real-time RT-PCR primers and probes were designed based on the highly conserved NS1, NS2, and M genes of JEV, which included one set for non-specific JEV detection and five sets for the detection of specific JEV genotypes. Twenty batches of mosquito samples were used to evaluate our quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS: With the specific assay, no other flavivirus were detected. The lower limits of detection of the system were 1 pfu/mL for JEV titers and 100 RNA copies/µL. The coefficients of variation of this real-time RT-PCR were all < 2.8%. The amplification efficiency of this method was between 90% and 103%. CONCLUSION: A TaqMan real-time RT-PCR detection system was successfully established to detect and differentiate all five JEV genotypes.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 3173, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622525

RESUMO

Shewanella species are widely distributed in marine environments, from the shallow coasts to the deepest sea bottom. Most Shewanella species possess two isoforms of periplasmic nitrate reductases (NAP-α and NAP-ß) and are able to generate energy through nitrate reduction. However, the contributions of the two NAP systems to bacterial deep-sea adaptation remain unclear. In this study, we found that the deep-sea denitrifier Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was capable of performing nitrate respiration under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) conditions. In the wild-type strain, NAP-ß played a dominant role and was induced by both the substrate and an elevated pressure, whereas NAP-α was constitutively expressed at a relatively lower level. Genetic studies showed that each NAP system alone was sufficient to fully sustain nitrate-dependent growth and that both NAP systems exhibited substrate and pressure inducible expression patterns when the other set was absent. Biochemical assays further demonstrated that NAP-α had a higher tolerance to elevated pressure. Collectively, we report for the first time the distinct properties and contributions of the two NAP systems to nitrate reduction under different pressure conditions. The results will shed light on the mechanisms of bacterial HHP adaptation and nitrogen cycling in the deep-sea environment.

15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 102(4): 1983-1995, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279958

RESUMO

Biological method has been recognized as a low-cost and ecofriendly approach for removing heavy metals from aqueous wastes. In this study, the ability of five photosynthetic bacteria isolates (strains labeled SC01, HN02, SC05, JS01, and YN01) was examined for their ability to remove Cr from Cr-containing solutions. Furthermore, the possible removal mechanisms were elucidated by comparing chromium removal rates, antioxidant reaction, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the five bacteria, strains SC01 and SC05 presented the highest removal rates of chromium ions and the activity of cysteine desulfhydrase under Cr stress. They also showed lower levels of ROS and cell death than the other three bacteria strains under Cr stress. In addition, total bacteriochlorophyll content and activities of six antioxidant enzymes in SC01 were highest among these selected strains. On the contrary, strain HN02 presented the lowest level of Cr removal and the lowest activities of antioxidant enzymes. It also exhibited the highest level of ROS under Cr(VI) stress. Overall, these results show that the strains SC01 and SC05 have good Cr removal ability and could be used for removal of Cr in industrial effluents.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Soluções/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacterioclorofilas/análise , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17964, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269894

RESUMO

Seamounts are undersea mountains rising abruptly from the sea floor and interacting dynamically with underwater currents. They represent unique biological habitats with various microbial community structures. Certain seamount bacteria form conspicuous extracellular iron oxide structures, including encrusted stalks, flattened bifurcating tubes, and filamentous sheaths. To extend our knowledge of seamount ecosystems, we performed an integrated study on population structure and the occurrence of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) that synthesize intracellular iron oxide nanocrystals in sediments of a seamount in the Mariana volcanic arc. We found Proteobacteria dominant at 13 of 14 stations, but ranked second in abundance to members of the phylum Firmicutes at the deep-water station located on a steep slope facing the Mariana-Yap Trench. Live MTB dwell in biogenic sediments from all 14 stations ranging in depth from 238 to 2,023 m. Some magnetotactic cocci possess the most complex flagellar apparatus yet reported; 19 flagella are arranged in a 3:4:5:4:3 array within a flagellar bundle. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified 16 novel species of MTB specific to this seamount. Together the results obtained indicate that geographic properties of the seamount stations are important in shaping the bacterial community structure and the MTB composition.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Magnetospirillum/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Magnetossomos , Magnetospirillum/genética , Microbiota/genética , Micronésia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Oncotarget ; 8(60): 101707-101719, 2017 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254198

