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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424612

RESUMO

AIM: Vascular calcification has played a vital role in increasing the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. This study is aimed at exploring the prognostic value of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) estimated by plain lateral abdominal radiography in MHD patients. METHODS: Lateral abdominal radiography was used to determine the abdominal aortic calcification score (AACS). The serum level of fibroblast growth factor-23 was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were divided into two groups: no or minor calcification group (AACS < 5) and moderate to severe calcification group (AACS ≥ 5). All patients were followed up to death or the end of the study (30 November 2016). RESULTS: A total of 114 patients were enrolled in this study, including 64 males (56.1%), and the mean age was 57.42 ± 13.48 years. Seventy-six patients (66.7%) exhibited AAC. Independent predictors for moderate to severe calcification were older age (odds ratio (OR) 1.06 (1.02-1.10), P = 0.003), longer dialysis vintage (OR 1.01 (1.00-1.02), P = 0.039), presence of smoking (OR 3.01 (1.18-7.70), P = 0.021) and higher Log fibroblast growth factor-23 serum levels (OR 2.83 (1.01-7.94), P = 0.048). During a median follow-up of 6.0 (5.6, 6.1) years, 22 patients (19.3%) died of all-cause death, and 17 cases (14.9%) died of CVD. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that patients in the moderate to severe calcification group had significantly higher all-cause (28.3 vs 11.5%, P = 0.028) and CVD mortality (22.6 vs 8.2%, P = 0.035) than that in the no or minor calcification group. A multivariate Cox regression showed that AACS (hazard ratio 1.08 (1.01-1.15), P = 0.022) was an independent predictor of CVD mortality. Compared with the no or minor calcification group, the risk of CVD mortality was increased by a factor of 3.14 in patients in the moderate to severe calcification group (hazard ratio 3.14 (1.04-9.44), P = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that AAC is prevalent in MHD patients and could provide potential predictive information for CVD mortality. Plain lateral abdominal radiography, which is simple and cheap and involves lower radiation, might represent an appropriate screening method for evaluating vascular calcification in daily clinical practice.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(38): 35277-35285, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465193

RESUMO

Phosphorus and nitrogen compounds are both the main sources of eutrophication and coexist in some municipal effluents or eutrophic waters; elimination of phosphorus and nitrogen from wastewater is becoming an imperative but also a hard task. Herein, an innovative bifunctional nanocomposite HFO@TPR was developed for synchronous nitrate/phosphate elimination from water. A macroporous polystyrene microspheres modified with triethylamine functional groups was synthesized as the host of HFO@TPR for selective nitrate removal, and Fe(III) hydroxide (HFO) nanoparticles were implanted inside as the active species for specific phosphate removal. Compared to other commercial adsorbents, HFO@TPR exhibited outstanding selectivity and preference toward nitrates and phosphates, and the coexisting anions exert an insignificant effect on adsorption performance. Such exceptional bifuntionality of HFO@TPR was achieved through two pathways, that is, nitrate was preferentially adsorbed by the fixed triethylamine groups through the electrostatic attraction, and phosphate was preferentially captured by the encapsulated HFO nanoparticles through the inner-sphere complexation. The exhausted HFO@TPR could be effectively regenerated by using a NaOH-NaCl mixed reagent for cyclic use with a relative constant efficiency. In addition, column adsorption experiments demonstrated that HFO@TPR could eliminate nitrate from 18 to <10 mg N/L with the treatment capacity of ∼600 bed volume (BV), and meanwhile remove phosphate from 2.5 to <0.2 mg P/L with the treatment capacity of ∼750 BV. We believe what we found in this study could advance the method on how to develop bifunctional adsorbents for synchronous removal of coexisting contaminants from water.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 381: 120961, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412305

RESUMO

We design a novel cationic metal-organic framework hybrid ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (PVA/Cu-iMOFs/PVDF-0.05) and report its unique capture of aqueous perchlorate (ClO4-) at ppm-level. This membrane outperformed traditional adsorption materials and exhibited a specific affinity toward ClO4- in the presence of various competing anions at greater levels (up to a concentration ratio of 20). In the batch experiment, the ClO4- removal ratio reached 99.6% over a wide pH range (3˜10). Membrane filtration by using a 12.56 cm2 PVA/Cu-iMOFs/PVDF-0.05 membrane could effectively treat 4.71 L of ClO4--contaminated water before breakthrough occurred, while maintaining a satisfactory permeability (˜627.32 L/(m2 h bar)) and antifouling property. The exhausted membrane could easily be regenerated in aminoethanesulfonic acid solution for repeated use with a negligible decrease in capacity. Moreover, the membrane showed excellent long-term stability in a cross-flow filtration process due to the amido bond between the Cu-iMOFs and membrane surface as well as the "protection" of polyvinyl alcohol. Selective and reversible ion-exchange between the sulfonic acid (R-SO3) ligands of Cu-iMOFs and tetrahedral oxo-anionic species was verified to be the pathway for ClO4- trapping. Thus, other problematic elements that also occur in tetrahedral form in water can be removed by this method.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331894

RESUMO

The standard tensor voting technique shows its versatility in tasks such as object recognition and semantic segmentation by recognizing feature points and sharp edges that can segment a model into several patches. We propose a high-level representation-guided tensor voting model for 3D mesh steganalysis. Because existing steganalytic methods do not analyze correlations among neighborhood faces, they are not very effective at discriminating stego meshes from cover meshes. In this paper, we propose to utilize a tensor voting model to reveal the artifacts caused by embedding data. In the proposed steganalytic scheme, the normal voting tensor (NVT) operation is performed on original mesh faces and smoothed mesh faces separately. Then, the absolute values of the differences between the eigenvalues of the two tensors (from the original face and the smoothed face) are regarded as features that capture intricate relationships among the vertices. Subsequently, the extracted features are processed with a nonlinear mapping to boost the feature effectiveness. The experimental results show that the proposed feature sets prevail over state-of-the-art feature sets including LFS64 and ELFS124 under various steganographic schemes.

6.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(3): 415-425, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) was traditionally defined as an increase in serum creatinine (sCr) after cardiac surgery. Recently, serum cystatin C (sCyC) has been proposed to be a better biomarker in the prediction of AKI. The clinical utility and performance of combining sCyC and sCr in patients with AKI, particularly for the prediction of long-term outcomes, remain unknown. METHODS: We measured sCyC together with sCr in 628 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. sCyC and sCr were assessed at baseline and 24 and 48 h after surgery. CSA-AKI determined by sCr (CSA-AKIsCr) was defined as an sCr increase greater than 0.3 mg/dL or 50% from baseline. Major adverse events (MAEs; including death of any cause and dialysis) at 3 years were assessed. RESULTS: CSA-AKIsCr developed in 178 patients (28.3%). Three-year follow-up was available for 621 patients; MAEs occurred in 42 patients (6.8%). An increase in sCyC concentration ≥30% within 48 h after surgery was detected in 228 patients (36.3%). This was the best sCyC cutoff for CSA-AKIsCr detection (negative predictive value = 88.8%, positive predictive value = 58.3%). To evaluate the use of both sCyC and sCr as CSA-AKI diagnostic criteria, we stratified patients into 3 groups: non-CSA-AKI, CSA-AKI detected by a single marker, and CSA-AKI detected by both markers. By multivariable logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of MAEs at 3 years were group 2 (non-CSA-AKI group as the reference, CSA-AKI detected by a single marker: odds ratio [OR] = 3.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-9.58, p = 0.016), group 3 (CSA-AKI detected by both markers: OR = 5.12, 95% CI: 2.01-13.09; p = 0.001), and baseline glomerular filtration rate (OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.27-3.95; p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Combining sCyC and sCr to diagnose CSA-AKI would be beneficial for risk stratification and prognosis in patients after cardiac surgery.