RESUMO

The absolute and relative pool sizes of deoxyribonucleotides (dRNs) are essential in DNA replication fidelity, DNA damage and repair. We found in this study that although DNA damage induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) seemed similar in cancer (HepG2) and normal (LO2) cells, more extensive alterations in ribonucleotides (RNs) and dRNs pools occurred in HepG2 cells indicating that HepG2 cells were more vigilant to DNA damage. After 10 h repair, RNs pools were still severely perturbed in LO2 cells. Compared to LO2 cells, deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) pools in HepG2 cells elevated by more folds which could facilitate more efficient DNA repair and improve survival probability following DNA damage, although this should definitely lead to higher mutation rates. DNA repair was more efficient in HepG2 cells at S phase and it partly came to an end while DNA repair was still uncompleted in LO2 cells outside S phase. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that HepG2 and LO2 cells presented many differences in nucleotide metabolism, cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair pathways in response to DNA damage, which could be potential targets for cancer treatment.

18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1593: 305-320, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389965

RESUMO

Magnetococcus massalia strain MO-1 represents a group of fast-swimming marine magnetotactic coccoid-ovoid bacteria. They show polar magnetotaxis behavior in uniform magnetic field. MO-1 cells swim forward constantly with rare stop. When they meet obstacles, MO-1 cells could squeeze through or circumvent the obstacles. Here, we describe the methods for characterization of magnetotactic behaviors of MO-1 cells using adapted spectrophotometer and microscope mounted with magnetic fields.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Campos Magnéticos , Magnetismo/métodos
19.
Brain ; 140(5): 1204-1211, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334938

RESUMO

Leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies are a rare group of disorders leading to progressive degeneration of cerebral white matter. They are associated with a spectrum of clinical phenotypes dominated by dementia, psychiatric changes, movement disorders and upper motor neuron signs. Mutations in at least 60 genes can lead to leukoencephalopathy with often overlapping clinical and radiological presentations. For these reasons, patients with genetic leukoencephalopathies often endure a long diagnostic odyssey before receiving a definitive diagnosis or may receive no diagnosis at all. In this study, we used focused and whole exome sequencing to evaluate a cohort of undiagnosed adult patients referred to a specialist leukoencephalopathy service. In total, 100 patients were evaluated using focused exome sequencing of 6100 genes. We detected pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 26 cases. The most frequently mutated genes were NOTCH3, EIF2B5, AARS2 and CSF1R. We then carried out whole exome sequencing on the remaining negative cases including four family trios, but could not identify any further potentially disease-causing mutations, confirming the equivalence of focused and whole exome sequencing in the diagnosis of genetic leukoencephalopathies. Here we provide an overview of the clinical and genetic features of these disorders in adults.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
20.
Molecules ; 22(3)2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28335578

RESUMO

Despite the apparent clinical benefits of high-dose cytarabine (Ara-C) over lower dose Ara-C in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy, the mechanism behind high-dose Ara-C therapy remains uncertain. In this study, a LC-MS-based method was carried out to investigate the metabolic alteration of ribonucleotide and deoxyribonucleotide in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) after treatment with Ara-C to reveal its antitumor mechanism. The metabolic results revealed that four nucleotides (ATP, ADP, CDP, and dCTP) could be used as potential biomarkers indicating the benefit of high-dose Ara-C over lower dose Ara-C treatment. Combining metabolic perturbation and cell cycle analysis, we conjectured that, apart from the acknowledged mechanism of Ara-C on tumor inhibition, high-dose Ara-C could present a specific action pathway. It was suggested that the pronounced rise in AMP/ATP ratio induced by high-dose Ara-C can trigger AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and subsequently Forkhead Box, class O (FoxO), to promote cell cycle arrest. Moreover, the significant decrease in CDP pool induced by high-dose Ara-C might further accelerate the reduction of dCTP, which then aggravates DNA synthesis disturbance. As a result, all of these alterations led to heightened tumor inhibition. This study provides new insight in the investigation of potential mechanisms in the clinical benefits of high-dose Ara-C in therapy for AML.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Citarabina/farmacologia , Desoxirribonucleotídeos/análise , Ribonucleotídeos/análise , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HL-60 , Humanos
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