7.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

8.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107674

RESUMO

In order to deal with the speed cooperative control problem in the multiple linear induction traction systems consists of multiple linear induction motors, a model-free cooperative adaptive sliding-mode-constrained-control strategy is proposed considering the input magnitude and rate constraints which may cause the problem of actuator and integral saturation. First, the equivalent circuit topology of the single motor in the system is investigated. Besides, the system is considered as the multiagent system with fixed communication topology due to the interaction between adjacent motors. Then, the output observer is presented to estimate the output and the estimation algorithm of pseudo-partial derivative parameter and uncertainties is proposed. Based on the above, the proposed control scheme is presented by designing an integral sliding-mode surface containing the systematic error and an anti-windup compensator is added to eliminate the saturation. Finally, the simulations of the proposed control strategy for multiagent systems are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed control strategy.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
10.
Nephron ; 142(4): 291-300, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac surgery-associated severe acute kidney injury (SAKI) is associated with high mortality and poor quality of life. A prognostic score for SAKI may enable prevention of complications. METHODS: This observational study of 2,552 patients undergoing cardiac surgery from January 2006 to December 2011 in our institution established associations between predictor variables and postoperative SAKI from a cohort of 1,692 patients and developed a clinical score that was assessed in a validation cohort of 860 patients. RESULTS: Postoperative SAKI occurred in 262 -patients (10.3%). We identified 7 independent and significant risk factors in the derivation model (adjusted OR 95% CI): age ≥81 years (vs. age < 40 years, 4.30, 1.52-12.21), age 61-80 years (vs. age < 40 years, 2.84, 1.24-6.52), age 41-60 years (vs. age < 40 years, 1.62, 0.68-3.87), hypertension (1.65, 1.13-2.39), previous cardiac surgery (3.62, 1.27-10.32), -hyperuricemia (2.02, 1.40-2.92), prolonged operation time (1.32, 1.17-1.48), postoperative central venous pressure < 6 mm H2O (3.53, 2.38-5.23), and low postoperative cardiac output (4.78, 2.97-7.69). The 7-variable risk prediction model had acceptable performance characteristics in the validation cohort (C statistic 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.85). The difference in the C statistic was 0.21 (95% CI 0.12-0.29, p < 0.001) compared with the Cleveland Clinic score. CONCLUSION: We developed and validated a practical risk prediction model for SAKI after cardiac surgery based on routinely available perioperative clinical and laboratory data. The prediction model can be easily applied at the bedside and provides a simple and interpretable estimation of risk.

11.
Eur Radiol ; 29(10): 5607-5616, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of microwave ablation (MWA) with the assistance of continuous cool saline injection (CCSI) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS: Between November 1, 2014, and February 29, 2016, 22 patients with PHPT were enrolled and treated with ultrasound-guided MWA assisted by CCSI. The levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium were recorded before and after the MWA. Patients were divided into two groups (normalized and unnormalized groups) according to treatment efficacy. Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test were used to compare data between the two groups. Timing differences in serum PTH and calcium levels were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Normalized outcomes for both PTH and calcium levels were achieved in 19 of 22 (86.36%) patients with PHPT. In the normalized group, PTH levels remained normal for 12 months after MWA. PTH levels in the unnormalized group were outside the reference range at six of seven follow-ups within 12 months following MWA. By contrast, serum calcium levels gradually decreased in all patients in both groups. The mean serum PTH and mean calcium levels at 6 months after therapy were significantly lower than those before MWA (both p < 0.05). A transient voice change developed in eight patients. One patient experienced hypocalcaemia, which was corrected by oral calcium supplementation within 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: US-guided MWA assisted by CCSI is safe and effective for destroying parathyroid gland tissue and may serve as a therapeutic alternative for patients with PHPT. KEY POINTS: • Microwave ablation is a new option for patients with hypercalcemic or normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism. • Microwave ablation can decrease PTH and calcium levels with sustained efficacy in most patients. • Treatment is safe and causes only transient side effects.

12.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 34, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, there is increased clinical interest and uptake of hemodiafiltration (HDF) for increased removal of uremic toxins. To date, there has been no epidemiological analysis of HDF in China. We present HDF practice patterns and associated mortality risk in Shanghai. METHODS: This is an observational, prospectively collected, retrospective analysis of 9351 Chinese patients initiating hemodialysis in Shanghai from 2007 to 2014. The primary exposure was hemodialysis sub-modality at inception, classified into hemodiafiltration (HDF) and hemodialysis (HD), with adjustment for concommitant hemoperfusion. The primary outcome was patient mortality. We used Cox proportional hazards regression and Fine and Gray's proportional subhazards regression, with multiple imputation of missing co-variates by the chained equation method, adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: Overall, patients in the cohort were younger, with a more males, and with a lower body mass index when compared to corresponding non-Asian cohorts. Mortality rate was low although it doubled over the period of observation. HDF utilization increased from 7% of patients in 2007 to 42% of patients in 2014. The majority of patients received HDF once a week. The adjusted hazard ratio of death (95% confidence intervals) for HDF versus HD was 0.85 (0.71-1.03), and corresponding sub-hazard ratio 0.86 (0.71-1.03). There was strong effect modification by age. In those aged 40-60 years, the hazard ratio (95% confidence intervals) was 0.65 (0.45-0.94), and sub-hazard ratio also 0.65 (0.45-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Our study has certain limitations resulting from the limited number of co-variates available for modelling, missing data for some co-variates, and the lack of verification of data against source documentation. Notwithstanding, there is evidence of clinical benefit from HDF in China, and potential to improve patient outcomes through the greater removal of middle and larger uremic solutes.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 368: 698-704, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739022

RESUMO

To activate zero-valent iron (ZVI) for efficient nitrobenzene (NB) reduction, a hybrid Fe0/Fe3O4/FeCl2 microcomposite (hZVIbm) was synthesized via simple ball-milling of the ternary mixture of ZVI, Fe3O4, and FeCl2·4H2O (hZVI). SEM-EDX and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) indicated the hZVIbm microcomposite (10-20 µm) consisted of Fe0 core covered by ∼3.3 µm-thick shell decorated with Fe3O4/FeCl2 fine particles (0.1-2 µm). Efficient removal (>95%) of NB (200 mg/L) was achieved by hZVIbm (2.0 g Fe/L) in 30 min over a wide pH range from 3 to 9. Notably, the NB removal efficiency of hZVIbm was over 30 times higher than the virgin ZVI or over three times higher than hZVI. The enhanced reactivity synergistically resulted from both chemical and physical aspects. Chemically, the Fe3O4/FeCl2-inlaid shell and the Fe(II) components played significant activation roles, as observed from the comparative experiments in their absence via pretreatments of hZVIbm by sonication and rinsing, respectively, with direct evidence of depassivation effect by XRD analysis. Physically, the ball-milling-induced inter-particle compaction effect was considered crucial to facilitate the interfacial mass/electron transfer processes during the reduction. The reduction pathway from NB to aniline via two intermediates was analyzed by liquid chromatography.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 654: 35-42, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439692

RESUMO

The electroless nickel (EN) industry has suffered from the reduction in Ni concentration to lower than 0.1 mg/L. Hence, Ni speciation along a typical sequential treatment scheme has important implications to optimize the design of advanced treatment. For the first time, we revealed the Ni speciation in segmented EN outfall effluents by virtue of multiple analytical methods. After ensuring all the Ni-bearing complexes were completely dissolved by size-fractioned ultrafiltration trials, customized mass spectra analysis was conducted. In a series of ICP-MS assays, the potential polyatomic interfering species was primarily excluded. The chromatography hyphenated IC-ICP-MS and SEC-ICP-MS results demonstrated that the dominant Ni species in the EN effluents was similar to EDTA-Ni but with a smaller size. The LC-MS experiment further distinguished several typical Ni-bearing complexes. Although Ni concentration declined continuously along the treatment scheme, the number of detected Ni-bearing complexes gradually increased but with lower molecular weights. Most of the detected mononuclear complexes had higher indexes of hydrogen deficiency (IHD) than EDTA-Ni, whereas it was believed that the similar stereo ring shape was widespread in the EN effluent. Considering the efficient Ni decrease after the Fenton unit, further post-treatment approaches featuring higher active radical yields were suggested.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 365: 312-321, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447639

RESUMO

Multifunctional ultrafiltration membranes need to be further developed with ultrafiltration performance and high multifunctional decontamination efficiency. Here, the MIL-PVDF multifunctional ultrafiltration membrane with ultrahigh MIL loading was demonstrated by a new blending method of predispersion in acetone and thermally induced phase separation. Due to the improved dispersity and restriction of pore size, the MIL-53(Fe) mass loading was as high as approximately 61%. The new membrane showed high performance for methylene blue (MB) removal and maintained high permeability and ultrafiltration efficiency. The characteristics of the membranes were analyzed to explain the above advantages. Meanwhile, compared to the traditional blend ultrafiltration membrane, the 67-MIL-PVDF membrane showed an 9-fold increase in effective treatment volume for more than 75% MB removal. The contribution and efficiency of adsorption and catalytic oxidation were analyzed and explained. The relationship between them was confirmed as being independent, and the reasons for this independence were proposed. Additionally, the mechanism of multifunctional decontamination and permeability by MIL-PVDF membranes was proposed. Moreover, the 67-MIL-PVDF membrane was also suitable for long-term run and real wastewaters treatment. In conclusion, this study sheds new light on the preparation strategy for multifunctional blend ultrafiltration membranes with ultrahigh particles loading displaying high decontamination and permeability performance.

17.
Gut ; 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective virus that completes its life cycle only with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The HBV with HDV super-infection has been considered as one of the most severe forms of the chronic viral hepatitis. However, there is a scarcity of data on the global burden of HDV infection. DESIGN: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases from 1 January 1977 to 31 December 2016. We included studies with a minimum sample size of 50 patients. Our study analysed data from a total of 40 million individuals to estimate the prevalence of HDV by using Der-Simonian Laird random-effects model. The data were further categorised according to risk factors. RESULTS: From a total of 2717 initially identified studies, only 182 articles from 61 countries and regions met the final inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of HDV was 0.98% (95% CI 0.61 to 1.42). In HBsAg-positive population, HDV pooled prevalence was 14.57% (95% CI 12.93 to 16.27): Seroprevalence was 10.58% (95% CI 9.14 to 12.11) in mixed population without risk factors of intravenous drug use (IVDU) and high-risk sexual behaviour (HRSB). It was 37.57% (95% CI 29.30 to 46.20) in the IVDU population and 17.01% (95% CI 10.69 to 24.34) in HRSB population. CONCLUSION: We found that approximately 10.58% HBsAg carriers (without IVDU and HRSB) were coinfected with HDV, which is twofold of what has been estimated before. We also noted a substantially higher HDV prevalence in the IVDU and HRSB population. Our study highlights the need for increased focus on the routine HDV screening and rigorous implementation of HBV vaccine programme.

18.
Chemosphere ; 211: 139-148, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071425

RESUMO

Chemical cleaning is an important approach for alleviating severe fouling in membrane separation processes. In this study, lysozyme (LYS) was exposed to sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) with varied concentrations (0-2000 ppm) to understand the changes in the physicochemical properties and functional groups as well as the variations in membrane permeabilities. The results showed that membrane filterability exhibited an obvious 'U-shaped' trend, and the valley existed when the ratio of Cl/C (the ratio of NaClO and TOC concentrations in feed water) is among 1.35-3.09. Upon exposure to low dose NaClO, three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) spectra showed that tryptophan protein substances were transformed to more hydrophobic humic-like substances. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis further confirmed that exposure to low dose NaClO promoted the breakage of aromatic substituents, leading to the formation of hydrophobic condensed aromatic substances. On the contrary, at high NaClO loads, protein structures were destroyed completely and almost no obvious fluorescent intensities could be detected, which promoted the recovery of membrane filterabilities. Notably, the chemical cleaning mechanisms of fouled membranes with NaClO were understood in depth in this study. These results provide new information about the oxidation products of LYS and the cleaning efficiency upon exposure to NaClO.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
19.
Chemosphere ; 211: 867-874, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103142

RESUMO

The efficient removal of Se(VI) from sulfate-rich water is challenging as most reported processes last for hours to days. In this study, a combined sulfite/UV/Fe(III) coagulation process was proposed for efficient Se(VI) removal from sulfate-rich water within a short time (∼1 h). In the presence of sulfate (1000 mg L-1), over 99% of Se(VI) (initially at 10 mg L-1) could be reduced by sulfite (5.0 mM) with a UV dose of 16 J cm-2 (within 20 min) into Se(IV) as the sole observed product. An alkaline pH (>9) was required for the reduction process, which was naturally obtained with the addition of sulfite. Scavenging experiments with N2O and NO3- both indicated that hydrated electrons (eaq-) were responsible for Se(VI) reduction by sulfite/UV. The presence of chloride, sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate (up to 10 mM) showed negligible influence on Se(VI) reduction, whereas nitrate and humic acid inhibited Se(VI) reduction to different extents depending on their concentrations. By Fe(III) coagulation, Se(IV) in the co-presence of sulfite and sulfate was efficiently removed at an OH-/Fe molar ratio of 1.8-2.8. The removal of Se(IV) by Fe(III) coagulation responded insignificantly to chloride, nitrate, or sulfate (up to 10 mM), whereas it was adversely affected at high levels of carbonate (10 mM) and phosphate (1 mM). The combined sulfite/UV/Fe(III) coagulation process was validated for the efficient removal of Se(VI) from synthetic sulfate-rich solution, simulated wastewater, and authentic smelting wastewater (in 1.1 h). The introduced sulfite underwent minor consumption during UV irradiation and was almost (∼90%) removed after coagulation.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Selênio/química , Sulfatos/efeitos adversos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
J Cancer ; 9(15): 2757-2764, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087718

RESUMO

Background: Persistent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to various gastric diseases. Multiple studies have demonstrated that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays roles in the antibacterial response and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) is downregulated in stomach cancer. However, the role of AHR or AHRR in H. pylori-related gastric diseases remains unclear. Aims: To investigate whether AHR or AHRR is involved in H. pylori-related gastric diseases. Methods: Patients with gastritis or gastric adenocarcinoma were enrolled randomly, and gastric tissue specimens were diagnosed pathologically. AHR, AHRR, and H. pylori infection status in tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Human gastric cells were cocultured with H. pylori. siRNAs were used to silence AHR or AHRR, and a C57bl/6 mouse model colonized by H. pylori was established. Protein expression was determined by western blotting analysis, and TNF, IL-8 and IL-1ß in cell supernatants were measured by ELISA. Results: AHR and AHRR were expressed in gastritis tissues and gastric cancer tissues without H. pylori infection, and principally located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. AHR expression was significantly correlated with AHRR expression in gastric tissues without H. pylori infection (P=0.008). However, their expressions were negatively correlated with H. pylori infection status. H. pylori coculture inhibited AHR and AHRR expression in stomach mucosa in vitro and in vivo. Gastric cells produced more TNF, IL-8 and IL-1ß when AHR or AHRR was silenced. Conclusions: This preliminary study indicates that AHR and AHRR may be involved in H. pylori-related gastric pathogenesis, and helps toward understanding of inflammation-initiated carcinogenesis of gastric cancer.

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